From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Estakhri)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Abū Ishāk al-Fārisī al-Iṣṭakhrī
Died957 CE
ResidenceIslamic civilization
Academic background
Academic work
EraIslamic Golden Age
School or traditionBalkhi school
Main interestsIslamic geography
Estakhri map, from the "Book of roads and kingdoms".
A map by Estakhri from the text Al-aqalim.
A map of the Persian Gulf by Estakhri.

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Farisi al-Istakhri (آبو إسحاق إبراهيم بن محمد الفارسي الإصطخري) (also Estakhri, Persian: استخری‎, i.e. from the Iranian city of Istakhr, b. - d. 957 AD [346AH][1]) was a 10th century travel-author and geographer who wrote valuable accounts in Arabic of the many Muslim territories he visited during the Abbasid era of the Islamic Golden Age. Istakhri met the celebrated traveller-geographer Ibn Haukul, while travelling in the Indus Valley [2] and Haukul's magnum opus, Kitab al-Surat al-Ard, incorporated the work of Istakhri. He has been described as being Persian.[3]

Istakhri's account of windmills is the earliest known.


Istakhri's two surviving works are:

  • Masalik al-Mamalik (مسالك الممالك, "Routes of the Realms")
  • Suwar al-Aqaaleem ( صور الاقاليم, "Pictures of the Regions")

Published Editions[edit]

An 8-volume edition of works by medieval Arab geographers, edited by the dutch orientalist Michael Jan de Goeje in a series titled Bibliotheca geographorum Arabicorum was published by Brill, Lugduni-Batavora (Leiden) in the 1870s. An edition of Istakhri's MS text was produced for the first volume under the Latin title Viae Regnorum descriptio ditionis Moslemicae - "Description of Roads of the Kingdoms in Muslim territories". In 1927 the editor Theodore Noldeke produced a second edition.

In 1845 the german orientalist A. D. Mordtmann published a translation in Hamburg with the title Das Buch der Länder von Schech Ebu Ishak el Farsi el Isztachri, with a foreword by C. Ritter. (Schriften der Akademie von Ham Bd. 1, Abth. 2).

See also[edit]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ Mojtahed-Zadeh, Pirous. "The Persian Gulf in the Geographical Views of the Ancient World" In Cartographie Historique du Golfe Persique. Edited by M. Taleghani, D. Silva Couto, & J.-L. Bacque-Grammont. Louvain, Belgium: Diffusion, 2006. 17.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Maggs Bros LTD". Al-Istakhri (or, Estakhri), was a Persian medieval geographer who lived and worked in the 10th Century.