Ethanol (data page)

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Ethanol (data page)
Full structural formula of ethanol
Skeletal formula of ethanol
Ball-and-stick model of ethanol
Space-filling model of ethanol
Names
Systematic IUPAC name
Ethanol[1]
Other names
Absolute alcohol, alcohol, cologne spirit, drinking alcohol, ethane monoxide, ethylic alcohol, EtOH, ethyl alcohol, ethyl hydrate, ethyl hydroxide, ethylol, grain alcohol, hydroxyethane, methylcarbinol
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet B01253
1718733
ChEBI
ChemSpider
DrugBank
EC Number 200-578-6
787
KEGG
MeSH Ethanol
RTECS number KQ6300000
UNII
UN number 1170
Properties
C2H6O
Molar mass 46.07 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Density 0.7893 g/cm3 (at 20 °C)[2]
Melting point −114.14 ± 0.03[2] °C (−173.45 ± 0.05 °F; 159.01 ± 0.03 K)
Boiling point 78.24 ± 0.09[2] °C (172.83 ± 0.16 °F; 351.39 ± 0.09 K)
miscible
log P −0.18
Vapor pressure 5.95 kPa (at 20 °C)
Acidity (pKa) 15.9 (H2O), 29.8 (DMSO)[3][4]
Basicity (pKb) −1.9
1.3611[2]
Viscosity 1.2 mPa·s (at 20 °C), 1.074 mPa·s (at 25 °C)[5]
1.69 D[6]
Pharmacology
D08AX08 (WHO) V03AB16 (WHO), V03AZ01 (WHO)
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out) [12]
Moderate[14]
Moderate (10–15%)[13]
Common: oral
Uncommon: suppository, inhalation, ocular, insufflation,[7] injection[8]
Pharmacokinetics:
Variable[9]
Hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase
Acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetyl-CoA, carbon dioxide, water
None, constant rate elimination[10]
Urine, breath, perspiration, tears, milk, saliva, bile[10]
Legal status
  • AU: Unscheduled
  • CA: Unscheduled
  • DE: Unscheduled
  • NZ: Unscheduled
  • UK: Unscheduled
  • US: Unscheduled [11]
  • UN: Unscheduled
  • EU: Unscheduled
Hazards[18]
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[15]
GHS signal word Flammable
NFPA 704
Flammability code 3: Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions. Flash point between 23 and 38 °C (73 and 100 °F). E.g., gasoline Health code 2: Intense or continued but not chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash point 16 °C (61 °F; 289 K)
365 °C (689 °F; 638 K)
Explosive limits 3.3%–19%[16]
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
7060 mg/kg (oral, rat)[17]
US health exposure limits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3)[16]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1000 ppm (1900 mg/m3)[16]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
3300 ppm[16]
Related compounds
Related compounds
Ethane
Methanol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. Except where noted otherwise, data relate to standard ambient temperature and pressure.

Material Safety Data Sheet[edit]

External MSDS

Structure and properties[edit]

Structure and properties
Index of refraction, n25 1.361
Dielectric constant, εr 24.3 ε0 at 20 °C
Bond strength  ?
Bond length  ?
Bond angle  ?
Magnetic susceptibility[20] 5.8·10−7 (cgs units, volume)
Surface tension 22.39 dyn/cm at 25 °C
Viscosity[21]
6.285 mPa·s at −50 °C
4.656 mPa·s at −40 °C
3.530 mPa·s at −30 °C
2.731 mPa·s at −20 °C
2.419 mPa·s at −15 °C
2.151 mPa·s at −10 °C
1.920 mPa·s at −5 °C
1.720 mPa·s at 0 °C
1.546 mPa·s at 5 °C
1.394 mPa·s at 10 °C
1.261 mPa·s at 15 °C
1.144 mPa·s at 20 °C
1.040 mPa·s at 25 °C
0.948 mPa·s at 30 °C
0.794 mPa·s at 40 °C
0.670 mPa·s at 50 °C
0.570 mPa·s at 60 °C
0.487 mPa·s at 70 °C
0.452 mPa·s at 75 °C

Thermodynamic properties[edit]

Phase behavior
Triple point 150 K (−123 °C), 0.00043 Pa
Critical point 514 K (241 °C), 63 bar
Std enthalpy change
of fusion
, ΔfusHo
+4.9 kJ/mol
Std entropy change
of fusion
, ΔfusSo
+31 J/(mol·K)
Std enthalpy change
of vaporization
, ΔvapHo
+38.56 kJ/mol
Std entropy change
of vaporization
, ΔvapSo
109.67 J/(mol·K)
Molal freezing point constant −1.99 °C kg/mol
Solid properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHosolid
−277.7 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Sosolid
160.7 J/(mol K)[22]
Heat capacity, cp 111.46 J/(mol K) [22]
Liquid properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHoliquid
−277.38 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Soliquid
159.9 J/(mol K)
Enthalpy of combustion, ΔcHo −1370.7 kJ/mol
Heat capacity, cp 112.4 J/(mol K)
Gas properties
Std enthalpy change
of formation
, ΔfHogas
−235.3 kJ/mol
Standard molar entropy,
Sogas
283 J/(mol K)
Heat capacity,[23][24] cp 78.28 J/(mol K) at 90 °C
87.53 J/(mol K) at 110-220 °C
Heat capacity ratio,[23][24]
γ = cp/cv
1.13 at 90 °C
van der Waals' constants[25] a = 1217.9 L2 kPa/mol2
b = 0.08407 L/mol

Spectral data[edit]

UV-Vis
λmax  ? nm
Extinction coefficient, ε  ?
IR
Major absorption bands[26]
(liquid film)
Wave number transmittance
880 cm−1 22%
1048 cm−1 6%
1089 cm−1 19%
1275 cm−1 52%
1329 cm−1 44%
1384 cm−1 32%
1418 cm−1 33%
1650 cm−1 26%
1926 cm−1 62%
2899 cm−1 12%
2930 cm−1 13%
2977 cm−1 4%
NMR
Proton NMR  
Carbon-13 NMR http://riodb01.ibase.aist.go.jp/sdbs/cgi-bin/IMG.cgi?fname=CDS00245&imgdir=cdsW;
Other NMR data  
MS
Masses of
main fragments
 

Vapor pressure of liquid[edit]

P in mm Hg 1 10 40 100 400 760 1520 3800 7600 15200 30400 45600
P in Pa 133.3 1333 5333 13332 53329 101325 202650 506625 1013250 2026500 4053000 6079501
T in °C −31.3 −2.3 19.0 34.9 63.5 78.4 97.5 126.0 151.8 183.0 218.0 242.0
T in K 241.85 270.85 292.15 308.05 336.65 351.55 370.65 399.15 424.95 456.15 491.15 515.15
Ethanol vapor pressure vs. temperature. Uses formula from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry 10th ed.
Log10 of ethanol vapor pressure vs. temperature. Uses formula

Density of ethanol at various temperatures[edit]

Data obtained from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed.

T °C ρ, g/cm3 T °C ρ, g/cm3 T °C ρ, g/cm3
3 0.80374 16 0.79283 29 0.78182
4 0.80290 17 0.79198 30 0.78097
5 0.80207 18 0.79114 31 0.78012
6 0.80123 19 0.79029 32 0.77927
7 0.80039 20 0.78945 33 0.77841
8 0.79956 21 0.78860 34 0.77756
9 0.79872 22 0.78775 35 0.77671
10 0.79788 23 0.78691 36 0.77585
11 0.79704 24 0.78606 37 0.77500
12 0.79620 25 0.78522 38 0.77414
39 0.77329 40 0.77244

These data correlate as ρ [g/cm3] = −8.461834×104 T [°C] + 0.8063372 with an R2 = 0.99999.

Properties of aqueous ethanol solutions[edit]

Data obtained from Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 10th ed.

Mass fraction,
 %
Volume fraction,
 %
Concentration, g/(100 ml) at 15.56 °C Density relative to 4 °C water Density at 20 °C relative to water Density at 25 °C relative to water Freezing temperature,
°C
10 °C 20 °C 25 °C 30 °C
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.99973 0.99823 0.99708 0.99568 1.00000 1.00000 0
1.0 0.99785 0.99636 0.99520 0.99379 0.99813 0.99811
2.0 0.99602 0.99453 0.99336 0.99194 0.99629 0.99627
2.5 3.13 0.99363 −1
3.0 0.99426 0.99275 0.99157 0.99014 0.99451 0.99447
4.0 5.00 3.97 0.99258 0.99103 0.98984 0.98839 0.99279 0.99274
4.8 6.00 4.76 0.98971 −2
5.0 0.99098 0.98938 0.98817 0.98670 0.99113 0.99106
5.05 6.30 5.00 0.98930
6.0 0.98946 0.98780 0.98656 0.98507 0.98955 0.98945
6.8 8.47 0.98658 −3
7.0 0.98801 0.98627 0.98500 0.98347 0.98802 0.98788
8.0 0.98660 0.98478 0.98346 0.98189 0.98653 0.98634
9.0 0.98524 0.98331 0.98193 0.98031 0.98505 0.98481
10.0 12.40 9.84 0.98393 0.98187 0.98043 0.97575 0.98361 0.98330
11.0 0.98267 0.98047 0.97897 0.97723 0.98221 0.98184
11.3 14.0 11.11 0.98006 −5
12.0 15.0 0.98145 0.97910 0.97753 0.97573 0.98084 0.98039
13.0 0.98026 0.97775 0.97611 0.97424 0.97948 0.97897
13.78 17.00 13.49 −6.1
14.0 0.97911 0.97643 0.97472 0.97278 0.97816 0.97757
15.0 0.97800 0.97514 0.97334 0.97133 0.97687 0.97619
15.02 18.50 14.68 0.97511
16.0 0.97692 0.97387 0.97199 0.96990 0.97560 0.97484
16.4 20.2 0.97336 −7.5
17.0 0.97583 0.97259 0.97062 0.96844 0.97431 0.97346
17.5 21.5 0.97194 −8.7
18.0 22.10 17.54 0.97473 0.97129 0.96923 0.96697 0.97301 0.97207
18.8 23.1 0.97024 −9.4
19.0 0.97363 0.96997 0.96782 0.96547 0.97169 0.97065
20.0 0.97252 0.96864 0.96639 0.96395 0.97036 0.96922
20.01 24.50 19.44 0.96863
20.3 24.8 0.96823 −10.6
21.0 0.97139 0.96729 0.96495 0.96242 0.96901 0.96778
22.0 0.97024 0.96592 0.96348 0.96087 0.96763 0.96630
22.11 27.00 21.43 0.96578 −12.2
23.0 0.96907 0.96453 0.96199 0.95929 0.96624 0.96481
24.0 0.96787 0.96312 0.96048 0.95769 0.96483 0.96329
24.2 29.5 0.96283 −14.0
25.0 30.40 24.12 0.96665 0.96168 0.95895 0.95607 0.96339 0.96176
26.0 0.96539 0.96020 0.95738 0.95422 0.96190 0.96018
26.7 32.4 0.95914 −16.0
27.0 0.96406 0.95867 0.95576 0.95272 0.96037 0.95856
28.0 33.90 26.90 0.96268 0.95710 0.95410 0.95098 0.95880 0.95689
29.0 0.96125 0.95548 0.95241 0.94922 0.95717 0.95520
29.9 36.1 0.95400 −18.9
30.0 36.20 28.73 0.95977 0.95382 0.95067 0.94741 0.95551 0.95345
31.0 0.95823 0.95212 0.94890 0.94557 0.95381 0.95168
32.0 0.95665 0.95038 0.94709 0.94370 0.95207 0.94986
33.0 0.95502 0.94860 0.94525 0.94180 0.95028 0.94802
33.8 40.5 0.94715 −23.6
34.0 0.95334 0.94679 0.94337 0.93986 0.94847 0.94613
35.0 0.95162 0.94494 0.94146 0.93790 0.94662 0.94422
35.04 41.90 33.25 0.94486
36.0 0.94986 0.94306 0.93952 0.93591 0.94473 0.94227
37.0 0.94805 0.94114 0.93756 0.93390 0.94281 0.94031
38.0 0.94620 0.93919 0.93556 0.93186 0.94086 0.93830
39.0 46.3 0.94431 0.93720 0.93353 0.92979 0.93886 0.93626 −28.7
40.0 0.94238 0.93518 0.93148 0.92770 0.93684 0.93421
40.04 47.40 37.61 0.93510
41.0 0.94042 0.93314 0.92940 0.92558 0.93479 0.93212
42.0 0.93842 0.93107 0.92729 0.92344 0.93272 0.93001
43.0 0.93639 0.92897 0.92516 0.92128 0.93062 0.92787
44.0 0.93433 0.92685 0.92301 0.91910 0.92849 0.92571
45.0 0.93226 0.92472 0.92085 0.91692 0.92636 0.92355
45.31 53.00 42.07 0.92406
46.0 0.93017 0.92257 0.91868 0.91472 0.92421 0.92137
46.3 53.8 0.92193 −33.9
47.0 0.92806 0.92041 0.91649 0.91250 0.92204 0.91917
48.0 0.92593 0.91823 0.91429 0.91028 0.91986 0.91697
49.0 0.92379 0.91604 0.91208 0.90805 0.91766 0.91475
50.0 0.92162 0.91384 0.90985 0.90580 0.91546 0.91251
50.16 58.0 46.04 0.91349
51.0 0.91943 0.91160 0.90760 0.90353 0.91322 0.91026
52.0 0.91723 0.90936 0.90524 0.90125 0.91097 0.90799
53.0 0.91502 0.90711 0.90307 0.89896 0.90872 0.90571
54.0 0.91279 0.90485 0.90079 0.89667 0.90645 0.90343
55.0 0.91055 0.90258 0.89850 0.89437 0.90418 0.90113
55.16 63.0 50.00 0.90220
56.0 0.90831 0.90031 0.89621 0.89206 0.90191 0.89833
56.1 63.6 0.90008 −41.0
57.0 0.90607 0.89803 0.89392 0.88975 0.89962 0.89654
58.0 0.90381 0.89574 0.89162 0.88744 0.89733 0.89423
59.0 0.90154 0.89344 0.88931 0.88512 0.89502 0.89191
60.0 0.89927 0.89113 0.88699 0.88278 0.89271 0.88959
60.33 68.0 53.98 0.89038
61.0 0.89898 0.88882 0.88466 0.88044 0.89040 0.88725
62.0 0.89468 0.88650 0.88233 0.87809 0.88807 0.88491
63.0 0.89237 0.88417 0.87998 0.87574 0.88574 0.88256
64.0 0.89006 0.88183 0.87763 0.87337 0.88339 0.88020
65.0 0.88774 0.87948 0.87527 0.87100 0.88104 0.87783
66.0 0.88541 0.87713 0.87291 0.86863 0.87869 0.87547
67.0 0.88308 0.87477 0.87054 0.86625 0.87632 0.87309
68.0 0.88071 0.87241 0.86817 0.86387 0.87396 0.87071
69.0 0.87839 0.87004 0.86579 0.86148 0.87158 0.86833
70.0 0.87602 0.86766 0.86340 0.85908 0.86920 0.86593
71.0 0.87365 0.86527 0.86100 0.85667 0.86680 0.86352
71.9 78.3 0.86311 −51.3
72.0 0.87127 0.86287 0.85859 0.85426 0.86440 0.86110
73.0 0.86888 0.86047 0.85618 0.85184 0.86200 0.85869
74.0 0.86648 0.85806 0.85376 0.84941 0.85958 0.85626
75.0 0.86408 0.85564 0.85135 0.84698 0.85716 0.85383
76.0 0.86168 0.85322 0.84891 0.84455 0.85473 0.85140
77.0 0.85927 0.85079 0.84647 0.84211 0.85230 0.84895
78.0 0.85685 0.84835 0.84403 0.83966 0.84985 0.84650
79.0 0.85422 0.84590 0.84158 0.83720 0.84740 0.84404
80.0 0.85197 0.84344 0.83911 0.83473 0.84494 0.84157
81.0 0.84950 0.84096 0.83664 0.83224 0.84245 0.83909
82.0 0.84702 0.83848 0.83415 0.82974 0.83997 0.83659
83.0 0.84453 0.83599 0.83164 0.82724 0.83747 0.83408
84.0 0.84203 0.83348 0.82913 0.82473 0.83496 0.83156
85.0 0.83951 0.83095 0.82660 0.82220 0.83242 0.82902
86.0 0.83697 0.82840 0.82405 0.81965 0.82987 0.82646
87.0 0.83441 0.82554 0.82148 0.81708 0.82729 0.82389
88.0 0.83181 0.82323 0.81888 0.81448 0.82469 0.82128
89.0 0.82919 0.82062 0.81626 0.81186 0.82207 0.81865
90.0 0.82654 0.81797 0.81362 0.80922 0.81942 0.81600
91.00 94.00 74.62 0.82386 0.81529 0.81094 0.80655 0.81674 0.81331
92.0 0.82114 0.81257 0.80823 0.80384 0.81401 0.81060
93.0 0.81839 0.80983 0.80549 0.80111 0.81127 0.80785
94.0 0.81561 0.80705 0.80272 0.79835 0.80848 0.80507
95.0 0.81278 0.80424 0.79991 0.79555 0.80567 0.80225
96.0 0.80991 0.80138 0.79706 0.79271 0.80280 0.79939
97.0 0.80698 0.79846 0.79415 0.78981 0.79988 0.79648
98.0 0.80399 0.79547 0.79117 0.78684 0.79688 0.79349
99.0 0.80094 0.79243 0.78814 0.78382 0.79383 0.79045
100.0 100.0 79.39 0.79784 0.78934 0.78506 0.78075 0.79074 0.78736 −114.3
Mass fraction,
 %
Volume fraction,
 %
Concentration, g/(100 ml) at 15.56 °C Density relative to 4 °C water Density at 20 °C relative to water Density at 25 °C relative to water Freezing temperature,
°C
10 °C 20 °C 25 °C 30 °C

Boiling points of aqueous solutions[edit]

Data obtained from CRC Handbook of Chemistry 44th ed., p2391

BP °C Weight % ethanol     BP °C Weight % ethanol
liquid vapor liquid vapor
78.1 95.5 95.5    
78.2 91 92 86.5 18 71
78.4 85 89 87.0 17 70
78.6 82 88 87.5 16 69
78.8 80 87 88.0 15 68
79.0 78 86 88.5 13 67
79.2 76 85 89.0 12 65
79.4 74 85 89.5 11 63
79.6 72 84 90.0 10 61
79.8 69 84 90.5 10 59
80.0 67 83 91.0 9 57
80.2 64 83 91.5 8 55
80.4 62 82 92.0 8 53
80.6 59 82 92.5 7 51
80.8 56 81 93.0 6 49
81.0 53 81 93.5 6 46
81.2 50 80 94.0 5 44
81.4 47 80 94.5 5 42
81.6 45 80 95.0 4 39
81.8 43 79 95.5 4 36
82.0 41 79 96.0 3 33
82.5 36 78 96.5 3 30
83.0 33 78 97.0 2 27
83.5 30 77 97.5 2 23
84.0 27 77 98.0 1 19
84.5 25 75 98.5 1 15
85.0 23 74 99.0 < 1 10
85.5 21 73 99.5 < 1 5
86.0 20 72 100.0 0 0

Azeotropic mixture

Charts[edit]

Thermophysical properties of mixtures of ethanol with water and dodecane
Excess Volume Mixture of Ethanol and Water.png Mixing Enthalpy Mixture of Ethanol and Water.png Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Mixture of Ethanol and Water.png
Excess volume of the mixture of ethanol and water (volume contraction) Heat of mixing of the mixture of ethanol and water Vapor–liquid equilibrium of the mixture of ethanol and water (including azeotrope)
Phase diagram ethanol water s l en.svg Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (Miscibility Gap) Mixture of Ethanol and Dodecane.png
Solid–liquid equilibrium of the mixture of ethanol and water (including eutecticum) Miscibility gap in the mixture of dodecane and ethanol

References[edit]

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