Etlingera elatior

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Etlingera elatior
Etlingera elatior2.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Monocots
Clade: Commelinids
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Etlingera
E. elatior
Binomial name
Etlingera elatior
(Jack) R.M.Sm.
  • Alpinia acrostachya Steud.
  • Alpinia elatior Jack
  • Alpinia magnifica Roscoe
  • Alpinia speciosa (Blume) D.Dietr.
  • Amomum tridentatum (Kuntze) K.Schum.
  • Bojeria magnifica (Roscoe) Raf.
  • Cardamomum magnificum (Roscoe) Kuntze
  • Cardamomum tridentatum Kuntze
  • Diracodes javanica Blume
  • Elettaria speciosa Blume
  • Etlingera elatior var. pileng Ongsakul & C.K.Lim
  • Hornstedtia imperialis (Lindl.) Ridl.
  • Nicolaia elatior (Jack) Horan.
  • Nicolaia imperialis Horan.
  • Nicolaia intermedia Valeton
  • Nicolaia magnifica (Roscoe) K.Schum. ex Valeton
  • Nicolaia speciosa (Blume) Horan.
  • Phaeomeria magnifica (Roscoe) K.Schum.
  • Phaeomeria speciosa (Blume) Koord.

Etlingera elatior (also known as torch ginger, ginger flower, red ginger lily, torch lily, wild ginger, combrang, bunga kantan, Philippine wax flower, ගොඩ ඕලු (goda olu), ගොඩ නෙලුම් (goda nelum), සිද්ධාර්ථ (siddartha), 火炬姜 (pinyin: Huǒjù jiāng), Indonesian tall ginger, boca de dragón, rose de porcelaine, and porcelain rose) is a species of herbaceous perennial plant. Botanical synonyms include Nicolaia elatior,[1] Phaeomeria magnifica,[1] Nicolaia speciosa, Phaeomeria speciosa, Alpinia elatior, and Alpinia magnifica.

The showy pink flowers are used in decorative arrangements, bunga kecombrang, and are an important ingredient across Southeast Asia. In North Sumatra (especially among the Karo people), the flower buds are used for a stewed fish dish called Arsik ikan mas (Andaliman/Szechuan pepper-spiced carp).[citation needed] In Bali, people use the white part of the bottom part of the trunk for cooking chilli sauce called "Sambal Bongkot", and use the flower buds to make chilli sauce called "Sambal Kecicang". In Thailand, it is eaten in a kind of Thai salad preparation.[2][unreliable source?] In Malaysia, the flower is an essential ingredient in cooking the fish broth for a kind of spicy sour noodle soup called "Asam Laksa" (AKA "Penang Laksa"),[3] in the preparation of a kind of salad called Kerabu and many other Malay dishes.[4] The fruit is also used in Indonesian cooking.[5]

In Karo, it is known as asam cekala (asam meaning 'sour'), and the flower buds, but more importantly the ripe seed pods, which are packed with small black seeds, are an essential ingredient of the Karo version of sayur asam, and are particularly suited to cooking fresh fish. In Sundanese, it is known as Honje.[citation needed]


From the leaves of E. elatior, three caffeoylquinic acids, including chlorogenic acid (CGA), and three flavonoids, quercitrin, isoquercitrin and catechin, have been isolated.[6] Content of CGA was significantly higher than flowers of Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle), the commercial source.[7] A protocol for producing a standardized herbal extract of CGA from leaves of E. elatior (40%) has been developed, compared to commercial CGA extracts from honeysuckle flowers (25%).[6]


Similar species[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Riffle, Robert Lee (1998). The tropical look: an encyclopedia of dramatic landscape plants, Timber Press, ISBN 978-0-88192-422-0, p. 167
  2. ^ ความคิดเห็นที่ 15 - สวัสดีครับป้าอัม ลุงไก่
  3. ^ "Family Recipe for Asam Laksa". Retrieved 2021-05-30.
  4. ^ Tan, Florence (2018). Florence Tan's Timeless Peranakan Recipes. Marshall Cavendish International (Asia) Pte Ltd. ISBN 978-981-4794-03-9. OCLC 1132374857.
  5. ^ "Etlingera elatior (torch ginger)". Retrieved 19 January 2021.
  6. ^ a b Chan, E.W.C. (2009). “Bioactivities and chemical constituents of leaves of some Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae) in Peninsular Malaysia”. Ph.D. thesis, Monash University, 305 p., Archived 2012-12-03 at
  7. ^ Chan, E.W.C.; Lim, Y.Y.; Ling, S.K.; Tan, S.P.; Lim, K.K.; Khoo, M.G.H.; et al. (2009). "Caffeoylquinic acids from leaves of Etlingera species (Zingiberaceae)". LWT - Food Science and Technology. 42 (5): 1026–1030. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2009.01.003.
  8. ^ a b c d Chan, E.W.C.; Lim, Y.Y.; Wong, L.F.; Lianto, F.S.; Wong, S.K.; Lim, K.K.; Joe, C.E.; Lim, T.Y.; et al. (2008). "Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibition properties of leaves and rhizomes of ginger species". Food Chemistry. 109 (3): 477–483. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.02.016.
  9. ^ a b Chan, E.W.C.; Lim, Y; Wong, S; Lim, K; Tan, S; Lianto, F; Yong, M; et al. (2009). "Effects of different drying methods on the antioxidant properties of leaves and tea of ginger species". Food Chemistry. 113 (1): 166–172. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.07.090.