|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||42.037 g/mol|
|Melting point||−150.5 °C (−238.9 °F; 122.6 K)|
|Boiling point||−56.1 °C (−69.0 °F; 217.1 K)|
|Solubility||soluble in acetone
|Vapor pressure||>1 atm (20°C)|
Refractive index (nD)
|51.75 J/K mol|
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||External MSDS|
|Flash point||−107 °C (−161 °F; 166 K)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|1300 mg/kg (oral, rat)|
LC50 (median concentration)
|17 ppm (mouse, 10 min)|
LCLo (lowest published)
|23 ppm (mouse, 30 min)
53 ppm (rabbit, 2 hr)
53 ppm (guinea pig, 2 hr)
750 ppm (cat, 10 min)
200 ppm (monkey, 10 min)
50 ppm (mouse, 10 min)
1000 ppm (rabbit, 10 min)
|US health exposure limits (NIOSH):|
|TWA 0.5 ppm (0.9 mg/m3)|
|TWA 0.5 ppm (0.9 mg/m3) ST 1.5 ppm (3 mg/m3)|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
Ethenone has been observed to occur in space, in comets or in gas as part of the interstellar medium.
Ethenone is very reactive, tending to react with nucleophiles to form an acetyl group. For example, it reacts with water to form acetic acid; with acetic acid to form acetic anhydride; with ammonia and amines to form ethanamides; and with dry hydrogen halides to form acetyl halides.
Exposure to concentrated levels causes humans to experience irritation of body parts such as the eye, nose, throat and lungs. Extended toxicity testing on mice, rats, guinea pigs and rabbits showed that ten-minute exposures to concentrations of freshly generated ethenone as low as 0.2 mg/liter (116 ppm) may produce a high percentage of deaths in small animals. These findings put ethenone in the same order of toxicity as phosgene (0.2–20 mg/liter) and hydrogen cyanide (0.2-0.5 mg/liter). Death is from pulmonary edema and is entirely similar to, but much more rapid than is the case with phosgene poisoning.
Occupational exposure limits are set at 0.5 ppm (0.9 mg/m3) over an eight-hour time-weighted average. An IDLH limit is set at 5 ppm, as this is the lowest concentration productive of a clinically relevant physiologic response in humans.
- "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0367". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- "Ketene". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- C. D. Hurd (1941). "Ketene". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, 1, p. 330.
- Hudson, Reggie L.; Loeffler, Mark J. (2013). "Ketene Formation in Interstellar Ices: A Laboratory Study". The Astrophysical Journal. 773 (2): 109. doi:10.1088/0004-637x/773/2/109. ISSN 0004-637X.
- Tidwell, p. 11.
- Tidwell, p. 560.
- ChemSpider http://www.chemspider.com/Chemical-Structure.9643.html
- Christoph Taeschler :Ketenes, Ketene Dimers, and Related Substances, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2010
- H. A. Wooster; C. C. Lushbaugh; C. E. Redeman (1946). "The Inhalation Toxicity of Ketene and of Ketene Dimer". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 68 (12): 2743. doi:10.1021/ja01216a526.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (4 April 2013). "Ketene". NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (May 1994). "Ketene". Documentation for Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentrations (IDLHs). Retrieved 13 November 2013.