Demographics of Bangladesh

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Demographics of Bangladesh
Population 168,957,745 (2015 est.)[1]
Growth rate 1.6% (2015 est.)[1]
Birth rate 21.14 births/1,000
population (2015 est.)[1]
Death rate 5.61 deaths/1,000
population (2015 est.)[1]
Life expectancy 70.94 years (2015 est.)[1]
 • male 69.02 years
 • female 72.94 years
Fertility rate 2.4 children born/woman
(2015 est.)[1]
Infant mortality rate 44.09 deaths/1,000 live births
(2015 est.)[1]
Age structure
0–14 years 31.62 (2015 est.)[1]
15–64 years 63.25
65 and over 5.13
Sex ratio
Total 0.95 male(s)/female
(2015 est.)[1]
At birth 1.04 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.03 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.91 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.97 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Bangladeshi
Major ethnic Bengali
Minor ethnic Santhals, Chakma,
Garos (Achiks), Oraons,
Mundas, Mro, Marma, Manipuri,
Zomi, Bihari (Stranded Pakistani)
Language
Official Bengali
Spoken Bengali, Sylheti, English,
Santali, Rajbanshi, Chakma,
Tripuri, Khasi, Mundari

Bangladesh is largely ethnically homogeneous, and its name derives from the Bengali ethno-linguistic group which comprises 98% of the population. The Chittagong Hill Tracts, Sylhet, Mymensingh and North Bengal divisions are home to diverse indigenous peoples. There are many dialects of Bengali spoken throughout the region. The dialect spoken by those in Chittagong and Sylhet are particularly distinctive. The population is estimated at 169 million (2015[1]). About 87% of Bangladeshis are Muslims, followed by Hindus (12%), Buddhists (1%) and Christians (0.5%).

Bangladesh has the highest population density in the world, excluding a handful of city-states and small countries with populations under 10m, such as Malta and Hong Kong.

Most of the demographic statistics below are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

Age-sex pyramid for Bangladesh, 2005

The 2011 total population was 152,518,015 which ranks Bangladesh 8th in the world.

The baseline for population studies on Bangladesh is the official census which is conducted every 10 years, the last being in 2011.

Census[2][edit]

Demographic evolution of the territory of Bangladesh (1900-2010).
Population of Bangladesh
Census date census population
(thousands)
adjusted population
(thousands)
1901 28 928
1911 31 555
1921 33 255
1931 35 602
1941 41 997
1951 41 932
1961 50 840
1974 71 479 76 398
1981 87 120 89 912
1991 106 313 111 455
2001 124 355 130 523
15 Mar 2011 142 319 152 518

p=provisional figure

UN estimates[3][edit]

Total population Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 37 895 41.2 54.8 3.9
1955 43 444 42.4 54.1 3.5
1960 50 102 43.6 53.1 3.3
1965 57 792 44.7 52.0 3.3
1970 66 881 44.7 51.8 3.4
1975 70 582 45.8 50.7 3.5
1980 80 624 45.0 51.4 3.6
1985 92 284 43.9 52.5 3.6
1990 105 256 42.5 53.8 3.7
1995 117 487 40.3 55.9 3.8
2000 129 592 37.3 58.7 4.0
2005 140 588 34.3 61.4 4.3
2010 148 692 31.3 64.1 4.6

Structure of the population [4][5][edit]

Structure of the population (15.03.2011) (Census) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 72 109 796 71 933 901 144 043 697 100
0-4 7 638 523 7 423 447 15 061 970 10,46
5-9 9 322 514 8 850 715 18 173 229 12,62
10-14 8 614 889 8 031 726 16 646 615 11,56
15-19 6 509 492 6 352 398 12 861 890 8,93
20-24 5 777 370 7 522 419 13 299 789 9,23
25-29 6 225 252 7 254 256 13 479 508 9,36
30-34 5 079 106 5 420 659 10 499 765 7,29
35-39 4 697 349 4 859 079 9 556 428 6,63
40-44 4 280 923 3 980 739 8 261 662 5,74
45-49 3 363 273 3 016 800 6 380 073 4,43
50-54 2 952 596 2 599 675 5 552 271 3,85
55-59 1 923 534 1 577 463 3 500 997 2,43
60-64 2 081 306 1 852 708 3 934 014 2,73
65-69 1 149 569 963 921 2 113 490 1,47
70-74 1 206 398 1 025 314 2 231 712 1,55
75-79 488 338 386 389 874 727 0,61
80-84 443 239 436 840 880 079 0,61
85-89 138 268 124 343 262 611 0,18
90-94 116 916 133 273 250 189 0,17
95+ 100 941 121 737 222 678 0,15
Age group Male Female Total
0-14 25 575 926 24 305 888 49 881 814 34,63
15-64 42 890 201 44 436 196 87 326 397 60,62
65+ 3 643 669 3 191 817 6 835 486 4,75

Structure of the population (DHS 2014) (Male: 37 672, Female: 39 641, Total: 77 313 :

Age Group Male Female Total
0-4 11.0 9.6 10.3
5-9 11.8 10.7 11.2
10-14 12.3 11.5 11.9
15-19 9.4 11.5 10.5
20-24 6.7 9.8 8.3
25-29 7.6 9.1 8.3
30-34 6.7 7.9 7.3
35-39 6.3 6.0 6.2
40-44 5.7 5.4 5.6
45-49 4.6 4.6 4.6
50-54 4.5 3.1 3.8
55-59 3.4 3.6 3.5
60-64 3.4 2.6 3.0
65-69 2.4 1.6 2.0
70-74 1.9 1.2 1.5
75-79 1.0 0.5 0.8
80+ 1.3 1.2 1.3
Age group Male Female Total
0-14 35.1 31.8 33.4
15-64 58.3 63.7 61.0
65+ 6.6 4.5 5.6

Other sources[edit]

The following table lists various recent estimates of the population.

Source Year Population (millions)
US State Dept[6] 2005 144
Population Reference Bureau[7] 2005 144
World Bank[8] 2008 160
CIA World FactBook[9] 2010 156
World Population Reference[10] 2010 164

According to the OECD/World Bank population in Bangladesh increased from 1990 to 2008 with 44 million and 38% growth in population compared to 34% growth in India and 54% growth in Pakistan. The annual population growth 2007-2008 was 1.4% compared to India 1.35%, Pakistan 2.2%, Dem. Rep. of Congo 2.9%, Tanzania 2.9%, Syria 3.5% or Yemen 4.0%. According to the OECD/World Bank population statistics between 1990-2008 the world population growth was 27% and 1,423 million persons.[11]

Population growth rate[edit]

Birds eye of Dhaka in 2012

Bangladesh had high rates of population growth in the 1960s and 1970s. Since then however it has seen a marked reduction in its total fertility rate. Over a period of three decades it dropped from almost 7 to 2.4 in 2005-2010.[3]

Gender ratio[edit]

Age range (years) Sex ratio (males/females) (2015 est.)[1]
at birth 1.04
0–14 1.03
15–24 0.89
25–54 0.90
55–64 1.01
65 and over 0.97
total population 0.95

Urban and rural[edit]

The sprawling mega-city of Dhaka has a huge population, but the majority of the people nonetheless still live in villages in rural areas.

Urban population: 27% of total population (2009 est.)
Rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2005-2010 est.)
Bangladesh is considered an urban country based on their population density (hrsa.gov)

Population Density[edit]

Based on the CIA World Fact Book 2012 figures for population (161,083,804) and land area (130,168 km2), Bangladesh has the highest population density among large countries, 1,237.51 persons per square kilometer, and 12th overall, when small countries and city-states are included.[12]

Vital statistics[edit]

Births and deaths [3][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 1 963 000 852 000 1 111 000 48.3 20.9 27.4 6.36 165.0
1955-1960 2 252 000 921 000 1 332 000 48.2 19.7 28.5 6.62 156.5
1960-1965 2 560 000 994 000 1 566 000 47.5 18.4 29.1 6.80 151.2
1965-1970 2 950 000 1 090 000 1 860 000 47.3 17.5 29.8 6.91 144.4
1970-1975 3 193 000 1 847 000 1 346 000 46.5 26.9 19.6 6.91 175.6
1975-1980 3 381 000 1 153 000 2 229 000 44.7 15.2 29.5 6.65 138.3
1980-1985 3 670 000 1 151 000 2 519 000 42.4 13.3 29.1 5.99 122.5
1985-1990 3 767 000 1 115 000 2 652 000 38.1 11.3 26.8 5.02 104.4
1990-1995 3 709 000 1 057 000 2 653 000 33.3 9.5 23.8 4.10 90.6
1995-2000 3 598 000 986 000 2 612 000 29.1 8.0 21.1 3.41 73.8
2000-2005 3 432 000 934 000 2 498 000 25.4 6.9 18.5 2.87 59.3
2005-2010 3 107 000 905 000 2 202 000 21.5 6.3 15.2 2.38 49.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Sample Vital Registration System[13][14][edit]

Year Population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000): National (Urban/Rural) Crude death rate (per 1000): National (Urban/Rural) Natural change (per 1000): National (Urban/Rural) Fertility rates: National (Urban/Rural)
2005 138 600 2 879 000 20.7 (17.8/21.7) 5.8 (4.9/6.1) 14.9 (12.9/15.6) 2.46 (1.87/2.65)
2006 140 600 2 901 000 20.6 (17.5/21.7) 5.6 (4.4/6.0) 15.0 (13.1/15.7) 2.41 (1.81/2.63)
2007 142 600 2 986 000 20.9 (17.4/22.1) 6.2 (5.1/6.6) 14.7 (12.3/15.5) 2.39 (1.79/2.61)
2008 144 700 3 022 000 20.5 (17.2/22.4) 6.0 (5.1/6.5) 14.5 (12.1/15.9) 2.30 (1.79/2.60)
2009 146 700 2 832 000 19.4 (16.8/20.4) 5.8 (4.7/6.1) 13.6 (12.1/14.3) 2.15 (1.65/2.28)
2010 148 600 2 868 494 842 095 2 026 399 19.2 (17.1/20.1) 5.6 (4.9/5.9) 13.6 (12.2/14.2) 2.12 (1.72/2.26)
2011 150 600 2 891 000 828 000 2 063 000 19.2 (17.4/20.2) 5.5 (4.8/5.8) 13.7 (12.6/14.4) 2.11 (1.71/2.25)
2012 152 700 2 933 000 826 000 2 107 000 18.9 (17.1/20.0) 5.3 (4.6/5.7) 13.6 (12.5/14.3) 2.12 (1.84/2.30)
2013 154 700 19.0 (18.2/19.3) 5.3 (4.6/5.6) 13.7 (13.6/13.7) 2.11 (1.84/2.19)
2014 156 800 18.9 (17.2/19.4) 5.2 (4.1/5.6) 13.7 (13.1/13.8) 2.11 (1.77/2.22)

Fertility[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR):[15]

Year TFR (Total) TFR (Rural) TFR (Urban)
2014 2,108 2,218 1,768

Total fertility rate by divisions[edit]

Division TFR(Total fertility rate) Crude birth rate death rate
Barisal 2,34 18.2 5.4
Chittagong 2,09 18.9 4.8
Dhaka 2,17 19.9 5.4
Khulna 1,96 17.7 5.3
Rajshahi 2,04 17.9 5.3
Rangpur 2,22 19.3 5.1
Sylhet 2,09 18.0 5.5

Birth and Death rate[edit]

Year Birth rate (per 1000) Death rate (per 1000)
2014 18.9 5.2

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [16][edit]

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1993-1994 29.1 3.44 (2.1) 25.3 2.69 (1.7) 29.5 3.54 (2.2)
1996-1997 29.4 3.27 (2.1) 22.6 2.10 (1.5) 30.2 3.43 (2.2)
1999-2000 30.2 3.31 (2.2) 25.3 2.45 (1.7) 31.3 3.54 (2.4)
2001 28.4 3.22 26.0 2.69 28.9 3.36
2004 28.7 3.0 (2.0) 25.8 2.5 (1.6) 29.5 3.2 (2.1)
2007 26.1 2.7 (1.9) 24.7 2.4 (1.7) 26.5 2.8 (1.9)
2011 22.6 2.3 (1.6) 20.6 2.0 (1.5) 23.3 2.5 (1.6)
2014 22.2 2.3 (1.6) 20.8 2.0 (1.5) 22,8 2.4 (1.7)

Health[edit]

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 70.65 years (2014 est.)[17]
country comparison to the world: 150
Male: 68.48 years
Female: 72.31 years

HIV/AIDS[edit]

Prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (adults, 102nd in world, 2001 est.); 0.01% (2014 est.)
People living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (85th in world, 2007 est.)
Deaths: fewer than 500 (87th in world, 2007 est.); about 700 (2014 est.).

Major infectious diseases[edit]

Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria are high risks in some locations
Water contact disease: leptospirosis
Animal contact disease: rabies (2005)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Bangladesh[18]
Bengali
  
98.0%
Ethnic groups
  
1.1%
Uncertain
  
0.9%

The vast majority (about 98.5%) of Bangladeshis are of the Bengali ethno-linguistic group. This group also spans the neighboring Indian province of West Bengal. Minority ethnic groups include Meitei, Khasi, Santhals, Chakma, Garo (tribe), Biharis, Oraons, Mundas and Rohingyas.

Biharis are Urdu-speaking, non-Bengalis who emigrated from the state of Bihar and other parts of northern India during the 1947 partition. They are concentrated in the Dhaka and Rangpur areas and number some 300,000.[19][20] In the 1971 independence war many of them sided with Pakistan, as they stood to lose their positions in the upper levels of society.[21] Hundreds of thousands went to Pakistan and those that remained were interned in refugee camps. Their population declined from about 1 million in 1971 to 600,000 in the late 1980s.[21] Refugees International has called them a "neglected and stateless" people as they are denied citizenship by the governments of Bangladesh and Pakistan.[22] As nearly 40 years has passed, two generations of Biharis have been born in these camps. Biharis were granted Bangladeshi citizenship and voting rights in 2008.[23]

Bangladesh's tribal population was enumerated at 897,828 in the 1981 census.[21] These tribes are concentrated in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and around Mymensingh, Sylhet, and Rajshahi. They are of Sino-Tibetan descent and differ markedly in their social customs, religion, language and level of development. They speak Tibeto-Burman languages and most are Buddhist or Hindu.[21] The four largest tribes are Chakmas, Marmas, Tipperas and Mros. Smaller groups include the Santals in Rajshahi and Dinajpur, and Khasis, Garos, and Khajons in Mymensingh and Sylhet regions.[21]

There are small communities of Meitei people in the Sylhet district, which is close to the Meitei homeland across the border in Manipur, India.

There is a small population of Rohingya refugees from Myanmar near the border in the southeast. There are 28,000 living in two UN refugee camps in Cox's Bazaar as well as some 200,000 "unregistered people of concern" living outside of the camps.[24] The refugee crisis originated in the early 1990s when the first wave numbering some 250,000 of the predominantly Muslim ethnic group fled persecution from their home in Rakhaine—Myanmar's western-most state. Bangladesh seeks to repatriate the refugees back to Myanmar.[25]

Language[edit]

Languages of Bangladesh (2011) [18]
Bangla
  
98.8%
Other
  
1.2%

Religion[edit]

See also: Islam in Bangladesh, Hinduism in Bangladesh, Buddhism in Bangladesh, Christianity in Bangladesh
Population trends for major religious groups in Bangladesh (1951–2011)
Religions of Bangladesh (2013)[18]
Islam
  
89.1%
Hindu
  
10.0%
Other (includes Buddhist, Christian)
  
0.9%
Religious
group
Population
% 1951.[30]
Population
% 1961[30]
Population
% 1974[30]
Population
% 1981[30]
Population
% 1991[30]
Population
% 2001[31]
Population
% 2011[32]
Islam 78.9 % 80.4 % 85.4 % 86.6 % 88.3 % 89.7 % 90.0 %
Hinduism 22 % 18.5% 13.5% 12.1 % 10.5 % 9.2 % 9.0 %
Buddhism 0.7 % 0.7 % 0.6 % 0.6 % 0.6 % 0.7 % 0.6%
Christianity 0.3 % 0.3 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.3 % 0.3 % 0.3 %
Other religions / No religion 0.1 % 0.1 % 0.2 % 0.3 % 0.3 % 0.1 % 0.1 %

Genetics[edit]

Bangladesh has the world's highest frequency of the M form of mitochondrial DNA. This genetic variant spans many continents, and is the single most common mtDNA haplogroup in Asia.[33] In Bangladesh it represents about 83% of maternal lineages.[34]

Education[edit]

Literacy

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 43.1%
Male: 53.9%
Female: 31.8% (2003 est.)

Education expenditures

2.7% of GDP (2005)
country comparison to the world: 151

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "The World Factbook: Bangladesh: People and Society". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 17 September 2016. 
  2. ^ 2011 Population & Housing Census: Preliminary Results
  3. ^ a b c Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
  4. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/dyb2.htm
  5. ^ http://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR311/FR311.pdf
  6. ^ "Background Note: Bangladesh". U.S. Department of State. August 2005. 
  7. ^ "Country Profiles: Bangladesh". Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved 2006-07-28. 
  8. ^ "World Development Indicators". World Bank. 
  9. ^ "CIA World Factbook 2010". CIA. 
  10. ^ "World Population Highlights: Key Findings From PRB's 2010 World Population Data Sheet". World Population Reference. 
  11. ^ CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Population 1971-2008 (pdf pages 83-85) IEA (OECD/ World Bank) original population ref e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57
  12. ^ "Population density – Persons per sq km 2012 Country Ranks". Retrieved 16 January 2013. 
  13. ^ http://www.sid.gov.bd/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Key-Indicators-of-Sample-Vital-Registration-System-2005-2011.pdf
  14. ^ http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/vitstats/serATab3.pdf
  15. ^ http://www.bbs.gov.bd/WebTestApplication/userfiles/Image/LatestReports/MSVSBReport2014.pdf
  16. ^ http://www.dhsprogram.com/
  17. ^ "The World Factbook". CIA. July 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c "South Asia ::BANGLADESH". CIA The World Factbook. 
  19. ^ "Socio-economic Problems of the Urdu Speaking Residents at Mohammadpur" (PDF). Democracy Watch. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  20. ^ Persoob, Tasmia. "The Forgotten Community: Camp Based Urdu Speaking People in Bangladesh" (PDF). Jahangirnagar University. Retrieved 12 April 2011. 
  21. ^ a b c d e Ethnic and Linguistic Diversity, Bangladesh: A Country Study, Edited by James Heitzman and Robert Worden, Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1989.
  22. ^ Refugees of Nowhere: The Stateless Biharis of Bangladesh, Refugees International, 2006-02-15
  23. ^ "Citizenship for Bihari refugees". BBC News. 2008-05-19. 7407757. Retrieved 2008-05-21. 
  24. ^ 2010 Regional Operations Profile - South-East Asia, UNHCR, 2010.
  25. ^ Rohingya refugees in Bangladesh refuse repatriation, AFP, Dec 30, 2009.
  26. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/country/BD/languages
  27. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/country/BD/languages
  28. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/country/BD/languages
  29. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/country/BD/languages
  30. ^ a b c d e "Bangladesh- Population census 1991: Religious Composition 1901-1991". www.bangladeshgov.org. 2 August 2016. 
  31. ^ "Bangladesh: at a glance". Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS). Retrieved 13 April 2016. 
  32. ^ "Population & Housing Census 2011". Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). Retrieved 13 April 2016. 
  33. ^ Ghezzi et al. (2005), Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup K is associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in Italians, European Journal of Human Genetics (2005) 13, 748–752.
  34. ^ Mait Metspalu et al., Most of the extant mtDNA boundaries in South and Southwest Asia were likely shaped during the initial settlement of Eurasia by anatomically modern humans. BMC Genetics, 2004

External links[edit]