Estação Primeira de Mangueira

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Mangueira
LogoMANG.png
Full nameGrêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Estação Primeira de Mangueira
Nickname(s)Verde e Rosa (English: green and pink)
Estação Primeira (English: First station)
FoundationApril 28, 1928; 93 years ago (1928-04-28)[1]
Colors  
SymbolRepique with a crown above, and laurel wreath below
LocationMangueira
PresidentElias Riche
Carnival staff
Carnival producerLeandro Vieira
Carnival singerMarquinho Art’Samba
Carnival directorConselho de Carnaval
Harmony directorEdinho
Director of BatteryMestre Wesley
Queen of BatteryEvelyn Bastos
Mestre-sala and Porta-BandeiraMatheus Olivério
Squel Jorgea
ChoreographyPriscilla Mota
Rodrigo Negri
2020 presentation
TierSpecial group (1st tier)
Result1st (champion)
Website
mangueira.com.br

Grêmio Recreativo Escola de Samba Estação Primeira de Mangueira, or simply Mangueira, is a samba school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The school was founded on April 28, 1928, by Carlos Cachaça [pt], Cartola, Zé Espinguela [pt], among others. It is located at the Mangueira neighborhood, near the region of Maracanã.

Mangueira is one of the most traditional samba school in Brazil. It won the Rio de Janeiro Carnaval competition 20 times, second only to Portela (samba school) (with 22 victories). It was runners up another 20 times.

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

In the early days of samba, the community around the Mangueira hill or morro emerged as a pioneer of the Rio Carnival through its 'Cordões', in which a group of masked participants were led by a teacher with a whistle followed by a veritable percussion orchestra. In Mangueira, there were at least two Cordões: the Mountain Warriors (Guerreiros da Montanha) and the Triumphs of Mangueira (Triunfos da Mangueira). Later came the ranchos (pt:Rancho carnavalesco), which introduced several very important concepts to the Carnival procession: the participation of women, floats, a theme to connect the procession, and the use of woodwind, brass, and string instrumentation (particularly plucked strings). They also added two special dancers, now known as master of ceremonies (mestre-sala) and flagbearer (porta-bandeira). Three ranches stood out in Mangueira: Drop of Love (Pingo de Amor), Pearl of Egypt (Pérola do Egito) and Princes of the Forest (Príncipes da Mata). By 1920 the 'carnival blocks' with elements taken from both the Cordão and Ranch traditions, along with the now familiar percussion block, debuted. These were a strong influence on the development of the other samba schools.

There was no lack of blocks in the Mangueira area. In just the Buraco Quente neighborhood, one could find the Tia Fé, Tia Tomázia and Mestre Candinho blocks. Most famous of all was the Bloco dos Arengueiros. It was Cartola, aged 19, who felt it was time to channel the natural gifts of the blocks' rogues and thus to show them in a more organized light, displaying the power and choreographic legacy of their African roots.

Then, on April 28, 1928, at a meeting at Travessa, Saião Lobato, aged 21, the arengueiros Zé Espinguela, "Seu" Euclides, Saturnino Gonçalves (father of Dona Neuma), Massu, Cartola, Pedro Cain and Abelardo Bolinha founded the First Station Block (Bloco Estação Primeira) - regarded as a predecessor to the present day carnival blocks and samba schools. This block was present at the first contest between samba dancers in the house of Zé Espinguela in 1929, one of the forerunners of the samba schools, along with Deixa Falar and Portela.

Samba School[edit]

Jamelão, Mangueira's singer for 57 years

Cartola, who later married Dona Zica, was the first bandmaster and musical director of the school and gave the final word on the choice of the name and colors: "Estação Primeira (First Station)" - because it was the first railway stop from the Brazil Central Railway Station where there was samba; the green and pink colors as a tribute to a ranch that existed in Laranjeiras, the Arrepiados. Gradually all other blocks of the hill merged their associations to it and by the 1930s and 40s, Mangueira was already included in the list of "major" samba schools of the city.

Mangueira was the first samba school that created a composers' wing, and the first to maintain, since its foundation, a unique beat of the surdo leading in the school percussion section. On the symbol of the school, the surdo represents the samba, the laurels are the victories won as the general champion, the crown is the imperial district of São Cristóvão, and the stars, the years it won the Carnival championship. It was also the first one to develop a "front commission", or Comissao da Frente as it is called in Portuguese and an official criterion for the parade contest, as a way for the school to show to the public the story concept for the year's event. The flag today is in green and pink stripes radiating from the center and the coat of arms - until the 1980s the school sported a pink flag with the emblem in the center.

One of the most emblematic figures of the Mangueira samba was Jamelão, which was the official school singer from 1949 until 2006 (a record 57 years) and become a true "carnival and samba institution" in Rio, with his moody ways and his powerful voice. In 2006, Jamelão suffered a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke and did not record the Mangueira theme song for the official 2007 Carnival CD, nor could he march with the school any longer. (From 1950 up to that year his voice was featured in every Carnival LP and CD produced by the carnival organizers, together with those of other schools.)

1980s and beyond[edit]

A Porta-bandeira in the 2016 champions parade 2016
Mangueira's bateria in the Carnaval parade of 2015.

Mangueira holds 20 general championship titles, and 1 Super Cup, exclusively won only in 1984, the inauguration of the Sambódromo. In 1984, Mangueira was the champion of the Carnival on Monday, Portela on Sunday. Three schools went on for the Championship Saturday where they competed in the Super Championship, and in the end the school won the general super championship of the year.

In 2007, Mangueira confronted various taboos. After 79 years, Mangueira celebrated the 80th anniversary opening the doors of its percussion drums section to women. The idea of the president of the Mangueira drums, Ivo Meirelles, to accept women in the battery of Green and Pink was controversial. Moreover, Preta Gil became queen of the Drums Section (or Queen of Drums) of the school, breaking a tradition of having only queens originating from the community, elected through a contest. Luizito replaced Jamelão as school singer. On the show, the school board prevented the big star Beth Carvalho from parading, and the legendary Nelson Sargento preferred not to parade either, possibly because his wife's costume had not been delivered. Such developments led to a certain unease in samba circles and a lot of criticism for the directors of contemporary samba schools.

In 2008, Mangueira underwent what many consider their worst crisis[by whom?]. First, their theme was not about the 100th Anniversary of Cartola, but on the centenary of the frevo, which is music not from Rio but Pernambuco. Second, the choice of the Queen of Drums Section (in Portuguese Rainha de Bateria), and finally the involvement with the hill drug traffic, which resulted in a disappointing 10th place.

On June 14, 2008, the school lost one of its greatest icons: Jamelão, the victim of multiple organ failure. The loss of Jamelão left a huge void not only in the school but also in the whole of Brazil's samba community.

In 2009, after eight years as the head of the school, Max Lopes left and was replaced by the carnivalist Roberto Szaniecki. The theme was a tribute to the Brazilian people, based on the book O Povo Brasileiro, Formação e Sentido do Brasil, by professor, anthropologist and politician Darcy Ribeiro.

After the Carnival of 2009, there was an election, won by Ivo Meirelles, who decided to shake up the structure of the school. Since then, new names have been hired and the first changes were the carnivalist Marcia Lage, the new MC and Flag Bearer, Raphael and Marcella Alves, and the creation of a trio called "The Three Tenors", comprising Luizito, Zé Paulo Sierra and Rixxah.

For 2010, the school chose the theme Mangueira is the Music of Brazil by Marcia Lage, who was removed and replaced by Jaime Cezário and Jorge Caribé.

The 2015 edition saw the school place 10th at the final standings - one of its worst finishes ever. The following year, its tribute to the beloved singer Maria Bethânia saw it win its 19th Carnival as the general champion for the Special Group. It also won its Gold Standard award (for best school and revelation of the Carnival respectively).

For 2019, the school paraded in a theme of remembrance of Brazil's Native American populations who were the first inhabitants of the country before Portuguese colonization, and finished its campaign with its 20th general championship, plus two Gold Standards (for best school and best flag bearer).

Notable Mangueirenses[edit]

Classifications[edit]

Year Place Division Plot Carnivals Producers Ref
Singers
1929 Sambista Contest Chega de demanda e Beijos Sr. Armando [citation needed]
1930 Did not compete
1931
1932 Champion Grupo Único Sorrindo e Na floresta Sr. Armando [2]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1933 Champion Grupo Único Uma segunda-feira do Bonfim na Ribeira Sr. Armando [3][4]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1934 Champion Grupo Único República da Orgia Sr. Armando [4][5]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1935 Vice Champion UGESB O regresso de uma colheita na primavera Sr. Armando [6]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1936 Vice Champion UGESB Não quero mais amar a ninguém Sr. Armando [7]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1937 Did not compete [8][9]
1938 [10]
1939 Champion UGESB O Jardim Sr. Armando [11]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1940 Champion UGESB Prantos, pretos e poetas Sr. Armando [12]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1941 Vice Champion UGESB Pedro Ernesto Sr. Armando [13]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1942 3rd place UGESB A vitória do Samba nas Américas Sr. Armando [14]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1943 Vice Champion UGESB Samba no Palácio do Itamarati Sr. Armando [15]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1944 Vice Champion UGESB Glória ao Samba Sr. Armando [16]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1945 Vice Champion UGESB Nossa História Sr. Armando [17]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1946 Vice Champion UGESB Carnaval da Vitória Sr. Armando [18]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1947 Vice Champion UGESB Brasil, Ciências e Artes Sr. Armando [19]
Cartola
Carlos Cachaça
1948 4th place FBES Brasil, Tesouro Invejado Sr. Armando [20]
Xangô da Mangueira
1949 Champion UGESB Apoteose aos Mestres Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [21]
Jamelão
1950 Champion UGESB Plano SALTE - Saúde, alimentação, transporte e energia Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [22]
Jamelão
1951 3rd place UGESB Unidade Nacional Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [23]
Jamelão
1952 Did not compete Gonçalves Dias Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [24]
Jamelão
1953 3rd place Grupo 1 Unidade Nacional Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [25]
Jamelão
1954 Champion Grupo 1 Rio de Janeiro, de ontem e de hoje Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [26]
Jamelão
1955 Vice Champion Grupo 1 Cântico à Natureza Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [27][28]
Jamelão
1956 3rd place Grupo 1 O Grande Presidente Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [29]
Jamelão
1957 3rd place Grupo 1 Emancipação Nacional - Rumo ao progresso Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [30]
Jamelão
1958 3rd place Grupo 1 Canção do exílio Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [31]
Jamelão
1959 3rd place Grupo 1 Brasil através dos tempos Funcionários da Casa da Moeda [32]
Jamelão
1960 Champion Grupo 1 Carnaval de todos os tempos Roberto Paulino
Darque Dias Moreira
[33]
Jamelão
1961 Champion Grupo 1 Reminiscências do Rio Antigo Roberto Paulino
Darque Dias Moreira
[34]
Jamelão
1962 4th place Grupo 1 Casa-grande e senzala Roberto Paulino
Darque Dias Moreira
[35]
Jamelão
1963 Vice Champion Grupo 1 Exaltação à Bahia Júlio Mattos [36]
Jamelão
1964 3rd place Grupo 1 História de um preto velho Júlio Mattos [37]
Jamelão
1965 4th place Grupo 1 Rio através dos séculos Júlio Mattos [38]
Jamelão
1966 Vice Champion Grupo 1 Exaltação à Villa-Lobos Júlio Mattos [39]
Jamelão
1967 Champion Grupo 1 O mundo encantado de Monteiro Lobato Júlio Mattos [40]
Jamelão
1968 Champion Grupo 1 Samba, festa de um povo Júlio Mattos [41]
Jamelão
1969 Vice Champion Grupo 1 Os Mercadores e suas tradições Júlio Mattos [42]
Jamelão
1970 3rd place Grupo 1 Um Cântico à natureza Júlio Mattos [43]
Jamelão
1971 4th place Grupo 1 Os Modernos bandeirantes Júlio Mattos [44]
Jamelão
1972 Vice Champion Grupo 1 Rio, Carnaval dos Carnavais Carlos Alberto [45]
Jamelão
1973 Champion Grupo 1 Lendas do Abaeté Júlio Mattos [46]
Jamelão
1974 4th place Grupo 1 Mangueira em tempo de folclore Júlio Mattos [47]
Jamelão
1975 Vice Champion Grupo 1 Imagens poéticas de Jorge Lima Elói Machado [48]
Jamelão
1976 Vice Champion Grupo 1 No reino da Mãe do Ouro Elói Machado [49]
Jamelão
1977 7th place Grupo 1 Panapanã, o segredo do amor Júlio Mattos [50]
Jamelão
1978 Vice Champion rowspan="2" |Grupo 1 Dos carroceiros do imperador ao Palácio do Samba Júlio Mattos [51]
Jamelão
1979 4th place Grupo 1A Avatar... e a selva transformou-se em ouro Júlio Mattos [52]
Jamelão
1980 8th place Grupo 1A Coisas nossas Liana Silveira
Ecila Cirne
[53]
Jamelão
1981 4th place Grupo 1A De Nonô a JK Alcione Barreto
Elói Machado
[54]
Jamelão
1982 4th place Grupo 1A As mil e uma noites cariocas Fernando Pinto [55]
Jamelão
1983 5th place Grupo 1A Verde que te quero rosa... semente viva do samba Max Lopes [56]
Jamelão
1984 Champion Grupo 1A Yes, Nós Temos Braguinha Max Lopes [57][58]
Jamelão
1985 9th place Grupo 1A Abram Alas que eu quero passar Eloy Machado
Bia Dumont
[59][60]
Jamelão
1986 Champion Grupo 1A Caymmi Mostra ao Mundo o que a Bahia e a Mangueira Têm Júlio Mattos [61]
Jamelão
1987 Champion Grupo 1 O Reino dos Palavras, Carlos Drummond de Andrade Júlio Mattos [62]
Jamelão
1988 Vice Champion Grupo 1 Cem Anos de Liberdade, Realidade ou Ilusão? Júlio Mattos [63]
Jamelão
1989 11th place Grupo 1 Trinca de Reis Júlio Mattos [64]
Jamelão
1990 8th place Grupo Especial Deu a Louca no Barroco Ernesto Nascimento
Cláudio Rodrigues
[65]
Jamelão
1991 12th place Grupo Especial As Três Rendeiras do Universo Ernesto Nascimento
Cláudio Rodrigues
[66]
Jamelão
1992 6th place Grupo Especial Se Todos Fossem Iguais a Você Ilvamar Magalhães [67]
Jamelão
1993 5th place Grupo Especial Dessa Fruta Eu Como até o Caroço Ilvamar Magalhães [68]
Jamelão
1994 11th place Grupo Especial Atrás da Verde-e-Rosa Só Não Vai Quem Já Morreu Ilvamar Magalhães [69]
Jamelão
1995 6th place Grupo Especial A Esmeralda do Atlântico Ilvamar Magalhães [citation needed]
Jamelão
1996 4th place Grupo Especial Os Tambores da Mangueria na Terra da Encantaria Oswaldo Jardim
Jamelão
1997 3rd place Grupo Especial O Olimpo é Verde e Rosa Oswaldo Jardim
Jamelão
1998 Champion Grupo Especial Chico Buarque da Mangueira Alexandre Louzada
Jamelão
1999 7th place Grupo Especial O Século do Samba Alexandre Louzada
Jamelão
2000 7th place Grupo Especial Dom Obá II, Rei dos Esfarrapados, Príncipe do Povo Alexandre Louzada
Jamelão
2001 3rd place Grupo Especial A Seiva da Vida Max Lopes
Jamelão
2002 Champion Grupo Especial Brazil com 'Z' é para Cabra da Peste, Brasil com 'S' é a Nação do Nordeste Max Lopes
Jamelão
2003 Vice Champion Grupo Especial Os Dez Mandamentos: O Samba da Paz Canta a Saga da Liberdade Max Lopes
Jamelão
2004 3rd place Grupo Especial Mangueira Redescobre a Estrada Real...E Desse Eldorado Faz seu Carnaval Max Lopes
Jamelão
2005 6th place Grupo Especial Mangueira Energiza a Avenida. O Carnaval é Pura Energia e a Energia é o Nosso Desafio Max Lopes
Jamelão
2006 4th place Grupo Especial Das Águas do Velho Chico, Nasce um Rio de Esperança Max Lopes
Jamelão
2007 3rd place Grupo Especial Minha Pátria é Minha Língua, Mangueira Meu Grande Amor. Meu Samba Vai ao Lácio e Colhe a Última Flor Max Lopes
Luizito
2008 10th place Grupo Especial 100 Anos do Frevo, é de Perder o Sapato. Recife Mandou me Chamar... Max Lopes
Luizito
2009 6th place Grupo Especial A Mangueira Traz Os Brasis do Brasil Mostrando a Formação do Povo Brasileiro Roberto Szaniecki
Luizito
2010 6th place Grupo Especial Mangueira é Música do Brasil Jaime Cezário
Jorge Caribé
Luizito
Zé Paulo Sierra
Rixxah
2011 3rd place Grupo Especial O Filho Fiel, Sempre Mangueira Mauro Quintaes
Wagner Gonçalves
Luizito
Zé Paulo Sierra
Ciganerey
2012 7th place Grupo Especial Vou festejar! Sou Cacique, sou Mangueira Cid Carvalho
Luizito
Zé Paulo Sierra
Ciganerey
2013 8th place Grupo Especial Cuiabá: Um paraíso no Centro da América Cid Carvalho
Luizito
Zé Paulo Sierra
Ciganerey
Agnaldo Amaral
2014 8th place Grupo Especial A festança brasileira cai no samba da Mangueira Rosa Magalhães
Luizito
2015 10th place Grupo Especial Agora chegou a vez vou cantar: Mulher de Mangueira, Mulher brasileira em primeiro Lugar Cid Carvalho
Luizito
2016 Champion Grupo Especial Maria Bethânia: A Menina dos Olhos de Oyá Leandro Vieira [70]
Ciganerey
2017 4th place Grupo Especial Só com a ajuda do santo Leandro Vieira [citation needed]
Ciganerey
2018 5th place Grupo Especial Com dinheiro ou sem dinheiro, eu brinco! Leandro Vieira
Ciganerey
Péricles
Clóvis Pê
Dowglas Diniz
Leandro Santos
Pavarotti
2019 Champion Grupo Especial História pra ninar gente grande Leandro Vieira
Marquinho Art'Samba
2020 6th place Grupo Especial A verdade vos fará livre Leandro Vieira
Marquinho Art'Samba
2022 Grupo Especial Agenor, José e Laurindo Leandro Vieira
Marquinho Art'Samba

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ficha Técnica". Site oficial da Estação Primeira de Mangueira. Archived from the original on 2016-08-10. Retrieved 2017-05-03.
  2. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1932". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  3. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1933". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  4. ^ a b CABRAL, Sérgio, As Escolas de Samba do Rio de Janeiro, Lumiar Editora, Rio de Janeiro, 1996
  5. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1934". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  6. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1935". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  7. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1936". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  8. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1937". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  9. ^ The site in Mangueira says that the plot was Cinco continentes Archived 2013-05-30 at the Wayback Machine However this source may not be correct, since the same reckons the placement obtained by Unidos de Mangueira as his.
  10. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1938". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  11. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1940". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  12. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1940". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  13. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1941". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  14. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1942". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  15. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1943". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  16. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1944". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  17. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1945". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  18. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1946". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  19. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1947". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  20. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1948". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  21. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1949". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  22. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1950". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  23. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1951". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  24. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1952". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  25. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1953". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  26. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1954". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  27. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1955". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  28. ^ Louise Peres, para o VEJA Rio (2012-02-19). "Dez sambas-enredo inesquecíveis". Archived from the original on 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2013-10-29.
  29. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1956". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  30. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1957". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  31. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1958". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  32. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1959". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  33. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1960". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  34. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1961". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  35. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1962". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  36. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1963". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  37. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1964". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  38. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1965". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  39. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1966". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  40. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1967". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  41. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1968". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  42. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1969". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  43. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1970". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  44. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1971". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  45. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1972". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  46. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1973". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  47. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1974". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  48. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1975". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  49. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1976". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  50. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1977". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  51. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1978". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  52. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1979". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  53. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1980". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  54. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1981". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  55. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1982". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  56. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1983". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  57. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1984 (segunda)". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  58. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1984 (segunda)". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  59. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1985". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  60. ^ "SAMBARIO - O site dos sambas-enredo".
  61. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1986". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  62. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1987". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  63. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1988". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  64. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1989". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  65. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1990". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  66. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1991". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  67. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1992". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  68. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1993". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  69. ^ Portal Academia do Samba. "1994". Retrieved 2010-05-08.
  70. ^ "Maria Bethânia será homenageada pela Mangueira no Carnaval 2016". O Dia. 5 June 2015. Retrieved 7 June 2015.

External links[edit]