Estrogenic substances

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Estrogenic substances
Estron.svg
Estrone, a major ingredient in estrogenic substances
Combination of
EstroneEstrogen
17β-EstradiolEstrogen
EquilinEstrogen
Clinical data
Trade namesAmniotin, Estrogenic Hormones, Estrogenic Substances, Estrolin, Estromone, Folestrin, Follacro, Menformon, Oestroform, Ova-Estrin, Theelestrin, others
Other namesNatural estrogens; Estrone-like preparations
Routes of
administration
By mouth (tablets, capsules), topical (ointment), vaginal (suppository), intramuscular injection (oil solution)
Drug classEstrogen
Legal status
Legal status

Estrogenic substances, also referred to as natural estrogens and sold under the brand name Amniotin among others, is an estrogen medication which was marketed in the 1930s and 1940s and is no longer available.[1][2][3][4][5][6] It was a purified extract of animal material such as horse urine, placenta, and/or amniotic fluid, and contained a non-crystalline mixture of estrogens, including estrone, 17β-estradiol, 17α-estradiol, and/or equilin.[3][1][7][8][5][9] The medication was thought to contain estrone as its major active ingredient[7] and was described as an estrone-like preparation, or as "essentially estrone".[1][3][5] Estrogenic substances was originally produced from the urine of pregnant women, placenta, and/or amniotic fluid, but by the early 1940s, it was manufactured exclusively from the urine of stallions or pregnant mares, similarly to almost all other estrogen preparations on the market.[8][9][7][1]

Estrogenic substances was marketed under a variety of different brand names including Amniotin (Squibb), Equine Estrogenic Substances (Ayerst), Estrogenic Hormones (Upjohn, others), Estrogenic Substances (Reed & Carnrick, Sharp & Dohme, others), Estrolin (Lakeside), Estromone, Estronat (National Drug), Folestrin (Armour), Follacro (Schieffelin), Menformon (Roche-Organon), Neo-Amniotin (Squibb), Oestroform, Ova-Estrin, Theelestrin, and Urestrin (Upjohn), among others.[1][2][3][4][6] It was provided in various forms and routes of administration including oil solution and aqueous suspension for intramuscular injection, oral tablets and capsules, vaginal suppositories, and topical ointments.[2][3][4][1][6]

Estrogen medications similar to but distinct from estrogenic substances included conjugated estriol (Emmenin) and conjugated estrogens (Premarin).[1] They are also non-crystalline mixtures of estrogens.[1] Estrogenic substances were also distinct from pure crystalline preparations such as estrone, estradiol, estriol, estradiol benzoate, and estradiol dipropionate.[1] The medication should additionally be distinguished from estrogen ovarian extracts, which had little activity and were considered to be essentially inactive.[10][2]

Progynon and Amniotin were both marketed by 1929.[11] Amniotin was originally prepared from the amniotic fluid of cattle, but was later prepared using other sources such as the urine of pregnant mares.[12][9]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Nomenclature of Endocrine Preparations". Journal of the American Medical Association. 123 (6): 351. 1943. doi:10.1001/jama.1943.02840410033009. ISSN 0002-9955.
  2. ^ a b c d Fluhmann CF (November 1938). "Estrogenic Hormones: Their Clinical Usage". Cal West Med. 49 (5): 362–6. PMC 1659459. PMID 18744783.
  3. ^ a b c d e Greene, R.R. (1941). "Endocrine Therapy for Gynecologic Disorders". Medical Clinics of North America. 25 (1): 155–168. doi:10.1016/S0025-7125(16)36624-X. ISSN 0025-7125.
  4. ^ a b c Fluhmann, C. F. (1944). "Clinical use of extracts from the ovaries". Journal of the American Medical Association. 125 (1): 1. doi:10.1001/jama.1944.02850190003001. ISSN 0002-9955.
  5. ^ a b c Reifenstein, Edward C. (1944). "Endocrinology: A Synopsis of Normal and Pathologic Physiology, Diagnostic Procedures, and Therapy". Medical Clinics of North America. 28 (5): 1232–1276. doi:10.1016/S0025-7125(16)36180-6. ISSN 0025-7125.
  6. ^ a b c Maximilian Alexander Goldzieher; Joseph William Goldzieher (1953). Endocrine Treatment in General Practice. Springer Publishing Company. pp. 436–.
  7. ^ a b c David Preswick Barr (1940). Modern Medical Therapy in General Practice. William & Wilkins Company. ISBN 9780598668332. Complex Estrogenic Preparations. 1. Amniotin (Squibb). This is a highly purified but not crystalline preparation derived from pregnant mares' urine. The chief active ingredient is apparently ketohydroxyestrin (estrone).
  8. ^ a b Glandular Physiology and Therapy. American Medical Association. 1935. p. 480. Amniotin, E. R. Squibb & Sons: This is an estrogenic preparation originally derived from amniotic fluid; it is not reduced to the crystalline state during manufacture. More recently, according to the firm, the urine of pregnant mares has served as an added source of active material.
  9. ^ a b c McCullagh EP (1935). "The Management of Functional Menstrual Disorders". Cleveland Clinic Quarterly. 2 (4): 52–64. doi:10.3949/ccjm.2.4.52.
  10. ^ Novak, Emil (1935). "The Therapeutic Use of Estrogenic Substances". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 104 (20): 1815. doi:10.1001/jama.1935.92760200002012. ISSN 0098-7484.
  11. ^ The Female Sex Hormone. C.C. Thomas. 1929. p. 276.
  12. ^ Biskind, Morton S. (1935). "Commercial glandular products". Journal of the American Medical Association. 105 (9): 667. doi:10.1001/jama.1935.92760350007009a. ISSN 0002-9955.