Ethnic and religious composition of Austria-Hungary

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The ethno-linguistic composition of Austria-Hungary according to the census of 31 December 1910 was as follows:[1]

Population[edit]

Area Number %
Cisleithania 28,571,934 55.6
Transleithania 20,886,487 40.6
Bosnia and Herzegovina (Austro-Hungarian condominium) 1,931,802 3.8
Total 51,390,223 100.0

Languages[edit]

Ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910

The census of 1911 recorded Umgangssprache, everyday language. Jews and those using German in offices often stated German as their Umgangssprache, even when having a different Muttersprache. In "Hungary proper", 5% of the population were Jews, who were included in speakers of the Hungarian language.[2]

Language Number %
German 12,006,521 23.36
Hungarian 10,056,315 19.57
Czech 6,442,133 12.54
Serbo-Croatian 5,621,797 10.94
Polish 1,244,804 2 (source: Goran Begovic via bundesarchiv.de)
Ruthenian (Ukrainian) 3,997,831 7.78
Romanian 3,224,147 6.27
Slovak 1,967,970 3.83
Slovene 1,255,620 2.44
Italian 768,422 1.50
Other 1,072,663 2.09
Total 51,390,223 100.00

Cisleithanian states[edit]

Land Main language others (if more than 2%)
Bohemia Czech (63.2%) German (36.8%)
Dalmatia Croatian (78.3%) Serbian (16.3%), Italian (2.8%)
Galicia Polish (58.6%) Ukrainian (40.2%)
Lower Austria German (95.9%) Czech (3.8%)
Upper Austria German (99.7%)
Bukovina Ukrainian (38.4%) Romanian (34.4%), German (21.2%), Polish (4.6%)
Carinthia German (78.6%) Slovenian (21.2%)
Carniola Slovenian (94.4%) German (5.4%)
Salzburg German (99.7%)
Austrian Silesia German (43.9%) Polish (31.7%), Czech (24.3%)
Styria German (70.5%) Slovenian (29.4%)
Moravia Czech (71.8%) German (27.6%)
County of Tyrol German (57.3%) Italian (42.1%)
Austrian Littoral Slovenian (37.3%) Italian (34.5%), Croatian (24.4%), German (2.5%)
Vorarlberg German (95.4%) Italian (4.4%)

Transleithanian states[edit]

Land Main language others (if more than 2%)
Kingdom of Hungary Hungarian (54%) Romanian (16.1%), Slovak (10.5%), German (10.4%), Ruthenian (2.5%), Serbian (2.5%)
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia Croatian (62.5%) Serbian (24.6%), German (5.0%), Hungarian (4.1%)

Historical regions[edit]

Region
Main spoken language
Hungarian language
Other languages
Transylvania Romanian – 2,819,467 (54%) 1,658,045 (31.7%) German – 550,964 (10.5%)
Slovakia Slovak – 1,688,413 (57.9%) 881,320 (30.2%) German – 198,405 (6.8%)
Vojvodina Serbo-Croatian – 601,770 (39.8%) 425,672 (28.1%) German – 324,017 (21.4%)
Transcarpathia Ruthenian or Ukrainian – 330,010 (54.5%) 185,433 (30.6%) German – 64,257 (10.6%)
Fiume Italian – 24,212 (48.6%) 6,493 (13%) Croatian and Serbian – 13,351 (26.8%)
Slovene - 2,336 (4.7%)
German - 2,315 (4.6%)
Burgenland German – 217,072 (74.4%) 26,225 (9%) Croatian – 43,633 (15%)
Prekmurje Slovene – 74,199 (80.4%) – in 1921 14,065 (15.2%) – in 1921 German – 2,540 (2.8%) – in 1921

Religions[edit]

Map of religions, from Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas
Religions/Confessions in all of Austria-Hungary Austrian
part
Hungarian
part
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
Catholics 76.6% 90.9% 61.8% 22.9%
Protestants 8.9% 2.1% 19.0% 0.3%
Orthodox 8.7% 2.3% 14.3% 43.5%
Jews 4.4% 4.7% 4.9% 0.6%
Muslims 1.3% 0% 0% 32.7%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Volkszählung vom 31. Dezember 1910, veröffentlicht in: Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt, Wien 1911.
  2. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1948.