National Republican Greek League
National Republican Greek League
Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος
Napoleon Zervas (2nd from left) with fellow EDES officers Fotios Zambaras (1st from left)
|Paramilitary wing||National Groups of Greek Guerrillas|
The National Republican Greek League or EDES (Greek: Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος (ΕΔΕΣ), Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos) was one of the major resistance groups formed during the Axis Occupation of Greece during World War II.
The largest of the non-communist resistance groups, its military wing, the National Groups of Greek Guerrillas (Εθνικές Ομάδες Ελλήνων Ανταρτών Ethnikes Omades Ellinon Andarton, ΕΟΕΑ) concentrated its military activities in Epirus. From 1943 onwards, EDES came into confrontation with the communist-led National Liberation Front, beginning a series of civil conflicts that would lead to the Greek Civil War.
Foundation and ideology
The National Republican Greek League was founded on 9 September 1941 by a former army officer, Colonel Napoleon Zervas, a centrist who had been expelled from the army after the failed pro-Venizelist coup d'état of 1935, and two of his friends, Leonidas Spais and Ilias Stamatopoulos.
Like many other resistance movements founded during that time, the political orientation of the National Republican Greek League was Republican, with a strong dislike towards the exiled king, George II, and featured some vague leftist-socialist tendencies. In the aftermath of the four-year right-wing Metaxas dictatorship, which was strongly supported by the king, the monarchy was almost universally rejected, while social ideals for "social fairness" became the vogue among the various resistance groups.
The founding charter of EDES explicitly demanded the "establishment in Greece of a Republican regime, of Socialist form", the "revelation [...] of the treason of former King George II and the gang of the 4th of August Dictatorship", calling for a thorough cleansing of the state and Greek social and public life from anyone "who has not proven a National Republican [and] socialist conscience through actions". The charter acknowledged the prominent exiled Venizelist general Nikolaos Plastiras as its nominal political head, but due to his exile in France they failed to take his consent beforehand. For the time being, no reference to armed opposition against the occupying forces was made in the text.
On the same day, Komninos Pyromaglou, a friend and assistant of Plastiras, left Nice, where Plastiras resided, for Greece. He was authorize by the general to form, on his behalf, a republican organization with socialist content", and prepare to turn both "against the Occupier" and against a return of the monarchy. After his arrival in Athens on 23 September, Pyromaglou came into contact with Republican circles, and after contacting Zervas took EDES' command. In October, a five-member Executive Committee was founded, with Pyromaglou as Plastiras' representative as General Secretary and Zervas as a simple member.
As the organization grew, it succeeded in establishing links with the British Headquarters in Cairo, with a view to receiving funds, weapons and guidance. Under British pressure which at the time strongly supported the Greek monarchy, Zervas was forced to send a statement of loyalty to King George II in March 1942. This marked a silent breach with the vitriolic anti-monarchist attacks of the past months, and marked EDES's slow slide towards a more pro-monarchist stance.
Beginnings of armed resistance – The Gorgopotamos operation
|National Republican Greek League|
Εθνικός Δημοκρατικός Ελληνικός Σύνδεσμος
Ethnikos Dimokratikos Ellinikos Syndesmos
|Participant in the Greek Resistance|
|Leaders||Napoleon Zervas, Komninos Pyromaglou|
|Area of operations||Epirus, Aetolia-Acarnania|
|Size||ca.12,000 (October 1944)|
|Allies||EKKA, PAO, PEAN, EOK, MAVI, Bouboulina Group, Organization X, SOE, Greek government in exile|
|Opponent(s)||Royal Italian Army, German Army, Kingdom of Bulgaria, Collaborationist government, Security Battalions, Këshilla, Balli Kombëtar, EAM/ELAS|
Like most similar groups, EDES was initially limited to Athens. Having the support of many prominent Venizelist and Republican military figures, EDES came into contact with EAM and tried to establish some form of cooperation. The negotiations failed over the demands of the Communists for a merger of EDES with EAM and their distrust of Zervas' pro-British attitudes.
On 23 July 1942, after intense British pressure and more than a month after the official appearance of the military wing of EAM, the Greek People's Liberation Army (ELAS), Zervas, accompanied by Pyromaglou and a handful of companions, set out for the Valtos Mountains in Aetolia-Acarnania, an area with long traditions of guerrilla warfare stretching back to the Ottoman period. From then and until the end of the Occupation, Epirus would be the primary area of operations of the EDES andartes.
Supported by British parachute drops, EDES quickly gathered some 100 fighters. The first major operation of EDES was "Operation Harling", the destruction of the Gorgopotamos viaduct by a joint force of British SOE commandos, and EDES and ELAS forces. While the successful operation, one of the greatest sabotage acts in occupied Europe, greatly boosted the prestige of the nascent Resistance, it also caused a significant rift between EDES and ELAS: the British loudly proclaimed and lauded Zervas' role in the operation, while ignoring the contribution – numerically far greater – of the leftist ELAS forces. While the rift was healed by British mediation, it presaged the problems that would appear in the future.
List of battles
- 23 Oktober - 24 November: Battle against Italian forces at Skoulikaria and at wider mountainous area of Arta, during 22 days.
- 25 November: Operation Harling (Gorgopotamos).
- 20–22 December: Battle against Italian forces at Ano Kalentini - Xirokampos - Velentziko - Koufalo of Arta
- 20 May: Victorious battle against Italians and Cham Albanians at Agia Kyriaki village.
- 22 June : Destruction of Spiliopotamos bridge.
- 6 July: Victorious battle against Italian alpinists at Milia, Epirus.
- 8–20 September: Battles against German forces at Metsovo, Pramada, Kalarites.
- 16,19 September: Battles against Germans and Cham Albanians at Skala Paramythias.
- 30 September: Attack against German forces at Xirovouni.
- 30–31 October: Battle against Edelweiss Division (with the eventual participation of ELAS, mainly against the EDES forces)
- November–December: Battles against Germans and Cham Albanians at Thesprotia.
- 29 Juny: Liberation of Paramythia and Parga.
- 30 Juny: Victorious battle against Germans and Cham Albanians at Menina.
- 11 August: Liberation of Margariti.
- 17–18 August: Conquest of Fort Menina.
- 14 September: Battle of Dodona-Liberation of Lefkada.
- 22 September: Liberation of Igoumenitsa and Filiates.
- 7–15 October: Battles against German forces.
Accusations of collaboration by ELAS
The left wing Greek People's Liberation Army on various occasions accused its rival organizations, and particularly EDES, for collaboration with the occupation forces. However, this accusation was as yet unfounded, at least concerning EDES' guerilla branch. Moreover, during the armed conflicts between ELAS and EDES in Athens, a propaganda war was launched with ELAS accusing EDES of collaboration, mainly due to gaining plausibility from the explicit exemption of EDES from German propaganda attacks. EDES was accusing ELAS for soviet perspective and crimes against non communists.
On the other hand, Stylianos Gonatas, initially a political leader of EDES in Athens, won the peculiar enmity of the organization because he supported the collaborationist Security Battalions and encouraged young officers to join their ranks, which led to hostility of the EAM groups towards him. The 12th Army of Nazi Germany attempted for a short time to coopt the EDES forces, and to use them against the ELAS, but this attempt failed and in July 1944 the EDES launched new attacks.
The civil war within the Resistance
These internal conflicts caused rivalry between resistance groups and eventually escalated into civil war. In October 1943, ELAS launched an attack on EDES. These attacks triggered a civil war that would last until February 1944. After that, a fragile truce was established, which lasted until December, two months after the Liberation. Then, while the ELAS of Athens attempted to overthrow the government, other units stormed the EDES positions in Epirus. The latter was defeated and the remaining forces were evacuated to Corfu. After the defeat of the ELAS in Athens (January 1945), EDES forces returned to Epirus, where part of them got involved to the expulsion of the Cham Albanians.
- Fleischer (1990), p. 150
- Fleischer (1990), p. 154
- Fleischer (1990), pp. 154–155
- Fleischer (1990), p. 388
- Fleischer (1990), p. 238
- Fleischer (1990), p. 241
- Fleischer (1990), p. 247
- "Η μάχη της Νεράιδας, 30-31 Οκτωβρίου 1943". Ελληνικά Χρονικά (in Greek). 2015-10-31. Retrieved 2018-04-01.
- Charles R. Shrader. The withered vine: logistics and the communist insurgency in Greece, 1945-1949. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999 ISBN 978-0-275-96544-0. p. 34.
- Ian Dear,Michael Richard Daniell Foot. The Oxford companion to World War II. Oxford University Press, 2001 ISBN 978-0-19-860446-4, p. 403
- David H. Close. The origins of the Greek civil war . Longman, 1995, ISBN 978-0-582-06472-0, p. 106
- John O. Iatrides. Greece in the 1940s: a nation in crisis Vol. 2. University Press of New England, 1981, ISBN 978-0-87451-198-7, p. 58
- Hondros, John Louis (June 1983). Occupation and resistance: the Greek agony, 1941-44. Pella Pub. Co. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-918618-24-5. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- Shrader, Charles R. (1999). The withered vine: logistics and the communist insurgency in Greece, 1945-1949. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-275-96544-0. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- McNeill, William Hardy (1947). The Greek dilemma: war and aftermath. J.B. Lippincott Company. p. 87. Retrieved 16 October 2010.
- Shepherd, Ben H. (2016). Hitler's Soldiers: The German Army in the Third Reich. Yale University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0300219520.
A short-lived attempt to coopt EDES forces, and use them against ELAS partisans, also failed, and by July 1944, EDES was attacking the Germans again.
- Kretsi, Georgia (2002). Ethnologia Balkanica. Ethnologia Balkanica. 6. Berlin: LIT Verlag Münster. p. 182.
- Fleischer, Hagen (1990). Στέμμα και Σβάστικα: Η Ελλάδα της Κατοχής και της Αντίστασης, Τόμος Α′ [Crown and Swastika: Greece of the Occupation and the Resistance, Vol. 1] (in Greek). Athens: Papazissis. ISBN 960-02-0764-X.
- Fleischer, Hagen (1995). Στέμμα και Σβάστικα: Η Ελλάδα της Κατοχής και της Αντίστασης, Τόμος Β′ [Crown and Swastika: Greece of the Occupation and the Resistance, Vol. 2] (in Greek). Athens: Papazissis. ISBN 960-02-1079-9.
- Hellenic Army History Directorate (1998). Αρχεία Εθνικής Αντίστασης, 1941-1944. Τόμος 1ος "Αντάρτικες Οργανώσεις ΕΟΕΑ-ΕΔΕΣ" [National Resistance Archives, 1941-1944. 1st Volume "EOEA-EDES Partisan Organizations"]. Athens: Hellenic Army History Directorate. ISBN 960-7897-29-3.
- Hellenic Army History Directorate (1998). Αρχεία Εθνικής Αντίστασης, 1941-1944. Τόμος 2ος "Αντάρτικες Οργανώσεις ΕΟΕΑ-ΕΔΕΣ" [National Resistance Archives, 1941-1944. 4th Volume "EOEA-EDES Partisan Organizations"]. Athens: Hellenic Army History Directorate. ISBN 960-7897-30-7.
- Mark Mazower (2001). Inside Hitler's Greece - The Experience of Occupation, 1941-44. United States: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08923-6.
- Woodhouse, Christopher Montague (1948). Apple of Discord: A Survey of Recent Greek Politics in their International Setting. London.
- Center of Military History, German Antiguerrilla Operations in The Balkans (1941-1944) Washington DC: United States Army.
- The Statutes of EDES