One of the first modern fictional discussions of ethnic weapons is in Robert A. Heinlein's 1942 novel Sixth Column (republished as The Day After Tomorrow), in which a race-specific radiation weapon is used against a so-called "Pan-Asian" invader.
In 1997, U.S. Secretary of Defense William Cohen referred to the concept of an ethnic bioweapon as a possible risk. In 1998 some biological weapon experts considered such a "genetic weapon" plausible, and believed the former Soviet Union had undertaken some research on the influence of various substances on human genes.
In its 2000 policy paper Rebuilding America's Defenses, think-tank Project for the New American Century (PNAC) described ethnic bioweapons as a "politically useful tool" that US adversaries could have incentive to develop and utilize.
The possibility of a "genetic bomb" is presented in Vincent Sarich's and Frank Miele's book, Race: The Reality of Human Differences, published in 2004. These authors view such weapons as technically feasible but not very likely to be used. (page 248 of paperback edition.)
In 2004, The Guardian reported that the British Medical Association (BMA) considered bioweapons designed to target certain ethnic groups as a possibility, and highlighted problems that advances in science for such things as "treatment to Alzheimer's and other debilitating diseases could also be used for malign purposes".
In 2005, the official view of the International Committee of the Red Cross was "The potential to target a particular ethnic group with a biological agent is probably not far off. These scenarios are not the product of the ICRC's imagination but have either occurred or been identified by countless independent and governmental experts."
In 2008, the US government held a congressional committee, ‘Genetics and other human modification technologies: sensible international regulation or a new kind of arms race?’, during which it was discussed how “we can anticipate a world where rogue (and even not-so-rogue) states and non-state actors attempt to manipulate human genetics in ways that will horrify us”.
In 2012, The Atlantic wrote that a specific virus that targets individuals with a specific DNA sequence is within possibility in the near future. The magazine put forward a hypothetical scenario of a virus which caused mild flu to the general population but deadly symptoms to the President of the United States. They cite advances in personalized gene therapy as evidence.
Israeli "ethno-bomb" controversy
In November 1998, The Sunday Times reported that Israel was attempting to build an "ethno-bomb" containing a biological agent that could specifically target genetic traits present amongst Arab populations. Wired News also reported the story, as did Foreign Report.
Microbiologists and geneticists were skeptical towards the scientific plausibility of such a biological agent. The New York Post, describing the claims as "blood libel", reported that the likely source for the story was a work of science fiction by Israeli academic Doron Stanitsky. Stanitsky had sent his completely fictional work about such a weapon to Israeli newspapers two years before. The article also noted the views of genetic researchers who claimed the idea as "wholly fantastical", with others claiming that the weapon was theoretically possible.
Russian ban on export of biological samples
In May 2007, a Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that the Russian government banned all exports of human biosamples. The report claims that the reason for the ban was a secret FSB report about on-going development of "genetic bioweapons" targeting Russian population by Western institutions. The report mentions the Harvard School of Public Health, American International Health Alliance, Department of Medical Biotechnology of Jagiellonian University, United States Department of Justice Environment and Natural Resources Division, Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology Warsaw University, and United States Agency for International Development.
In Arma 3, "Atrox Strain" is an engineered variant of Malaria developed by the Canton Protocol Strategic Alliance Treaty that is used to target specific genotypes for the purposes of expanding soft power into affected countries via medical assistance.
In the Joe Ledger Series by Jonathan Maberry, the second novel, The Dragon Factory, deals with ethnic bioweapons. The antagonists in the novel, led by Cyrus Jakoby, use advanced transgenic science to make communicable versions of genetic disorders that predominately affect specific ethnic populations, such as Tay-Sachs disease and Sickle-cell Anemia, with the goal of committing mass genocides, a project they refer to as the "Extinction Wave."
- Wouter Basson
- Biological warfare
- Genographic Project, genetic anthropology study; intention is to study migration.
- International HapMap Project
- Metal Gear Solid V: The Phantom Pain, another video game which features an ethnic bioweapon targeting languages instead of genes.
- Prayer of the Rollerboys
- Project Coast
- Race in biomedicine
- SARS conspiracy theory
- Syphon Filter, a video game in which terrorists attempt to release a genetically programmable virus.
- William Cohen (1997-04-28). "Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy". Sam Nunn Policy Forum, University of Georgia. Archived from the original on 2004-11-18. Retrieved 2006-07-12.
- Interview of Dr Christopher Davis, UK Defence Intelligence Staff, Plague War, Frontline, PBS, October 1998
- "Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategies, Forces, and Resources For a New Century" (PDF). September 2000. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2007.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
- Adam, David (28 October 2004), Could you make a genetically targeted weapon?, The Guardian
- Preventing the use of biological and chemical weapons: 80 years on, Official Statement by Jacques Forster, vice-president of the ICRC, 10-06-2005
- "Ethnic-bioweapons: between conspiracy and reality - The Badger". The Badger. 2018-05-08. Retrieved 2018-06-21.
- Hessel, Andrew (2012), Hacking the President's DNA, The Atlantic
- Brooks, Rosa (2016-03-15). "Can There Be War Without Soldiers?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- Uzi Mahnaimi; Marie Colvin (1998-11-15). "Israel planning 'ethnic' bomb as Saddam caves in". The Sunday Times.
- "Israel's Ethnic Weapon?". Wired News. 1998-11-16.
- James Ridgeway (1999-02-02). "Ethnic Warfare". The Village Voice.
- "UPI report".
- Stein, Jeff. "Debunking the "ethno-bomb"". Salon. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- "Now Playing: A Blood Libel For The 21st Century". New York Post. 1998-11-22.
- "Google Groups quoting Haaretz". groups.google.com. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
- "Россия блюдет человеческий образец". Kommersant. 2007-05-29. Retrieved 2007-05-29.
- on YouTube
- Genetic weapons: a 21st-century nightmare?, Ethirajan Anbarasan, UNESCO Courier, March 1999
- Is all fair in biological warfare?, Journal of Medical Ethics, June 2009.
- New biological weapons: Science fiction or moral imperative?, Robin Coupland, Red Cross Red Crescent, July 1999
- US military agency invests $100m in genetic extinction technologies Neslen, Arthur, 2017-12-04, The Guardian, access date 2018-05-01