Demographics of Oman

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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Oman, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

About 50% of the population in Oman lives in Muscat and the Batinah coastal plain northwest of the capital; about 200,000 live in the Dhofar (southern) region; and about 30,000 live in the remote Musandam Peninsula on the Strait of Hormuz. Some 1,400,000 (39% of entire population) expatriates live in Oman, most of whom are workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Morocco, Jordan, and the Philippines.

Since 1970, the government has given high priority to education in order to develop a domestic work force, which the government considers a vital factor in the country's economic and social progress. In 1986, Oman's first university, Sultan Qaboos University, opened. Other post secondary institutions include a law school, technical college, banking institute, teachers' training college, and health sciences institute. Some 200 scholarships are awarded each year for study abroad.

Nine private colleges exist, providing two-year post secondary diplomas. Since 1999, the government has embarked on reforms in higher education designed to meet the needs of a growing population. Under the reformed system, four public regional universities were created, and incentives are provided by the government to promote the upgrading of the existing nine private colleges and the creation of other degree-granting private colleges.

Population[edit]

Demographics of Oman, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands.

Census results[1][edit]

Total population Omani population Expatriate population
1993 2,000,000 1,465,000 (73.3%) 535,000 (26.7%)
2003 2,340,815 1,781,558 (76.1%) 559,257 (23.9%)
2010 2,773,479 1,957,336 (70.6%) 816,143 (29.4%)
2014 4,092,000 2,303,000 (56.3%) 1,789,000 (43.7%)

UN estimates[2][edit]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1950 456,000 —    
1960 557,000 +22.1%
1970 732,000 +31.4%
1980 1,181,000 +61.3%
1990 1,868,000 +58.2%
2000 2,264,000 +21.2%
2010 2,782,000 +22.9%
Source:[3]
Total population (thousands) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 456 42.3 54.6 3.0
1955 501 43.6 53.2 3.2
1960 557 44.6 52.1 3.2
1965 631 45.6 51.2 3.3
1970 732 46.4 50.4 3.2
1975 898 46.1 50.9 3.0
1980 1 181 45.6 51.8 2.6
1985 1 539 46.0 51.6 2.4
1990 1 868 45.6 52.1 2.3
1995 2 232 40.3 57.5 2.2
2000 2 264 36.7 60.8 2.5
2005 2 430 32.1 65.1 2.8
2010 2 782 27.2 70.3 2.5

Structure of the population [4][edit]

Structure of the population (01.07.2009) (Estimates) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 1 971 115 1 202 802 3 173 917 100
0-4 139 614 132 530 272 144 8,57
5-9 124 776 120 250 245 026 7,72
10-14 129 964 124 646 254 610 8,02
15-19 145 215 139 611 284 826 8,97
20-24 238 483 148 965 387 448 12,21
25-29 327 686 147 717 475 403 14,98
30-34 247 107 120 429 367 536 11,58
35-39 192 483 79 617 272 100 8,57
40-44 149 090 58 112 207 202 6,53
45-49 103 908 41 522 145 430 4,58
50-54 83 057 30 530 113 587 3,58
55-59 40 488 19 402 59 890 1,89
60-64 23 538 16 192 39 730 1,25
65-69 11 811 9 000 20 811 0,66
70-74 7 721 7 212 14 933 0,47
75-79 3 303 3 514 6 817 0,21
80+ 2 871 3 553 6 424 0,20
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 394 354 377 426 771 780 24,32
15-64 1 551 055 802 097 2 353 152 74,14
65+ 25 706 23 279 48 985 1,54

Structure of the population (01.07.2012) (Estimates) :

Age Group Male Female Total %
Total 2 332 687 1 290 314 3 623 001 100
0-4 164 406 158 435 322 841 8,91
5-9 132 469 127 235 259 704 7,17
10-14 111 287 105 301 216 588 5,98
15-19 128 311 119 875 248 186 6,85
20-24 262 201 147 485 409 686 11,31
25-29 438 633 160 772 599 405 16,54
30-34 335 104 131 241 466 345 12,87
35-39 234 343 96 312 330 655 9,13
40-44 177 171 63 301 240 472 6,64
45-49 122 574 47 241 169 815 4,69
50-54 89 917 39 602 129 519 3,57
55-59 56 448 28 380 84 828 2,34
60-64 28 338 20 629 48 967 1,35
65-69 17 199 15 561 32 760 0,90
70-74 13 925 12 439 26 364 0,73
75-79 9 475 7 373 16 848 0,47
80+ 10 882 9 113 19 995 0,55
unknown 4 19 23 <0,01
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 408 162 390 971 799 133 22,06
15-64 1 873 040 854 838 2 727 878 75,29
65+ 51 481 44 486 95 967 2,65

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[2][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 23 000 13 000 11 000 48.9 26.2 22.7 7.25 214.1
1955-1960 26 000 13 000 13 000 49.1 23.9 25.2 7.25 194.1
1960-1965 29 000 13 000 17 000 49.3 21.3 28.0 7.25 171.4
1965-1970 34 000 12 000 21 000 49.3 18.2 31.2 7.31 145.4
1970-1975 40 000 12 000 28 000 49.1 14.5 34.6 7.41 114.7
1975-1980 53 000 12 000 41 000 51.2 11.5 39.7 8.10 87.6
1980-1985 67 000 11 000 55 000 48.9 8.4 40.6 8.32 64.4
1985-1990 74 000 10 000 64 000 43.3 5.7 37.6 7.85 42.5
1990-1995 68 000 8 000 60 000 33.1 4.0 29.1 6.27 31.4
1995-2000 60 000 8 000 52 000 26.7 3.4 23.2 4.46 24.4
2000-2005 50 000 7 000 43 000 21.5 3.1 18.4 3.01 15.3
2005-2010 50 000 10 000 40 000 19.1 3.7 15.3 2.52 9.4
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Births and deaths [4]

Year Population (x1000) Live births Deaths Natural increase Crude birth rate Crude death rate Rate of natural increase TFR
2009 64 735 7 098 57 637 3,3
2010 2 773 479 65 528 6 974 58 554 23,63 2,51 21,12 3,0
2011 67 922 7 667 60 255 2,9
2012 72 867 7 884 64 983 2,8
2013 79 417 7 669 71 748 2,9
2014 80 163

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the CIA, Oman's population primarily consists of Arab, Baluchi, South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, Sri Lankan, Bangladeshi), and African ethnic groups.[5]

Omani society is largely tribal.[6][7] Oman has three known types of identities. Two of these identities are 'tribalism and Ibadism', the third identity is linked to 'maritime trade'. The first two identities are widespread in the interior of Oman, these identities are closely tried to tradition, as a result of lengthy periods of isolation. The third identity, which pertains to Muscat and the coastal areas of Oman, is an identity that has become embodied in business and trade. The third identity is generally seen to be more open and tolerant towards others. Thus, tension between socio-cultural groups in Omani society exists. More important is the existence of social inequality between these three groups.[7]

Migration[edit]

Because of the combination of a relatively small Omani population and a fast-growing oil-driven economy, Oman has attracted many migrants. At the 2014 census the total expatriate population was 1,789,000 or 43.7% of the population.[8] Most migrants are males from India (465,660 for both sexes), Bangladesh (107,125) or Pakistan (84,658). Female migrant workers are mainly from Indonesia (25,300), the Philippines (15,651) or Sri Lanka (10,178). Migrants from Arab countries account for 68,986 migrants (Egypt 29,877, Jordan 7,403, Sudan 6,867, UAE 6,426, Iraq 4,159, Saudi Arabia 725, Bahrain 388, Qatar 168, other 12,683) and other Asian countries for 12,939 migrants. There were 8,541 migrants from Europe, 1,540 from the United States and 15,565 from other countries.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[9]

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.46 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.2 male(s)/female
total population: 1.26 male(s)/female (2005 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 74.16 years
male: 74.87 years
female: 76.55 years (2010 est.)

Urbanisation[edit]

About 78% of the population is urban.

Nationality[edit]

noun: Omani(s)
adjective: Omani

Religions[10][edit]

Islam (official; majority are Ibadhi, lesser numbers of Sunni and Shia) 85.9%, Christian 6.5%, Hindu 5.5%, Buddhist 0.8%, Jewish <0.1, Other 1%, Unaffiliated 0.2%

Languages[edit]

Arabic (official), English, Baluchi, Kiswahili, Hindi , Urdu, Lawati (Khojki), Gujarati, Zadjali, Ajami, Kamzari, Jibbali (Qarawi): Shehri, Mehri, Habyoti, Bathari, Hikmani, Harsusi, Malayalam, Tamiland other Indian languages

Literacy[edit]

definition: Literacy has been described as the ability to read for knowledge and write coherently and think critically about the written word.
total population: 91.1%
male: 93.6%
female: 85.6% (2015 est.)

Overseas Omani people[edit]

Today several thousand Omani-born people have emigrated abroad. The figures are shown below (only countries with more than 100 Omani-born residents are listed).[11]

Country Omani population
United Kingdom United Kingdom 2,024
United States United States 940
Canada Canada 315
Australia Australia 209

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Government[edit]