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Combination of
Clinical data
Trade namesAlyacen, Aranelle, Balziva, Brevicon, Brevinor, Briellyn, Cyclafem, Dasetta, Femcon, Gencept, Gildagia, Jenest, Kaitlib, Modicon, N.E.E., Norcept, Norethin, Norinyl, Norquest, Nortrel, Ortho-Novum, Ovcon, Philith, Pirmella, Tri-Norinyl, Vyfemla, Wera, others
  • US: X (Contraindicated)
Routes of
By mouth
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number
PubChem CID
  • None

Ethinylestradiol/norethisterone, also known as ethinyl estradiol/norethindrone, is a combination birth control pill made up of ethinylestradiol, an estrogen and norethisterone a progestin.[1] It is used for birth control, symptoms of menstruation, endometriosis, and menopausal symptoms.[1][2] Other uses include acne.[1] It is taken by mouth.[1]

Side effects can include nausea, headache, blood clots, breast pain, depression, and liver problems.[2] Use is not recommended during pregnancy, the initial three weeks after childbirth, and in those at high risk of blood clots.[2][3] It; however, may be started immediately after a miscarriage or abortion.[3] Smoking while using combined birth control pills is not recommended.[4] It works by stopping ovulation, making the uterus not suitable for implantation, and making the mucus at the opening to the cervix thick.[3]

This combination pill was approved for medical use in the United States in 1964.[5] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] It is available as a generic medication.[7] In the United Kingdom three months of medication costs the NHS about 2.70 pounds.[8] In the United States it costs about $25–50 per month.[7] It is marketed under a large number of brand names.[9] In 2016 it was the 55th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 14 million prescriptions.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d "Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (HRT) medical facts from". Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b c WHO Model Formulary 2008 (PDF). World Health Organization. 2009. p. 365. ISBN 9789241547659. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "Brevinor Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  4. ^ "Estrogen-Progestin Combinations". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  5. ^ Haussman, Melissa (2013). Reproductive Rights and the State: Getting the Birth Control, RU-486, Morning-after Pills and the Gardasil Vaccine to the U.S. Market. ABC-CLIO. p. 72. ISBN 9780313398223. Archived from the original on 2016-12-24.
  6. ^ "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  7. ^ a b Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 353. ISBN 9781284057560.
  8. ^ British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 552. ISBN 9780857111562.
  9. ^ "Alyacen 1/35 (birth control) medical facts from". Archived from the original on 2016-12-24.
  10. ^ "The Top 300 of 2019". Retrieved 22 December 2018.