Ethnic groups in Latin America

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Juniti Saito, head of the Brazilian Air Force and one of over a million Japanese Brazilians.
Enrique Maciel, an Argentine of Mulatto ancestry.

The inhabitants of Latin America are from a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups and races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world.[1] The specific composition of the group varies from country to country. Many have a predominance of European-Amerindian or Mestizo population; in others, Amerindians are a majority; some are dominated by inhabitants of European ancestry; and some countries' populations have large African or Mulatto populations.

Ethnic groups[edit]

  • Amerindians. The indigenous population of Latin America, the Native Americans, arrived during the Lithic stage. In post-Columbian times they experienced tremendous population decrease, particularly in the early decades of colonization. They have since recovered in numbers, surpassing sixty million by some estimates.[2] With the growth of other groups, they now compose a majority only in Bolivia. In Guatemala, Native Americans are a large minority who comprise two-fifths of the population. Mexico's 14%[3] (9.8% in the official 2005 census) is the next largest population, and one of the largest Amerindian populations in the Americas in absolute numbers. Most of the remaining countries have Native American minorities, in every case making up less than one-tenth of the respective country's population. In many countries, people of mixed Native American and European ancestry make up the majority of the population (see Mestizo).
  • Asians. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America. The first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino, as a result of Spain trading in Asia and the Americas. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside mainly in Brazil and Peru; there is also a growing Chinese minority in Panama. Brazil is home to about two million people of Asian descent; this includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside Japan itself (estimated as high as 1.5 million), and about 200,000 ethnic Chinese and 100,000 ethnic Koreans.[4][5] Ethnic Koreans also number tens of thousands in Argentina and Mexico.[6] Peru, with 1.47 million people of Asian descent,[7][8] has one of the largest Chinese communities in the world, with nearly one million Peruvians being of Chinese ancestry. There is a strong ethnic-Japanese presence in Peru, where a past president and a number of politicians are of Japanese descent. The Martiniquais population includes an African-White-Indian mixed population, and an East Indian (Asian Indian) population.[9] The Guadeloupe an East Indian population is estimated at 14% of the population.
  • Blacks. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the 16th century onward, the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Today, people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Brazil (more than 10 million) and in Haiti (more than 7 million).[10] Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil leads this category in relative numbers with 7% of the population being Afro-Latin American. Significant populations are also found in Puerto Rico, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Peru, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry, called Mulattoes, are far more numerous than Blacks.
  • Mestizos. Intermixing between Europeans and Native Americans began early in the colonial period and was extensive. The resulting people, known as Mestizos, make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. Additionally, Mestizos compose large minorities in nearly all the other mainland countries.
  • Mulattoes. Mulattoes are people of mixed European and African ancestry. In Latin America, Mulattoes descend primarily from Spanish or Portuguese settlers on one side, and African on the other. Brazil is home to Latin America's largest mulatto population. Mulattoes are a population majority in the Dominican Republic and, depending on the source, Cuba as well. Mulattoes are also numerous in Panama, Honduras, Costa Rica, Colombia, Puerto Rico, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela and Uruguay. Smaller populations of mulattoes are found in other Latin American countries.[2]
  • Whites. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America. The Portuguese colonized Brazil primaily, and the Spaniards settled elsewhere in the region. At present, most white Latin Americans are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Iberians brought the Spanish and Portuguese languages, the Catholic faith, and many Iberian-Latin traditions. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela contain the largest absolute numbers of whites in Latin America.[3] Whites make up the majorities of Argentina, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Chile, Uruguay, and depending on the source in Cuba. Whites make up nearly half of Brazil's population.[3][11][12] Ever since most of Latin America gained independence in the 1810s–1820s, millions of people have immigrated there. Of these immigrants, Italians formed the largest group, and next were Spaniards and Portuguese.[13] Many others arrived, such as French, Germans, Greeks, Poles, Ukrainians, Russians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Jews, Irish, and Welsh. Also included are Arabs of Lebanese, Syrian, and Palestinian descent; most of them are Christian.[14] Whites presently compose the largest racial group in Latin America (36% in the table herein) and, whether as White, Mestizo, or Mulatto, the vast majority of Latin Americans have white ancestry.[15]
  • Zambos: Intermixing between Africans and Native Americans was especially prevalent in Colombia, Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Brazil, often due to slaves's running away (becoming cimarrones: maroons) and being taken in by Amerindian villagers. In Spanish speaking nations, people of this mixed ancestry are known as Zambos[16] in Middle America, and Cafuzos in Brazil.

In addition to the foregoing groups, Latin America also has millions of tri-racial peoples of African, Native American, and European ancestry. Most are found in Dominican Republic, Colombia, Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and Peru with a much smaller presence in other countries.

According to The World Factbook[edit]

The following table shows the different racial groups and their percentages for all Latin American countries and territories, according to information provided by The World Factbook.[2]

Country Population
White Mestizo Mulatto Amerindian Black Mixed Other1
 Argentina 41,769,726 97.0% 3.0%
 Bolivia 10,118,683 5.0% 68.0% 20.0% 1.0% 6.0%
 Brazil 203,429,773 47.7% 43.1% [18] 0.4% 7.6% 1.1%
 Chile 16,888,760 10.8% 89.2%
 Colombia 44,725,543 3.4% 10.4% 86.2%
 Costa Rica 4,576,562 6.7% 2.4% 1.1% 89.8%
 Cuba 11,087,330 64.1% 26.6% 9.3%
 Dominican Republic 9,956,648 16.0% 11.0% 73.0%
 Ecuador 15,007,343 6.1% 71.9% 1.9% 7.0% 1.0% 12.1%
 El Salvador 6,071,774 12.7% 86.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.6%
 Guatemala 13,824,463 40.5% 59.5%
 Haiti 9,719,932 95.0% 5.0%
 Honduras 8,143,564 1.0% 90.0% 7.0% 2.0%
 Mexico 113,724,226 10.0% 60.0% 30.0%
 Nicaragua 5,666,301 17.0% 69.0% 5.0% 9.0%
 Panama 3,460,462 6.7% 65.0% 6.8% 12.3% 9.2%
 Paraguay 6,459,058 95.0% 5.0%
 Peru 29,248,943 15.0% 37.0% 45.0% 3.0%
 Puerto Rico 3,989,133 75.8% 12.4% 3.3% 8.5%
 Saint Barthélemy 7,367 100.0%
 Saint Martin 30,615 100.0%
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon 5,888 100.0%
 Uruguay 3,308,535 88.0% 8.0% 4.0%
 Venezuela[19] 27,635,743 21.0% 67.0% 2.0% 10.0%

1 May include one or more of the other groups (Mostly Asians).

According to Lizcano[edit]

The following table contains information based on a 2014 non-genetic work entitled "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" ("Ethnic Composition of the Three Cultural Areas of the American Continent at the Beginning of the 21st Century") by National Autonomous University of Mexico professor Francisco Lizcano Fernández.

Fernández compiled his estimation of groups based on a criteria of cultural patterns, not on genotypes nor even phenotype.[3] In these estimations, therefore, "whites" encompasses all those whose practiced culture is predominantly Iberian-derived, while "mestizos" encompasses those whose practiced culture noticeably mixes Iberian and Amerindian cultural traditions, and "Amerindians" only those whose practiced culture is predominantly indigenous American.

The resulting effect of employing this criteria, therefore, skews the figure of said groups if they had been based on genetic factors, or even based on phenotypic factors. Thus, for instance, the estimate of "whites" given for Chile would include mostly genetic mestizos, while the estimate of "mestizos" in Mexico would include not only a significant proportion of genetic Amerindians, but also many genetic whites, and so on for other countries.

Country Population
Whites Mestizos Mulattoes Amerindians Blacks Asians Creoles &
 Argentina 41,769,726 85.0% 11.1% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0% 2.9% 0.0%
 Bolivia 10,118,683 15.0% 28.0% 2.0% 55.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
 Brazil 203,429,773 53.8% 0.0% 39.1% 0.4% 6.2% 0.5% 0.0%
 Chile 16,888,760 52.7% 39.3% 0.0% 8.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
 Colombia 44,725,543 20.0% 53.2% 21.0% 1.8% 3.9% 0.0% 0.1%
 Costa Rica 4,576,562 82.0% 15.0% 0.0% 0.8% 0.0% 0.2% 2.0%
 Cuba 11,087,330 37.0% 0.0% 51.0% 0.0% 11.0% 1.0% 0.0%
 Dominican Republic 9,956,648 14.6% 0.0% 75.0% 0.0% 7.7% 0.4% 2.3%
 Ecuador 15,007,343 9.9% 42.0% 5.0% 39.0% 5.0% 0.1% 0.0%
 El Salvador 6,071,774 1.0% 91.0% 0.0% 8.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
 Guatemala 13,824,463 4.0% 42.0% 0.0% 53.0% 0.0% 0.8% 0.2%
 Honduras 8,143,564 1.0% 85.6% 1.7% 7.7% 0.0% 0.7% 3.3%
 Mexico 121,724,226 15.0% 70.0% 0.5% 14.0% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0%
 Nicaragua 5,666,301 14.0% 78.3% 0.0% 6.9% 0.0% 0.2% 0.6%
 Panama 3,460,462 10.0% 32.0% 27.0% 8.0% 5.0% 4.0% 14.0%
 Paraguay 6,759,058 20.0% 74.5% 3.5% 1.5% 0.0% 0.5% 0.0%
 Peru 30,814,175 12.0% 32.0% 9.7% 45.5% 0.0% 0.8% 0.0%
 Puerto Rico 3,989,133 74.8% 0.0% 10.0% 0.0% 15.0% 0.2% 0.0%
 Uruguay 3,308,535 88.0% 8.0% 4.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%
 Venezuela 27,635,743 16.9% 37.7% 37.7% 2.7% 2.8% 2.2% 0.0%
Total 579,092,570 36.1% 30.3% 20.3% 9.2% 3.2% 0.7% 0.2%

LNote: "Creoles" refer to people of African descent who emigrated from British and French colonies in the Caribbean to Central America.[3]

According to Latinobarometro[edit]

The following table shows how Latin Americans answer the question What race do you consider yourself belonging? in the Latinobarometro survey.[20]

Country Mestizos Whites Amerindians Mulattoes Blacks Asians Other race DK/NA
 Argentina 26.0% 61.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.0% 3.0% 7.0%
 Bolivia 57.0% 4.0% 27.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.0% 1.0% 9.0%
 Brazil 27.0% 41.0% 1.0% 13.0% 17.0% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0%
 Chile 59.0% 30.0% 8.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 0.0%
 Colombia 47.0% 26.0% 5.0% 5.0% 6.0% 0.0% 2.0% 9.0%
 Costa Rica 31.0% 40.0% 4.0% 17.0% 3.0% 1.0% 1.0% 3.0%
 Dominican Republic 29.0% 11.0% 4.0% 24.0% 26.0% 3.0% 0.0% 3.0%
 Ecuador 81.0% 4.0% 7.0% 3.0% 3.0% 1.0% 0.0% 1.0%
 El Salvador 68.0% 10.0% 5.0% 4.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% 7.0%
 Guatemala 32.0% 17.0% 45.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.0% 1.0% 3.0%
 Honduras 67.0% 1.0% 13.0% 16.0% 2.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.0%
 Mexico 52.0% 6.0% 19.0% 2.0% 0.0% 1.0% 3.0% 17.0%
 Nicaragua 67.0% 6.0% 8.0% 2.0% 3.0% 1.0% 0.0% 13.0%
 Panama 53.0% 16.0% 7.0% 5.0% 10.0% 1.0% 1.0% 7.0%
 Paraguay 81.0% 3.0% 3.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.0% 2.0% 9.0%
 Peru 76.0% 6.0% 7.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 7.0%
 Uruguay 7.0% 74.0% 1.0% 4.0% 3.0% 0.0% 3.0% 8.0%
 Venezuela 33.0% 32.0% 4.0% 21.0% 8.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0%
Total 47.0% 24.0% 9.0% 6.0% 5.0% 1.0% 1.0% 7.0%

According to other sources[edit]

This is a list of ethnic groups based on national or other sources.

Country Amerindian White Mestizo Mulatto Black Asian Pardo or Mixed Garifuna or Zambo Other Undeclared Type of study Year
 Argentina[21] 5.0% 85.0% 10.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Census 2010
 Bolivia[22] 37.0% 3.0% 52.0% 0.0% 1.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 7.0% Household survey 2013
 Brazil[23] 0.43% 47.73% 0.0% 0.0% 7.61% 1.09% 43.13% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Census 2010
 Chile[24] 6.0% 61.0% 27.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% Household survey 2006
 Colombia[25] 3.43% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 10.62% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.01% 85.94% Census 2005
 Costa Rica[26] 2.0% 81.8% 7.7% 5.7% 1.91% 0.21% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.68% Census 2011
 Cuba[27] 0.0% 64.1% 0.0% 26.6% 9.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Census 2012
 Dominican Republic[28] 0.0% 13.6% 0.0% 67.6% 18.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% Household survey 2006
 Ecuador[29] 7.0% 6.1% 71.9% 0.0% 7.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 7.8% 0.0% Census 2010
 El Salvador[30] 0.2% 12.7% 86.3% 0.0% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.6% 0.0% Census 2007
 Guatemala[31] 39.4% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.5% 0.0% Census 2002
 Honduras[32] 6.70% 7.87% 82.93% 0.0% 1.40% 0.0% 0.0% 0.55% 0.55% 0.0% Census 2013
 Mexico[33] 21.5% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 78.5% Household survey 2015
 Nicaragua[34] 6.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.4% 2.2% 91.4% Census 2005
 Panama[35] 12.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 9.2% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 78.5% Census 2010
 Paraguay[36] 1.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 98.2% Census 2012
 Peru[37] 24.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 76.0% Census 2007
 Puerto Rico[38] 0.5% 75.8% 0.0% 0.0% 12.4% 0.2% 3.3% 0.0% 7.8% 0.0% Census 2010
 Uruguay[39] 0.4% 87.4% 2.5% 6.3% 2.0% 0.1% 0.6% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% Household survey 2006
 Venezuela[40] 0.0% 43.6% 0.0% 0.0% 3.6% 0.0% 51.6% 0.0% 1.2% 0.0% Census 2011

Genetic studies[edit]


Genetically, the composition of Argentina is mostly European in ancestry, with both Native American and African contributions.

A 2009 autosomal DNA study found that of the total Argentine population, 78.5 percent of the national genepool was European, 17.3 percent Native American, and 4.2 percent African.[41]

An unweighted autosomal study of blood donors from 2012 found out the following composition among samples in four regions of Argentina: 65% European, 31% Native American and 4% African. The study did not conclude to achieve a generalized autosomal average of the country; but rather, the existence of genetic heterogeneity among differing sample regions.[42]


Genetic studies have shown the Brazilian population as a whole to have European, African and Native American components.

An autosomal study from 2013, with nearly 1300 samples from all of the Brazilian regions, found a pred. degree of European ancestry combined with African and Native American contributions, in varying degrees. 'Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population'.[43]

Region[44] European African Native American
North Region 51% 17% 32%
Northeast Region 56% 28% 16%
Central-West Region 58% 26% 16%
Southeast Region 61% 27% 12%
South Region 74% 15% 11%

An autosomal DNA study (2011), with nearly 1000 samples from all over the country ("whites", "pardos" and "blacks", according to their respective proportions), found out a major European contribution, followed by a high African contribution and an important Native American component.[45] "In all regions studied, the European ancestry was predominant, with proportions ranging from 60.6% in the Northeast to 77.7% in the South".[46] The 2011 autosomal study samples came from blood donors (the lowest classes constitute the great majority of blood donors in Brazil[47]), and also public health institutions personnel and health students. The study showed that Brazilians from different regions are more homogenous than previously thought by some based on the census alone. "Brazilian homogeneity is, therefore, a lot greater between Brazilian regions than within Brazilian regions".[48]

Region[45] European African Native American
Northern Brazil 68,80% 10,50% 18,50%
Northeast of Brazil 60,10% 29,30% 8,90%
Southeast Brazil 74,20% 17,30% 7,30%
Southern Brazil 79,50% 10,30% 9,40%

According to a DNA study from 2010, "a new portrayal of each ethnicity contribution to the DNA of Brazilians, obtained with samples from the five regions of the country, has indicated that, on average, European ancestors are responsible for nearly 80% of the genetic heritage of the population. The variation between the regions is small, with the possible exception of the South, where the European contribution reaches nearly 90%. The results, published by the scientific magazine American Journal of Human Biology by a team of the Catholic University of Brasília, show that, in Brazil, physical indicators such as skin colour, colour of the eyes and colour of the hair have little to do with the genetic ancestry of each person, which has been shown in previous studies (regardless of census classification).[49] "Ancestry informative SNPs can be useful to estimate individual and population biogeographical ancestry. Brazilian population is characterized by a genetic background of three parental populations (European, African, and Brazilian Native Amerindians) with a wide degree and diverse patterns of admixture. In this work we analyzed the information content of 28 ancestry-informative SNPs into multiplexed panels using three parental population sources (African, Amerindian, and European) to infer the genetic admixture in an urban sample of the five Brazilian geopolitical regions. The SNPs assigned apart the parental populations from each other and thus can be applied for ancestry estimation in a three hybrid admixed population. Data was used to infer genetic ancestry in Brazilians with an admixture model. Pairwise estimates of F(st) among the five Brazilian geopolitical regions suggested little genetic differentiation only between the South and the remaining regions. Estimates of ancestry results are consistent with the heterogeneous genetic profile of Brazilian population, with a major contribution of European ancestry (0.771) followed by African (0.143) and Amerindian contributions (0.085). The described multiplexed SNP panels can be useful tool for bioanthropological studies but it can be mainly valuable to control for spurious results in genetic association studies in admixed populations".[50] It is important to note that "the samples came from free of charge paternity test takers, thus as the researchers made it explicit: "the paternity tests were free of charge, the population samples involved people of variable socioeconomic strata, although likely to be leaning slightly towards the ‘‘pardo’’ group".[51]

Region[51] European African Native American
North Region 71,10% 18,20% 10,70%
Northeast Region 77,40% 13,60% 8,90%
Central-West Region 65,90% 18,70% 11,80%
Southeast Region 79,90% 14,10% 6,10%
South Region 87,70% 7,70% 5,20%

An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found a similar profile "all the Brazilian samples (regions) lie more closely to the European group than to the African populations or to the Mestizos from Mexico".[52]

Region[53] European African Native American
North Region 60,6% 21,3% 18,1%
Northeast Region 66,7% 23,3% 10,0%
Central-West Region 66,3% 21,7% 12,0%
Southeast Region 60.7% 32.0% 7.3%
South Region 81,5% 9,3% 9,2%

A 2015 autosomal genetic study, which also analysed data of 25 studies of 38 different Brazilian populations concluded that: European ancestry accounts for 62% of the heritage of the population, followed by the African (21%) and the Native American (17%). The European contribution is highest in Southern Brazil (77%), the African highest in Northeast Brazil (27%) and the Native American is the highest in Northern Brazil (32%).[54]

Region[54] European African Native American
North Region 51% 16% 32%
Northeast Region 58% 27% 15%
Central-West Region 64% 24% 12%
Southeast Region 67% 23% 10%
South Region 77% 12% 11%

According to another autosomal DNA study from 2008, by the University of Brasília (UnB), European ancestry dominates in the whole of Brazil (in all regions), accounting for 65,90% of heritage of the population, followed by the African contribution (24,80%) and the Native American (9,3%).[55]

São Paulo state, the most populous state in Brazil, with about 40 million people, showed the following composition, according to an autosomal study from 2006: European genes account for 79% of the heritage of the people of São Paulo, 14% are of African origin, and 7% Native American.[56] A more recent study, from 2013, found the following composition in São Paulo state: 61,9% European, 25,5% African and 11,6% Native American.[57]


According to a 1994 genetic research by Ricardo Cruz-Coke and Rodrigo Moreno in 1994, Chilean genetic admixture consists in a 64% European, 35% Amerindian, and 1% African ancestry.[58] The European admixture goes from 81% in East Santiago to 61% in West Santiago. Valparaiso (Chilean central coast) and Concepción (central southern Chile) have 77% and 75% of European genetic admixture respectively.[58]

An autosomal DNA study from 2014, found out Chilean overall national genepool to be 44.34% (± 3.9%) Native American contribution, 51.85% (± 5.44%) European contribution, and 3.81% (± 0.45%) African contribution.[59] The samples came from all the 15 regions of Chile, and they were collected in Arica, as the researchers made it clear: "Beginning 2011, 923 volunteers from all 15 regions of Chile, living temporarily or permanently in Arica, with an average age of 28,05+-9,37 and belonging to social classes A and B (4%), CA and CB (60%) and D (36%) were invited to participate on this study".[60]

A 2015 autosomal DNA study found out Chile to be 55.16% European, 42.38% Native American and 2.44% African (using LAMP-LD) and 43.22% Native American, 54.38% European and 2.40% African (using RFMix)[61]

Another 2015 autosomal DNA study carried out in two public hospitals found out Chile to be 57,20% European, 38,70% Native American and 2,5% African.[62]

Chilean mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome studies indicate that European ancestry predominates in the Chilean upper class;[63] in the middle class the European component ranges from 72.3 to 76.8 percent,[63][64] and the Amerindian population ranges from 23.2 to 27.7 percent.[63][64] In the lower socioeconomic class, European ancestry is 62.9%–65 percent[63][64] and Amerindian ancestry is 35–37.1 percent.[63][64]


In Colombia, an autosomal study found out the following composition to be the contribution to the national genepool: 60.0% European, 32.0% Native and 8.0% SSA African.[65]

According to a 2015 autosomal DNA study Colombia is: 62,50% European, 27,40% Native American and 9,2% African.[62]

Costa Rica[edit]

Map of Mexico in 1821, including parts of present Central America and the U.S.
Costa Rica was one of the more-isolated populations of New Spain.

While the majority of Costa Ricans identify as of criollo or castizo descent, genetic studies demonstrate considerable pre-Columbian Amerindian and a smaller African ancestry.

According to an autosomal study, the genetic makeup of Costa Rica is 61 percent European, 30 percent Amerindian and nine percent African. Regional variation was observed, with greater European influence in the northern (66%) and central (65%) regions. Increased Amerindian ancestry was found in the south (38%), and a higher African contribution in coastal regions (13% in the Atlantic and 14% in the Pacific).[66]

The Central Valley—where more than half of Costa Ricans live—has a mestizo population with one of the highest European components in Latin America (comparable to Medellin, Colombia and Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), areas with low pre-Columbian Native ancestry (then occupied by heterogeneous groups of hunter-gatherers) and where the current Native population is sparse. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Costa Rica was one of the more isolated regions in the Americas. According to genetic studies, the average Costa Rican from the Central Valley is 75 percent European, 20 percent Native and five percent African.[67] By the late 20th century allusions in textbooks and political discourse to "whiteness" and Spain as the "mother country" of all Costa Ricans were diminishing, replaced with a recognition of the many peoples comprising the nation.[68]


An autosomal study from 2014 has found out the genetic ancestry in Cuba to be 70% European, 22% African and 8% Native American.[69]

Dominican Republic[edit]

According to a recent autosomal study, the genetic composition of the Dominican Republic was 51.2 percent European, 41.8 percent African and 8 percent Native.[70]


According to a 2015 DNA autosomal study, the genetic composition of genepool of Ecuadorian immigrants living in New York City is: 40.80% European contribution, 50.10% Native American contribution, and 6.8% African contribution.[62]

The Ecuadorian immigrant population in New York City, however, may not be representative of Ecuador as a whole. Although most Ecuadorian migrants are mestizos (since mestizos are the majority of people in Ecuador), mestizos may be slightly greater proportionally in Ecuador than among immigrants, yet the proportion of indigenous Ecuadorians among migrants may be larger than their share of the population in Ecuador itself. Additionally, the representation of Afro-Ecuadorian among immigrants in New York might be smaller than their share of the population within Ecuador.

El Salvador[edit]

A large majority of the population is declared mestizos, El Salvador is one of the most homogeneous countries in Latin America. According to a genetic research by the University of Brasilia, Salvadorian genetic admixture consists of a national genepool with a 45.2% Amerindian contribution, 45.2% European contribution, and 9.6% African ancestry contribution.[71]


A study by Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos. PLoS Genetics, found that the composition of Guatemala is 55% European, 44% Amerindian, and less than 1% African or Asian.[67]


Triangle diagrams of genetic makeup of Mexico City and Quetalmahue, Chile
The Mexican mestizo population is the most diverse in Latin America, with people's mixed composition being either largely European, or largely Amerindian, rather than having a uniform admixture nationwide.[67]

An autosomal DNA study by the American Journal of Human Genetics estimated that the average admixture of Mexicans is approximately 52% European, 45% Amerindian, and 4% African. Higher Amerindian ancestry on the X chromosome was observed, consistent with predominantly European patrilineal and Native American matrilineal ancestry.[72]

Another autosomal study comparing the ethnic makeup of five different Latin American countries — Mexico, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico — found Mexico to be 50.1% Native American and 5.6% African, having the highest Native and the lowest African contribution of the sample.[65]

A study by Mexico's National Institute of Genomic Medicine (INMEGEN) reported that mestizo Mexicans are 58.96% European, 35.05% "Asian" (primarily Amerindian) and 5.03 percent African. Sonora has the highest European contribution (70.63 percent) and Guerrero the lowest (51.98 percent, with the highest Asian contribution: 37.17 percent). The African contribution ranges from 2.8 percent in Sonora to 11.13 percent in Veracruz. Eighty percent of the population was classified as mestizo (racially mixed to some degree). The study was conducted among volunteers from six states (Sonora, Zacatecas, Veracruz, Guanajuato, Oaxaca and Yucatan) and an indigenous group, the Zapotecs.[73]

The same study found that the Mexico's haplogroup was most similar to the European group with 81 percent of haplotypes shared, followed by the Asian haplogroup with 74 percent and the African haplogroup with 64 percent. The investigators also noted that the African admixture did not generally come from African slaves brought by Europeans to the Americas, but rather, it was already a part of the genetic admixture of the Iberian colonists.[74]

A study in Mexico City found that it's mestizo population had the greatest variation in Latin America, with its mestizos being either largely European or Amerindian rather than having a uniform admixture). The study's results are similar to those by INMEGEN on which the European admixture is 56.8 percent, followed by Asian (Native American) ancestry with 39.8 percent and an African contribution of 3.4 percent.[67] Additional studies suggest a correlation between greater European admixture with a higher socioeconomic status, and greater Amerindian ancestry with a lower socioeconomic status. A study of low-income Mexicans found the mean admixture to br 0.590, 0.348 and 0.062 Amerindian, European and African respectively,[75] while a study of Mexicans with an income higher than the mean found their European admixture to be 82 percent.[76]


According to a genetic research by the University of Brasilia, Peruvian genetic admixture consists in a 51.0% Amerindian, 37.1% European, and 11.9% African ancestry.[71]

According to a 2015 DNA autosomal study, the composition of Peru is: 47,30% Native American, 47% European and 3,2% African.[62]


A 2009 DNA study in the American Journal of Human Biology showed the genetic contribution to the genepool of Uruguay as a whole is primarily derived from Europe, with Native American ancestry ranging from 1 to 10 percent and African from 7 to 15 percent (depending on region).[77]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Administrador. "Diversidad / Diversidad Étnico-Racial - Principal". 
  2. ^ a b c "Field Listing: Ethnic groups". The CIA World Factbook. Retrieved November 24, 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" [Ethnic Composition of Three Cultural Areas of the Americas at Beginning of the XXI Century] (PDF). Convergencia (in Spanish). Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centre for Research in Social Sciences and Humanities. 38 (May–August): 185–232. ISSN 1405-1435. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2008: see table on page 218 
  4. ^ Shoji, Rafael (2004). "Reinterpretação do Budismo Chinês e Coreano no Brasil" [Reinterpretation of Buddhism of the Chinese and Koreans in Brazil] (PDF). Revista de Estudos da Religião (in Portuguese) (3): 74–87. ISSN 1677-1222. Retrieved October 31, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Japan-Brazil Relations". MOFA. Retrieved May 23, 2012. 
  6. ^ 재외동포현황 [Status of Overseas Koreans] (in Korean). South Korea: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2009. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved May 21, 2009. 
  7. ^ "The Ranking of Ethnic Chinese Population". Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission (Taiwan). 2004. Archived from the original on November 23, 2013. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  8. ^ Palma, Hugo (March 12, 2008). "Desafíos que nos acercan" [Challenges that bring us closer] (in Spanish). Archived from the original on April 15, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2010. 
  9. ^ "Martinique". The World Factbook. USA: CIA. 2003. Retrieved February 6, 2010. 
  10. ^ "Cronología de la abolición de la esclavitud". Retrieved May 23, 2012. 
  11. ^ Stavenhagen, Rodolfo (1987). "Pensar a los indios, tarea de criollos" (PDF) (in Spanish). IIHR. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 22, 2007. 
  12. ^ "Latinoamerican" (PDF). Retrieved May 23, 2012. 
  13. ^ "South America: Postindependence overseas immigrants". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 10, 2008. 
  14. ^ "En detrimento de Israel Acercamiento arabe a America Latina". February 16, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Latinoamérica" (PDF). Retrieved May 23, 2012. [permanent dead link]
  16. ^ Stranded in Paradise: Shipwrecked Hundreds of Years Ago, the Garifuna Are Still Trying to Find Their Way by Teresa Wiltz, The Washington Post.
  17. ^ a b Population obtained from U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, accessed on October 5, 2011.
  18. ^ "Pardo" (in Portuguese). 2007. Retrieved November 1, 2016. 
  19. ^ Venezuela People 1998, The World Factbook 1998 archive.
  20. ^ "Informe Latinobarómetro 2016". October 6, 2016. Retrieved November 1, 2016. 
  21. ^ "Datos Geográficos | Embajada de la República Argentina" (in Spanish). 
  22. ^ |"Encuesta de Ipsos Apoyo, Opinión y Mercado". 2013 (in Spanish). 
  23. ^ "Tabela 1.3.1 - População residente, por cor ou raça, segundo o sexo e os grupos de idade - Brasil - 2010" (PDF). IBGE (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2017-05-23. 
  24. ^ |"World Values Survey 2006 Chile" (PDF). 2006 (in Spanish). 
  25. ^ "COLOMBIA UNA NACIÓN MULTICULTURAL: Su diversidad étnica" (PDF). 2005 Census (in Spanish). DANE. May 2007. p. 37. 
  26. ^ "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2000". 2000 Census (in Spanish). ECLAC. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  27. ^ "El Color de la Piel según el Censo de Población y Viviendas" (PDF) (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas. 
  28. ^ "La variable étnico racial en los censos de población en la República Dominicana" [The racial ethnic variable in the population census in the Dominican Republic] (in Spanish). Dominican Republic National Bureau of Statistics. July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 29, 2013. 
  29. ^ "Resultados del Censo 2010". 2010 Census (in Spanish). INEC. 
  30. ^ "Censo de Población de Vivienda 2007" [Population and Housing Census 2007] (PDF). Department of Statistics and Censuses, Republic of El Salvador (in Spanish). November 4, 2007. p. 13. 
  31. ^ Censo 2002 [1].
  32. ^ "XVII Censo de Población y VI de Vivienda 2013". 2013 (in Spanish). INE. 
  33. ^ "Encuesta Intercensal 2015" (PDF) (in Spanish). INEGI. 2015. Retrieved 2017-06-05. 
  34. ^ "Nicaragua: Documento para Discusión sobre los Pueblos Indígenas y AfroDescendientes". 2007 (in Spanish). BID. 
  35. ^ "INEC::Perspectiva étnica de los censos nacionales de población y de vivienda de 201" (PDF). 2010 (in Spanish). CEPAL. 
  36. ^ "Pueblos Indígenas en el Paraguay, Resultados finales de población y vivienda 2012" (PDF). 2012 Census (in Spanish). Dirección General de Estadística, Encuestas y Censos. 
  37. ^ 2010 Census (PDF) (in Spanish). CEPAL  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  38. ^ "2010 Census: Puerto Rico Profile" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  39. ^ "El perfil demográfico y socioeconómico de la población uruguaya según su ascendencia racial". 2006 (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. p. 15. Retrieved 2017-05-22. 
  40. ^ "XIV Censo nacional de población y vivienda: Resultados total nacional de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela" [XIV National Census of Population and Housing: Total national results for the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela] (PDF). 2011 Census (in Spanish). INE. May 2014. p. 29. Retrieved May 22, 2017. 
  41. ^ Corach, D; Lao, O; Bobillo, C; et al. (2009-12-15). "Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA". Annals of Human Genetics. 74 (1): 65–76. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00556.x. PMID 20059473. Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  42. ^ "Heterogeneity in Genetic Admixture across Different Regions of Argentina". PLoS ONE. April 10, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2016. 
  43. ^ Lins, T. C.; et al. (September 2013). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels" (PDF). PLoS ONE. 8 (9): 187–192. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...875145S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075145. PMC 3779230Freely accessible. PMID 24073242. Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  44. ^ Lins, T. C.; et al. (March–April 2009). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". American Journal of Human Biology. 22 (2): 187–192. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555. 
  45. ^ a b Pena, Sérgio D. J.; et al. (February 16, 2011). "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected". PLoS ONE. 6 (2): e17063. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...617063P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMC 3040205Freely accessible. PMID 21359226. 
  46. ^ (PDF) Retrieved August 19, 2017.  Missing or empty |title= (help)[dead link]
  47. ^ "Profile of the Brazilian blood donor". Archived from the original on May 2, 2012. 
  48. ^ Drago, Carolina (February 24, 2011). "Nossa herança europeia" [Our European heritage] (in Portuguese). Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  49. ^ Lopes, Reinaldo José (October 5, 2009). "DNA de brasileiro é 80% europeu, indica estudo" [Brazilian DNA is 80% European, study shows] (in Portuguese). Folha de S.Paulo. Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  50. ^ Lins, TC; Vieira, RG; Abreu, BS; Grattapaglia, D; Pereira, RW (2010). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22 (2): 187–92. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555. 
  51. ^ a b Lins, TC; Vieira, RG; Abreu, BS; Grattapaglia, D; Pereira, RW (2010). "Genetic composition of Brazilian population samples based on a set of twenty-eight ancestry informative SNPs". Am. J. Hum. Biol. 22 (2): 187–92. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20976. PMID 19639555. 
  52. ^ De Assis Poiares, L; De Sá Osorio, P; Spanhol, F. A.; Coltre, S. C.; Rodenbusch, R; Gusmão, L; Largura, A; Sandrini, F; Da Silva, C. M. (Feb 2010). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population". Forensic Sci Int Genet. 4 (2): e61–3. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006. PMID 20129458. 
  53. ^ de Assis Poiares, Lilian; et al. (2010). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population" (PDF). Forensic Science International: Genetics. Elsevier. 4 (2): e61–e63. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006. PMID 20129458. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 8, 2011: Blood samples from 12,886 unrelated individuals representative of the mixed ethnicity present in Brazil, with 8.26% of the individuals from the North region, 23.86% from the Northeast, 4.79% from the Central West, 10.32% from the Southeast and 52.77% from the South. 
  54. ^ a b Rodrigues De Moura, Ronald; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; De Queiroz Balbino, Valdir; Crovella, Sergio; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti (2015). "Meta-analysis of Brazilian genetic admixture and comparison with other Latin America countries". American Journal of Human Biology. 27 (5): 674. doi:10.1002/ajhb.22714. PMID 25820814. 
  55. ^ de Oliveira Godinho, Neide Maria (2008). "O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações Latino-Americanas" [The impact of migration on the genetic makeup of Latin American populations] (PDF) (in Portuguese). University of Brazil. Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  56. ^ Ferreira, Luzitano Brandão; Mendes, Celso Teixeira; Wiezel, Cláudia Emília Vieira; Luizon, Marcelo Rizzatti; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz (September 1, 2006). "Genomic ancestry of a sample population from the state of São Paulo, Brazil". Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18 (5): 702–705. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20474 – via Wiley Online Library. 
  57. ^ Manta, Fernanda Saloum de Neves; et al. (September 20, 2013). "Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e75145. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...875145S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075145. PMC 3779230Freely accessible. PMID 24073242 – via PLoS Journals. 
  58. ^ a b Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, RS (September 1994). "Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile" (PDF). Ricardo Cruz-Coke and Rodrigo Moreno (in Spanish). 31 (9): 702–6. doi:10.1136/jmg.31.9.702. PMC 1050080Freely accessible. PMID 7815439. Retrieved 12 Apr 2013. 
  59. ^ Fuentes, Macarena; et al. (2014). "Geografía génica de Chile. Distribución regional de los aportes genéticos americanos, europeos y africano" [Gene geography of Chile. Regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions] (PDF). Revista médica de Chile (in Spanish). Sociedad Médica de Santiago. 142 (3): 281–289. doi:10.4067/s0034-98872014000300001. ISSN 0034-9887. PMID 25052264. Retrieved November 1, 2016. 
  60. ^ "Gene geography of Chile: Regional distribution of American, European and African genetic contributions". 1990-01-06. Retrieved 2016-11-01. 
  61. ^ Eyheramendy, Susana; Felipe I. Martinez; Federico Manevy; Cecilia Vial; Gabriela M. Repetto (2015). "Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns". Nature Communications. Springer Nature. 6: 6472. Bibcode:2015NatCo...6E6472E. doi:10.1038/ncomms7472. PMC 4382693Freely accessible. PMID 25778948. Retrieved November 1, 2016. 
  62. ^ a b c d Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D. (2015). "Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America". PLOS Genetics. 11 (12): e1005602. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1005602. PMC 4670080Freely accessible. PMID 26636962. 
  63. ^ a b c d e "El estrato socioeconómico alto se constituye mayoritariamente por una población caucásica y el estrato bajo por una mezcla de población caucásica 65% y amerindia 35% Revista médica de Chile". 
  64. ^ a b c d M. Acuña1, H. Jorquera2, L. Cifuentes1 and L. Armanet3. "Frequency of the hypervariable DNA loci D18S849, D3S1744, D12S1090 and D1S80 in a mixed ancestry population of Chilean blood donors". 1ICBM Genetic Program and Medical Technology School, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile. 
  65. ^ a b Bryc, K; Velez, C; Karafet, T; et al. (May 2010). "Colloquium paper: genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture among Hispanic/Latino populations". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107 Suppl 2: 8954–61. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.8954B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914618107. PMC 3024022Freely accessible. PMID 20445096. 
  66. ^ Morera, B; Barrantes, R; Marin-Rojas, R (2013-03-25). "Gene admixture in the Costa Rican population". Ann. Hum. Genet. 67 (Pt 1): 71–80. doi:10.1046/j.1469-1809.2003.00010.x. PMID 12556237. 
  67. ^ a b c d Wang, S; Ray, N; Rojas, W; et al. (2008-03-21). "Geographic Patterns of Genome Admixture in Latin American Mestizos". PLOS Genetics. 4 (3): e1000037. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000037. PMC 2265669Freely accessible. PMID 18369456. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  68. ^ "Culture of Costa Rica - history, people, women, beliefs, food, customs, family, social, marriage". Retrieved 2013-09-06. 
  69. ^ Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz; Parra, Esteban J.; Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn; Salas, Antonio; Buttenschøn, Henriette N.; Demontis, Ditte; Torres-Español, María; Marín-Padrón, Lilia C.; Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J.; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Mosquera-Miguel, Ana; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio; Carracedo, Ángel; Børglum, Anders D.; Mors, Ole (2014). "Cuba: Exploring the History of Admixture and the Genetic Basis of Pigmentation Using Autosomal and Uniparental Markers". PLoS Genetics. 10 (7): e1004488. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004488. PMC 4109857Freely accessible. PMID 25058410. 
  70. ^ Bryc, K.; et al. (2010). "Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture among Hispanic/Latino populations" (PDF). PNAS. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (Suppl 2): 8954–8961. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107.8954B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0914618107. PMC 3024022Freely accessible. PMID 20445096. Retrieved November 4, 2016. 
  71. ^ a b Godinho, Neide Maria de Oliveira (2008). "O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas" (PDF). Universidade de Brasília. Archived from the original on July 6, 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2012. 
  72. ^ Price, AL; Patterson, N; Yu, F; Cox, DR; Waliszewska, A; McDonald, GJ; Tandon, A; Schirmer, C; Neubauer, J; Bedoya, G; Duque, C; Villegas, A; Bortolini, MC; Salzano, FM; Gallo, C; Mazzotti, G; Tello-Ruiz, M; Riba, L; Aguilar-Salinas, CA; Canizales-Quinteros, S; Menjivar, M; Klitz, W; Henderson, B; Haiman, CA; Winkler, C; Tusie-Luna, T; Ruiz-Linares, A; Reich, D (2007). "A genomewide admixture map for Latino populations". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 80 (6): 1024–36. doi:10.1086/518313. PMC 1867092Freely accessible. PMID 17503322. 
  73. ^ J.K. Estrada; A. Hidalgo-Miranda; I. Silva-Zolezzi; G. Jimenez-Sanchez. "Evaluation of Ancestry and Linkage Disequilibrium Sharing in Admixed Population in Mexico". ASHG. Retrieved July 18, 2012. 
  74. ^ "Genoma destapa diferencias de mexicanos". CNN Expansión. 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  75. ^ Lisker, Rubén; Ramírez, Eva; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; Stern, Michael P. (2005-05-27). "Racial admixture in a Mestizo population from Mexico City". American Journal of Human Biology. 7 (2): 213–216. doi:10.1002/ajhb.1310070210. 
  76. ^ "Admixture in Mexico City: implications for admixture mapping of Type 2 diabetes genetic risk factors" (PDF). 2006-10-02. Retrieved 2013-09-09. 
  77. ^ Bonilla, Carolina; Bertoni, Bernardo; González, Susana; Cardoso, Horacio; Brum-Zorrilla, Nadir; Sans, Mónica (2004). "Substantial native American female contribution to the population of Tacuarembó, Uruguay, reveals past episodes of sex-biased gene flow". American Journal of Human Biology. 16 (3): 289. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20025. PMID 15101054.