Ethnic option

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Ethnic option is a term coined by sociologist Mary C. Waters to express her conception that ethnic identity the descendants of immigrants is flexible, symbolic and voluntary, not a definitive aspect of their identity.[1][2] Waters argues that with the achievement of middle-class suburban status, ethnicity becomes a lifestyle option, a costless form of community.[3]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Omi, Michael. "Racial Identity and the State", in Adams, Maurianne. Readings for diversity and social justice, Routledge, 2000, p. 78.
  2. ^ Kleg, Milton, Hate, Prejudice, and Racism, SUMY Press, 1993, p. 43-44.
  3. ^ Hickman, Mary J. "Migration and Diaspora", in Cleary, Joseph N. and Claire Connolly. The Cambridge companion to modern Irish culture, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 131