Estradiol dipropionate

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Estradiol dipropionate
Estradiol dipropionate.svg
Estradiol dipropionate molecule ball.png
Clinical data
Trade namesAgofollin, Di-Ovocylin, Progynon DP, others
Other namesEDP; Estradiol dipropionate; Estradiol 3,17β-dipropionate; Estra-1,3,5(10)-triene-3,17β-diol 3,17β-dipropanoate
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular injection
Drug classEstrogen; Estrogen ester
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
BioavailabilityIM: High[3]
Protein bindingEstradiol: ~98% (to albumin and SHBG)[4][5]
MetabolismCleavage via esterases in the liver, blood, and tissues[1][2]
MetabolitesEstradiol, benzoic acid, and metabolites of estradiol[1][2]
Elimination half-lifeUnknown
Duration of actionIM (5 mg): 5–8 days[6][7]
ExcretionUrine
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.003.660 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC24H32O4
Molar mass384.509 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

Estradiol dipropionate (EDP), sold under the brand names Agofollin, Di-Ovocylin, and Progynon DP among others, is an estrogen medication which has been used in hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms and low estrogen levels in women and in the treatment of gynecological disorders.[8][9][10][11][12][13] It has also been used in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and in the treatment of prostate cancer in men.[14][8] Although widely used in the past, estradiol dipropionate has largely been discontinued and is mostly no longer available today.[15][13][11] It appears to remain in use only in Japan, Macedonia, and Australia.[13] Estradiol dipropionate is given by injection into muscle at intervals ranging from once or twice a week to once every week and a half to two weeks.[8][16][14]

Side effects of estradiol dipropionate include breast tenderness, breast enlargement, nausea, headache, and fluid retention.[17] Estradiol dipropionate is a synthetic estrogen and hence is an agonist of the estrogen receptor, the biological target of estrogens like estradiol.[2][1] It is an estrogen ester and a prodrug of estradiol in the body.[1][2] Because of this, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of estrogen.[1]

Estradiol dipropionate was patented in 1937[18] and was introduced for medical use by 1940.[19][20] It was one of the earliest estradiol esters to be used.[8] Along with estradiol benzoate, estradiol dipropionate was among the most widely used esters of estradiol for many years following its introduction.[15]

Medical uses[edit]

The medical uses of estradiol dipropionate are the same as those of estradiol and other estrogens.[8][9] Estradiol dipropionate is used in hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal atrophy and in the treatment of hypoestrogenism and delayed puberty due to hypogonadism or other causes in women.[8][9] It is also used in feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women.[14] Aside from hormone therapy, estradiol dipropionate is used in the treatment of gynecological disorders such as menstrual disorders, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and breast engorgement.[8][9] In addition, it is used as a form of high-dose estrogen therapy in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer in men.[8]

Estradiol dipropionate has typically been used at a dosage of 1 to 5 mg once or twice per week by intramuscular injection for relevant indications.[8][16] It has been used in the treatment of menopausal symptoms at a dosage of 1 to 5 mg initially for two to three injections and 1 to 2.5 mg for maintenance once every 10 to 14 days, and in the treatment of hypoestrogenism and delayed puberty at a dosage of 2.5 to 5 mg once per week.[8][21] As a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, estradiol dipropionate has been used at dosages of 2 to 10 mg once per week or 5 to 20 mg once every 2 weeks.[14] In the treatment of prostate cancer, estradiol dipropionate has been used at a dosage of 5 mg once per week.[8]

Estrogen dosages for breast cancer

Route/form Estrogen Dosage
Oral Estradiol 10 mg 3x/day
AI-resistant: 2 mg 1–3x/day
Estradiol valerate AI-resistant: 2 mg 1–3x/day
Conjugated estrogens 10 mg 3x/day
Ethinylestradiol 0.5–1 mg 3x/day
Diethylstilbestrol 5 mg 3x/day
Dienestrol 5 mg 3x/day
IM or SC injection Estradiol benzoate 5 mg 2–3x/week
Estradiol dipropionate 5 mg 2–3x/week
Estradiol valerate 30 mg 1x/2 weeks
Polyestradiol phosphate 40–80 mg 1x/4 weeks
Estrone 5 mg ≥3x/week
Notes: (1) Only in women who are at least 5 years postmenopausal. (2) Dosages are not necessarily equivalent. Sources: See template.

Estrogen dosages for prostate cancer

Route/form Estrogen Dosage
Oral Estradiol 1–2 mg 3x/day
Conjugated estrogens 1.25–2.5 mg 3x/day
Ethinylestradiol 0.15–3 mg/day
Ethinylestradiol sulfonate 1–2 mg 1x/week
Diethylstilbestrol 1–3 mg/day
Dienestrol 5 mg/day
Hexestrol 5 mg/day
Fosfestrol 100–480 mg 1–3x/day
Chlorotrianisene 12–48 mg/day
Quadrosilan 900 mg/day
Estramustine phosphate 140–1400 mg/day
Transdermal patch Estradiol 2–6x 100 μg/day
Scrotal: 1x 100 μg/day
IM or SC injection Estradiol benzoate 1.66 mg 3x/week
Estradiol dipropionate 5 mg 1x/week
Estradiol valerate 10–40 mg 1x/1–2 weeks
Estradiol undecylate 100 mg 1x/4 weeks
Polyestradiol phosphate Alone: 160–320 mg 1x/4 weeks
With oral EE: 40–80 mg 1x/4 weeks
Estrone 2–4 mg 2–3x/week
IV injection Fosfestrol 300–1200 mg 1–7x/week
Estramustine phosphate 240–450 mg/day
Note: Dosages are not necessarily equivalent. Sources: See template.

Available forms[edit]

Estradiol dipropionate was previously available by itself as an oil solution for intramuscular injection provided as vials and ampoules at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2.5, and 5 mg/mL.[8][22][23][24][25] The medication has largely been discontinued, with most of these formulations no longer being available.[11][13] Estradiol dipropionate remains available at a concentration of 1 mg/mL in combination with 50 mg/mL hydroxyprogesterone caproate under the brand name EP Hormone Depot (Teikoku Zoki Pharmaceutical Company) in Japan.[26][27][28][29][30][31][32]

Available forms of estradiol

Route Ingredient Form Dose Major brand names
Oral Estradiol Tablet 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg per tablet Estrace, Ovocyclin
Estradiol acetatea Tablet 0.45, 0.9, or 1.8 mg per tablet Femtrace
Estradiol valerate Tablet 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg per tablet Progynova
Sublingual Estradiola Tablet 0.125, 0.25, or 1 mg per tablet Diogynets, Estradiol Membrettes
Intranasal Estradiola Nasal spray 150 µg per spray (60 sprays per bottle) Aerodiol
Transdermal Estradiol Patch 14, 25, 37.5, 50, 60, 75, or 100 µg E2 per day for 3–4 or 7 days Climara, Estraderm, Vivelle
Gel dispenser 0.06% (0.87 or 1.25 g gel or 0.52 or 0.75 mg E2 per activation) Elestrin, EstroGel
Gel packet 0.1% (0.25, 0.5, or 1 g gel or 2.5, 5, or 10 mg E2 per packet) DiviGel, Sandrena
Emulsion 0.14% (1.74 g emulsion or 4.35 mg E2 per pouch; 50 µg/day E2) Estrasorb
Spray 1.53 mg per spray Evamist
Vaginal Estradiol Tablet 10 or 25 µg per tablet Vagifem
Cream 0.01% (0.1 mg E2 per 1 g cream) Estrace
Suppositorya 4 or 40 μg per suppository Ovocyclin
Insert 4 or 10 µg per insert (daily for 2 weeks then twice weekly) Imvexxy
Ring 2 mg per ring (7.5 µg/day E2 for 3 months) Estring
Estradiol acetate Ring 12.4 or 24.8 mg per ring (50 or 100 µg/day E2 for 3 months) Femring
Estradiol benzoatea Tablet 0.125 mg Malun 25
Injection (IM or SC) Estradiol Aqueous suspensiona 0.22, 0.25, 0.44, 0.5, 1.0, 1.1, or 2.0 mg/mL Aquadiol, Diogyn, Progynon
Microspheres 1 mg/mL Juvenum E
Estradiol benzoate Oil solution 0.167, 0.2, 0.333, 1, 1.67, 2, 5, 10, 20, or 25 mg/mL Progynon-B
Aqueous suspensiona 5 mg/mL Agofollin Depot
Estradiol cypionate Oil solution 1, 3, or 5 mg/mL Depo-Estradiol
Aqueous suspension 5 mg/0.5 mL (available only with a progestin) Cyclofem, Lunelle
Estradiol dipropionatea Oil solution 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/mL Di-Ovocylin, Progynon-DP
Estradiol enanthate Oil solution 5 or 10 mg/mL (available only with a progestin) Perlutal, Topasel
Estradiol undecylatea Oil solution 100 mg/mL Delestrec, Progynon Depot 100
Estradiol valerate Oil solution 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg/mL Delestrogen, Progynon Depot
Polyestradiol phosphatea Aqueous solution 40 or 80 mg per vial/ampoule Estradurin
Implant Estradiola Pellet 20, 25, 50, or 100 mg per pellet (usually every 6 months) Estradiol Implants, Meno-Implant
Abbreviations: E2 = Estradiol. Footnotes: a = Discontinued or mostly discontinued. Notes: (1): This table mostly does not include combination products, for instance estradiol formulated in combination with a progestogen or androgen. (2): This table does not include compounded estradiol products; only approved pharmaceutical preparations are included. (3): The availability of pharmaceutical estradiol products differs by country (see Estradiol (medication) § Availability). (4): Some of these formulations and doses have been marketed previously but may no longer be available. Sources: See template.

Contraindications[edit]

Contraindications of estrogens include coagulation problems, cardiovascular diseases, liver disease, and certain hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast cancer and endometrial cancer, among others.[33][34][35][36]

Side effects[edit]

The side effects of estradiol dipropionate are the same as those of estradiol. Examples of such side effects include breast tenderness and enlargement, nausea, bloating, edema, headache, and melasma.[17]

Overdose[edit]

Symptoms of estrogen overdosage may include nausea, vomiting, bloating, increased weight, water retention, breast tenderness, vaginal discharge, heavy legs, and leg cramps.[33] These side effects can be diminished by reducing the estrogen dosage.[33]

Interactions[edit]

Inhibitors and inducers of cytochrome P450 may influence the metabolism of estradiol and by extension circulating estradiol levels.[37]

Pharmacology[edit]

Estradiol, the active form of estradiol dipropionate.

Pharmacodynamics[edit]

Estradiol dipropionate is an estradiol ester, or a prodrug of estradiol.[1][2] As such, it is an estrogen, or an agonist of the estrogen receptors.[1][2] Estradiol dipropionate is of about 41% higher molecular weight than estradiol due to the presence of its C3 and C17β propionate esters.[10][11] Because estradiol dipropionate is a prodrug of estradiol, it is considered to be a natural and bioidentical form of estrogen.[1]

Potencies and durations of natural estrogens by intramuscular injection

Estrogen Form Major brand names EPD CIC-D Duration
Estradiol Oil solution 40–60 mg 1–2 mg ≈ 1–2 days
Aqueous suspension Aquadiol, Diogyn, Progynon, Mego-E ? 3.5 mg 0.5–2 mg ≈ 2–7 days; 3.5 mg ≈ >5 days
Microspheres Juvenum-E, Juvenum ? 1 mg ≈ 30 days
Estradiol benzoate Oil solution Progynon-B 25–35 mg 1.66 mg ≈ 2–3 days; 5 mg ≈ 3–6 days
Aqueous suspension Agofollin-Depot, Ovocyclin M 20 mg 10 mg ≈ 16–21 days
Emulsion Menformon-Emulsion, Di-Pro-Emulsion ? 10 mg ≈ 14–21 days
Estradiol dipropionate Oil solution Agofollin, Di-Ovocylin, Progynon DP 25–30 mg 5 mg ≈ 5–8 days
Estradiol valerate Oil solution Delestrogen, Progynon Depot, Mesigyna 20–30 mg 5 mg 5 mg ≈ 7–8 days; 10 mg ≈ 10–14 days;
40 mg ≈ 14–21 days; 100 mg ≈ 21–28 days
Estradiol benzoate butyrate Oil solution Redimen, Soluna, Unijab ? 10 mg 10 mg ≈ 21 days
Estradiol cypionate Oil solution Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin 20–30 mg 5 mg ≈ 11–14 days
Aqueous suspension Cyclofem, Lunelle ? 5 mg 5 mg ≈ 14–24 days
Estradiol enanthate Oil solution Perlutal, Topasel, Yectames ? 5–10 mg 10 mg ≈ 20–30 days
Estradiol dienanthate Oil solution Climacteron, Lactimex, Lactostat ? 7.5 mg ≈ >40 days
Estradiol undecylate Oil solution Delestrec, Progynon Depot 100 ? 10–20 mg ≈ 40–60 days;
25–50 mg ≈ 60–120 days
Polyestradiol phosphate Aqueous solution Estradurin 40–60 mg 40 mg ≈ 30 days; 80 mg ≈ 60 days;
160 mg ≈ 120 days
Estrone Oil solution Estrone, Kestrin, Theelin ? 1–2 mg ≈ 2–3 days
Aqueous suspension Estrone Aq. Susp., Kestrone, Theelin Aq. ? 0.1–2 mg ≈ 2–7 days
Estriol Oil solution ? 1–2 mg ≈ 1–4 days
Polyestriol phosphate Aqueous solution Gynäsan, Klimadurin, Triodurin ? 50 mg ≈ 30 days; 80 mg ≈ 60 days
Notes: All aqueous suspensions are of microcrystalline particle size. Estradiol production during the menstrual cycle is 30–640 µg/day (6.4–8.6 mg total per month or cycle). The vaginal epithelium maturation dosage of estradiol benzoate or estradiol valerate has been reported as 5 to 7 mg/week. An effective ovulation-inhibiting dose of estradiol undecylate is 20–30 mg/month. Sources: See template.

Pharmacokinetics[edit]

Compared to estradiol benzoate, a related estradiol ester, estradiol dipropionate has enhanced and prolonged effects.[38][16] Whereas the duration of action of estradiol benzoate is said to be 2 to 3 days, the duration of estradiol dipropionate has been said to be 1 to 2 weeks.[39] However, newer estradiol esters have longer durations than either estradiol benzoate or estradiol dipropionate; the duration of estradiol valerate has been said to be 1 to 3 weeks, and the duration of estradiol cypionate has been said to be 3 to 4 weeks.[39][16] A single intramuscular injection of 5 mg estradiol dipropionate has a duration of about 5 to 8 days.[6][7]

A single intramuscular injection of 50 μg/kg estradiol dipropionate in oil in 15 pubertal girls (about 1 mg for a 50-kg (110-lb) girl) was found to produce peak estradiol levels of about 215 pg/mL after 1.5 days.[40] Estradiol levels declined to about 90 pg/mL after 4 days.[40]

Chemistry[edit]

Estradiol dipropionate, also known as estradiol 3,17β-dipropionate, is a synthetic estrane steroid and a derivative of estradiol.[10][11] It is an estrogen ester; specifically, it is the C3,17β dipropionate ester of estradiol.[10][11]

Structural properties of selected estradiol esters

Estrogen Structure Ester(s) Relative
mol. weight
Relative
E2 contentb
logPc
Position(s) Moiet(ies) Type Lengtha
Estradiol
Estradiol.svg
1.00 1.00 4.0
Estradiol acetate
Estradiol 3-acetate.svg
C3 Ethanoic acid Straight-chain fatty acid 2 1.15 0.87 2.8–3.9
Estradiol benzoate
Estradiol benzoate.svg
C3 Benzenecarboxylic acid Aromatic fatty acid – (~4–5) 1.38 0.72 4.5–5.7
Estradiol dipropionate
Estradiol dipropionate.svg
C3, C17β Propanoic acid (×2) Straight-chain fatty acid 3 (×2) 1.41 0.71 4.3
Estradiol valerate
Estradiol valerate.svg
C17β Pentanoic acid Straight-chain fatty acid 5 1.31 0.76 5.8–6.0
Estradiol benzoate butyrate
Estradiolbutyratebenzoate structure.png
C3, C17β Benzoic acid, butyric acid Mixed fatty acid – (~6, 2) 1.64 0.61 5.9
Estradiol cypionate
Estradiol 17 beta-cypionate.svg
C17β Cyclopentylpropanoic acid Aromatic fatty acid – (~6) 1.46 0.69 6.5–7.1
Estradiol enanthate
Estradiol enanthate.png
C17β Heptanoic acid Straight-chain fatty acid 7 1.41 0.71 7.0
Estradiol dienanthate
Estradiol dienanthate.svg
C3, C17β Heptanoic acid (×2) Straight-chain fatty acid 7 (×2) 1.82 0.55 8.1–9.1
Estradiol undecylate
Estradiol undecylate.svg
C17β Undecanoic acid Straight-chain fatty acid 11 1.62 0.62 9.2
Estradiol stearate
Estradiol stearate structure.svg
C17β Octadecanoic acid Straight-chain fatty acid 18 1.98 0.51 12.2
Estradiol distearate
Estradiol distearate.svg
C3, C17β Octadecanoic acid (×2) Straight-chain fatty acid 18 (×2) 2.96 0.34 20.2
Estradiol sulfate
Estradiol sulfate.svg
C3 Sulfuric acid Water-soluble conjugate 1.29 0.77 0.3–3.8
Estradiol glucuronide
Estradiol sulfate.svg
C17β Glucuronic acid Water-soluble conjugate 1.65 0.61 2.1–2.7
Estramustine phosphated
Estramustine phosphate.svg
C3, C17β Normustine, phosphoric acid Water-soluble conjugate 1.91 0.52 2.9–5.0
Polyestradiol phosphatee
Polyestradiol phosphate.svg
C3–C17β Phosphoric acid Water-soluble conjugate 1.23f 0.81f 2.9g
Footnotes: a = Length of ester in carbon atoms for straight-chain fatty acids or approximate length of ester in carbon atoms for aromatic fatty acids. b = Relative estradiol content by weight (i.e., relative estrogenic potency). c = Experimental or predicted octanol/water partition coefficient (i.e., lipophilicity/hydrophobicity). Retrieved from PubChem and DrugBank. d = Also known as estradiol normustine phosphate. e = Polymer of estradiol phosphate (~13 repeat units). f = Relative molecular weight or estradiol content per repeat unit. g = logP of repeat unit (i.e., estradiol phosphate). Sources: See individual articles.

History[edit]

Estradiol dipropionate was first synthesized and patented in 1937.[42][18] It was assessed in clinical studies by 1939 and was introduced by Ciba as an oil solution for use by intramuscular injection under the brand name Di-Ovocylin by the same year.[42][38][19] Other formulations such as Ovocyclin P by Ciba, Progynon DP by Schering and Dimenformon Dipropionate by Roche-Organon were also marketed by the early 1940s.[43][44][20][45] Later in the 1940s the brand name Di-Ovocylin was changed by Ciba to Ovocylin Dipropionate.[22] Along with estradiol benzoate, which was introduced in 1933,[46] estradiol dipropionate was one of the first estradiol esters to be introduced for medical use.[47][44] Prior to the development and introduction of longer-acting estradiol esters like estradiol valerate and estradiol cypionate in the 1950s, estradiol dipropionate and estradiol benzoate were the most widely used estradiol esters.[15][48]

Society and culture[edit]

Generic names[edit]

Estradiol dipropionate is the generic name of the drug and its INNM, BANM, and JAN.[10][11][12][13]

Brand names[edit]

Estradiol dipropionate has been marketed under a variety of brand names, including Agofollin, Akrofolline, Dihidrofolina "Kével", Dimenformon, Dimenformon Dipropionate, Diovocylin, Di-Ovocylin, Diprostron, Diprovex, Endofollicolina D.P., EP Hormone Depot (in combination with hydroxyprogesterone caproate), Estroici, Estronex, Follicyclin, Follicyclin P, Follikelmon Depot, Horiken-Depot, Nacyclyl, Oestradiol Galenika, Oestradiol Streuli, Orofollina, Ovacrin, Ovahormon Depot, Ovocylin, Ovocylin Dipropionate, Ovocylin P, and Progynon DP, among others.[49][10][11][12][50][51][13] Agofollin was an oil solution of estradiol dipropionate that was previously marketed in the Czech Republic and Slovakia.[52]

Availability[edit]

Estradiol dipropionate has been discontinued in most countries, but remains available in Japan and Macedonia alone under the brand names Ovahormon and Oestradiol Galenika and/or in combination with hydroxyprogesterone caproate under the brand name EP Hormone Depot.[11][13] It is also marketed for use in veterinary medicine in combination with hydroxyprogesterone caproate and nandrolone decanoate under the brand name Reepair in Australia.[13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b c d e f Kuhl H (2005). "Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration" (PDF). Climacteric. 8 Suppl 1: 3–63. doi:10.1080/13697130500148875. PMID 16112947.
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  4. ^ Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Archer, David F.; Bhavnani, Bhagu R. (2013). "Ethinyl estradiol and 17β-estradiol in combined oral contraceptives: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and risk assessment". Contraception. 87 (6): 706–727. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2012.12.011. ISSN 0010-7824. PMID 23375353.
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