(Jack) R.M. Sm.
Etlingera elatior (also known as torch ginger, ginger flower, red ginger lily, torch lily, wild ginger, combrang, bunga kantan, Philippine wax flower, 火炬姜 (pinyin: Huǒjù jiāng), Indonesian tall ginger, boca de dragón, rose de porcelaine, and porcelain rose) is a species of herbaceous perennial plant. Botanical synonyms include Nicolaia elatior, Phaeomeria magnifica, Nicolaia speciosa, Phaeomeria speciosa, Alpinia elatior, and Alpinia magnifica.
The showy pink flowers are used in decorative arrangements, while the flower buds, bunga kecombrang, are an important ingredient in the Nonya dish laksa. In North Sumatra (especially in Karo tribe), the flower buds are used for a stewed fish is called Arsik ikan mas (Andaliman/Szechuan pepper-spiced carp). In Bali, people are used the white part of the bottom part trunk for cooking chilli sauce called "Sambal Bongkot", and used the flower buds to make chilli sauce called "Sambal Kecicang". In Thailand, it is eaten in a kind of Thai salad preparation.
In Karo, it is known as asam cekala (asam meaning 'sour'), and the flower buds, but more importantly the ripe seed pods, which are packed with small black seeds, are an essential ingredient of the Karo version of sayur asam, and are particularly suited to cooking fresh fish.
From the leaves of E. elatior, three caffeoylquinic acids, including chlorogenic acid (CGA), and three flavonoids, quercitrin, isoquercitrin and catechin, have been isolated. Content of CGA was significantly higher than flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source. A protocol for producing a standardized herbal extract of CGA from leaves of E. elatior (40%) has been developed, compared to commercial CGA extracts from honeysuckle flowers (25%).
Leaves of E. elatior have the highest antioxidant, antibacterial, and tyrosinase inhibition activities among five Etlingera species studied. Antioxidant properties (AOP) of leaves were significantly stronger than flowers and rhizomes. Leaves of highland populations had higher AOP values than lowland counterparts. Thermal drying of leaves led to drastic declines in AOP, while freeze-dried leaves showed significantly higher AOP values. Ethanolic extracts of inflorescences have antimicrobial activity and are cytotoxic to HeLa cells. Antioxidant activity of diarylheptanoids isolated from rhizomes is greater than α-tocopherol. E. elatior has an antioxidant effect against lead-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.
- Alpinia galanga
- Curcuma longa
- Etlingera fulgens
- Etlingera maingayi
- Kaempferia galanga,
- Riffle, Robert Lee (1998). The tropical look: an encyclopedia of dramatic landscape plants, Timber Press, ISBN 978-0-88192-422-0, p. 167
- ความคิดเห็นที่ 15 - สวัสดีครับป้าอัม ลุงไก่[dead link]
- Chan, E.W.C. (2009). “Bioactivities and chemical constituents of leaves of some Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia”. Ph.D. thesis, Monash University, 305 p., http://arrow.monash.edu.au/hdl/1959.1/149589
- Chan, E.W.C.; Lim, Y.Y.; Ling, S.K.; Tan, S.P.; Lim, K.K.; Khoo, M.G.H.; et al. (2009). "Caffeoylquinic acids from leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae)". LWT - Food Science and Technology. 42 (5): 1026–1030. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2009.01.003.
- Chan, E.W.C.; Lim, Y; Omar, M; et al. (2007). "Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia". Food Chemistry. 104 (4): 1586–1593. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.03.023.
- Mackeen, M.M.; Ali, A.M.; El-Sharkawy, S.H.; Manap, M.Y.; Salleh, K.M.; Lajis, N.H.; Kawazu, K.; et al. (1997). "Antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of some Malaysian traditional vegetables (ulam)". Pharmaceutical Biology. 35 (3): 174–178. doi:10.1076/phbi.184.108.40.20694.
- Habsah, M.; Lajis, NH; Abas, F; Ali, AM; Sukari, MA; Kikuzaki, H; Nakatani, N; et al. (2005). "Antioxidative constituents of Etlingera elatior". Journal of Natural Products. 68 (2): 285–288. doi:10.1021/np040098l. PMID 15730265.
- Haleagrahara N, Jackie T, Chakravarthi S, Rao M, Kulur A "Protective effect of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) extract on lead acetate--induced hepatotoxicity in rats." J Toxicol Sci. 2010;35(5):663-71 doi:10.1016/j.fct.2010.06.04
- Chan, E.W.C.; Lim, Y.Y.; Wong, L.F.; Lianto, F.S.; Wong, S.K.; Lim, K.K.; Joe, C.E.; Lim, T.Y.; et al. (2008). "Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition properties of leaves and rhizomes of ginger species". Food Chemistry. 109 (3): 477–483. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.016.
- Chan, E.W.C.; Lim, Y; Wong, S; Lim, K; Tan, S; Lianto, F; Yong, M; et al. (2009). "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". Food Chemistry. 113 (1): 166–172. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.090.
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