Etizolam

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Etizolam
Etizolam.svg
Etizolam.png
Clinical data
Trade namesEtizest, Etilaam, Etizex, Depas, Sedekopan, Pasaden
Dependence
liability
Moderate
Routes of
administration
Oral, sublingual, rectal
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • DE: Anlage III (Special prescription form required)
  • UK: Class C
  • US: Unscheduled - Schedule I in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, and Virginia; Schedule IV in Georgia, Texas, and South Carolina;[1] scheduled in Arizona[2] and Indiana;[3] not FDA approved.
  • UN: Psychotropic Schedule IV
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability93%
MetabolismHepatic
Elimination half-life3.4 hours[4][5] (main metabolite is 8.2 hours)[6]
Duration of action5-7 hours
ExcretionKidney
Identifiers
  • 4-(2-Chlorophenyl)-2-ethyl-9-methyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f][1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]diazepine
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
ECHA InfoCard100.188.773 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC17H15ClN4S
Molar mass342.85 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • ClC1=CC=CC=C1C2=NCC3=NN=C(C)N3C4=C2C=C(CC)S4
  • InChI=1S/C17H15ClN4S/c1-3-11-8-13-16(12-6-4-5-7-14(12)18)19-9-15-21-20-10(2)22(15)17(13)23-11/h4-8H,3,9H2,1-2H3 checkY
  • Key:VMZUTJCNQWMAGF-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)
~98% pure Etizolam powder. This pictured amount is roughly 150mg, and is thus around 150 standard doses.
Four blister packs of Etizex brand etizolam tablets
Etizex brand etizolam tablets

Etizolam (marketed under many brand names) is a thienodiazepine derivative[7] which is a benzodiazepine analog.[8] The etizolam molecule differs from a benzodiazepine in that the benzene ring has been replaced by a thiophene ring and triazole ring has been fused, making the drug a thienotriazolodiazepine.[9][10]

Although a thienodiazepine, etizolam is clinically regarded as a benzodiazepine because of its mode of action via the benzodiazepine receptor and directly targeting GABAA receptors.[11]

It possesses anxiolytic, amnesic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties.[12] Etizolam is an anxiolytic found to have lower tolerance and dependence liability than benzodiazepines.[13]

It was patented in 1972[14] and approved for medical use in 1983.[15]

As of April 2021, the export of Etizolam has been banned in India.[16]

Medical uses[edit]

  • Short-term treatment of insomnia.
  • Anxiety disorders such as OCD and general anxiety disorder, however mostly considered a short-term medication to then be used purely on an at need basis[17]

Side effects[edit]

Long term use may result in blepharospasms,[18] especially in women.[19] Doses of 4 mg or more may cause anterograde amnesia.[citation needed]

In rare cases, erythema annulare centrifugum skin lesions have resulted.[20]

Tolerance, dependence and withdrawal[edit]

Abrupt or rapid discontinuation from etizolam, as with benzodiazepines, may result in the appearance of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, including rebound insomnia.[21] Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a rare event in benzodiazepine withdrawal, has been documented in a case of abrupt withdrawal from etizolam.[22] This is particularly relevant given etizolam's short half life relative to benzodiazepines such as diazepam resulting in a more rapid drug level decrease in blood plasma levels.[23]

In a study that compared the effectiveness of etizolam, alprazolam, and bromazepam for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, all three drugs retained their effectiveness over 2 weeks, but etizolam became more effective from 2 weeks to 4 weeks.[24] Administering .5 mg etizolam twice daily did not induce cognitive deficits over 3 weeks when compared to placebo.[25]

When multiple doses of etizolam, or lorazepam, were administered to rat neurons, lorazepam caused downregulation of alpha-1 benzodiazepine binding sites (tolerance/dependence), while etizolam caused an increase in alpha-2 benzodiazepine binding sites (reverse tolerance to anti-anxiety effects).[26] Tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of lorazepam was observed, but no significant tolerance to the anticonvulsant effects of etizolam was observed.[26] Etizolam therefore has a reduced liability to induce tolerance, and dependence, compared with classic benzodiazepines.[26]

Etizolam may represent a possible anxiolytic of choice with reduced liability to produce tolerance and dependence after long-term treatment of anxiety and stress syndromes.[27]

Pharmacology[edit]

Etizolam pills

Etizolam, a thienodiazepine derivative, is absorbed fairly rapidly, with peak plasma levels achieved between 30 minutes and 2 hours. It has a mean elimination half life of about 3.4 hours.[6][4][5] Etizolam possesses potent hypnotic properties,[28] and is comparable with other short-acting benzodiazepines.[6] Etizolam acts as a full agonist at the benzodiazepine/GABAa receptor to produce its range of therapeutic and adverse effects.[29]

According to the Italian prescribing information sheet,[citation needed] etizolam belongs to a new class of diazepines, thienotriazolodiazepines. This new class is easily oxidized, rapidly metabolized, and has a lower risk of accumulation, even after prolonged treatment. Etizolam has an anxiolytic action about 6-8 times greater than that of diazepam. Etizolam produces, especially at higher dosages, a reduction in time taken to fall asleep, an increase in total sleep time, and a reduction in the number of awakenings. During tests, there were no substantial changes in deep sleep; however, it may reduce REM sleep. In EEG tests of healthy volunteers, etizolam showed some similar characteristics to tricyclic antidepressants.[30][31]

Etizolam's main metabolites in humans are alpha-hydroxyetizolam and 8-hydroxyetizolam. alpha-Hydroxyetizolam is pharmacologically active and has a half-life of approximately 8.2 hours.[32]

Interactions[edit]

Itraconazole and fluvoxamine slow down the rate of elimination of etizolam, leading to accumulation of etizolam, therefore increasing its pharmacological effects.[33][34] Carbamazepine speeds up the metabolism of etizolam, resulting in reduced pharmacological effects.[35]

Overdose[edit]

Cases of intentional suicide by overdose using etizolam in combination with GABA agonists have been reported.[32][36] Although etizolam has a lower LD50 than certain benzodiazepines, the LD50 is still far beyond the prescribed or recommended dose. Flumazenil, a GABA antagonist agent used to reverse benzodiazepine overdoses, inhibits the effect of etizolam as well as classical benzodiazepines such as diazepam and chlordiazepoxide.[37]

Etizolam overdose deaths are rising - for instance, the National Records of Scotland report on drug-related deaths, 'street' Etizolam was a factor in ("implicated in, or potentially contributed to") 752, or 59%, of drug-related deaths in Scotland in 2019. It is important to highlight that more than one drug contributed to the vast majority of the deaths (by way of comparison, opiates and opioids were a factor in 1092, or 86%, of drug-related deaths).[38]

Society and culture[edit]

Brand names[edit]

Etilaam, Sedekopan, Etizest, Etizex, Pasaden or Depas

Legal status[edit]

International drug control conventions[edit]

On December 13, 2019, the World Health Organization recommended Etizolam be placed in Schedule 4 of the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[39] This recommendation was followed by the placement of Etizolam into Schedule IV in March 2020.[40]

Australia[edit]

Etizolam is not used medically in Australia.[41]

Denmark[edit]

Etizolam is controlled in Denmark under the Danish Misuse of Drugs Act.[42]

Germany[edit]

Etizolam was controlled in Germany in July 2013.[43][44]

Italy[edit]

Etizolam is licensed for the treatment of anxiety, insomnia and neurosis as a prescription-only medication.[45]

[46]

United Kingdom

In the UK, etizolam has been classified as a Class C drug by the May 2017 amendment to The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 along with several other designer benzodiazepine drugs.[47]

United States[edit]

Etizolam is not authorized by the FDA for medical use in the U.S. However, it currently remains unscheduled at the federal level and is legal for research purposes as of March 2020.[5] As of March 2016, etizolam is a controlled substance in the following states: Alabama,[48] Arkansas,[49] Florida,[50] Georgia (as Schedule IV, whereas all other states listed here prohibit it as a Schedule I substance), Louisiana, Mississippi,[51] Texas,[52] South Carolina,[1] and Virginia.[53] It is controlled in Indiana as of July 1, 2017.[3] It is controlled in Ohio as of February 2018.

Misuse[edit]

Etizolam is a drug of potential misuse. Cases of etizolam dependence have been documented in the medical literature.[54] However, conflicting reports from the World Health Organization, made public in 1991, dispute the misuse claims.[55] Since 1991, cases of etizolam misuse and addiction have substantially increased,[56] due to varying levels of accessibility and cultural popularity.[57] Pills being sold as Xanax or other benzodiazepines that are illicitly manufactured may often contain etizolam rather than their listed ingredient [58][59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Arizona HB2033 | 2017 | Fifty-third Legislature 1st Regular". LegiScan.
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External links[edit]