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Coordinates: 43°36′58″N 79°30′45″W / 43.61611°N 79.51250°W / 43.61611; -79.51250
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From top, left to right: Humber Bay Park East, Downtown Toronto from Humber Park, Gardiner Expy from Royal York Road, Humber Bay Arch Bridge
Flag of Etobicoke
Official seal of Etobicoke
"The Leading Edge of Metro"
Location of Etobicoke (red) compared to the rest of Toronto.
Location of Etobicoke (red) compared to the rest of Toronto.
Coordinates: 43°36′58″N 79°30′45″W / 43.61611°N 79.51250°W / 43.61611; -79.51250
IncorporatedJanuary 1, 1850 (township)
January 1, 1967 (borough)
June 1983 (city)
Changed Region1954 Metropolitan Toronto from York County
AmalgamatedJanuary 1, 1998 into Toronto
 • Councillors
 • MPs
 • MPPs
Provincial reps
 • Total123.93 km2 (47.85 sq mi)
 • Total365,143
 • Density2,946.4/km2 (7,631/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Postal code span
M8V-M9C, M9P-M9R, M9V-M9W
Area code(s)416, 647, 437

Etobicoke (/ɛˈtbɪk/ , eh-TOH-bik-oh) is an administrative district and former city within Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Comprising the city's west-end, Etobicoke is bordered on the south by Lake Ontario, on the east by the Humber River, on the west by Etobicoke Creek, the cities of Brampton, and Mississauga, the Toronto Pearson International Airport (a small portion of the airport extends into Etobicoke), and on the north by the city of Vaughan at Steeles Avenue West.

The area of Etobicoke was first settled by Europeans in the 1790s. Primarily an agricultural district, it was incorporated in 1850 as Etobicoke Township. The municipality grew into city status in the 20th century after World War II. Several independent villages and towns developed and became part of Etobicoke, first when Metropolitan Toronto was formed in 1954, and later, in a 1967 consolidation. In 1998, its city status and government dissolved after it was amalgamated into present-day Toronto.

Etobicoke has a highly diversified population, which totalled 365,143 in 2016. It is primarily suburban in development and heavily industrialized, resulting in a lower population density than the other districts of Toronto. Much of its cityscape is characterized by larger main streets, shopping malls, and cul-de-sac housing developments. Etobicoke has several expressways, including Highways 427, 401, 409, the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW) and Gardiner Expressway. Etobicoke is the western terminus of Line 2 Bloor-Danforth of the Toronto subway and served by four suburban rail stations of GO Transit. Humber College is in Etobicoke, encompassing two campuses, one of which is also home to the University of Guelph-Humber.


The name "Etobicoke" derives from the Mississauga word wah-do-be-kang (wadoopikaang),[2] meaning "place where the alders grow". This was how they described the area between Etobicoke Creek and the Humber River. The first provincial land surveyor, Augustus Jones, also spelled it as "ato-be-coake." Etobicoke was finally adopted as the official name in 1795 at the direction of Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe.[3]


At different times throughout history, different groups of First Nations peoples used the land that is now present day Etobicoke. As the Algonquins gradually moved west from the Atlantic to Lake Erie, it is almost certain they would have occupied this land.[citation needed] By the time they were mostly settled on the shores of Georgian Bay, the Huron-Wendat were the primary residents of Lake Ontario's north shore. During the 17th century, the powerful Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) confederacy, made up of nations based to the south of the lake, pushed them out.[4][5]

After continued harassment from the Iroquois to the south, a coalition of the Ojibway, Odawa, and Potawatomi Algonquin nations, known as the Three Fires, gradually pushed the Haudenosaunee off this land. The Algonquian-speaking Mississaugas settled here by 1695, fishing and growing crops more locally in the summer and hunting farther afield in the winter.[6]

A map depicting the Toronto Purchase in 1787. The inclusion of Etobicoke in the purchase was contested until 2010, when the dispute was settled between the Government of Canada and the Mississaugas.

The British officials intended Etobicoke to be included in the Toronto Purchase of 1787.[3]

However, the Mississauga and government disagreed as to whether the western boundary of the purchase was the Humber River or the Etobicoke River (now, Etobicoke Creek). The Mississauga Indians allowed British surveyor Alexander Aitkin to survey the disputed land, and the British paid an additional 10 shillings for the purchase, although the purchase was never formally agreed to. The dispute was settled between the government and the Mississauga First Nation in 2010.[7]

Immigrants from the British Isles were among the new settlers, as well as Loyalists who had left the rebellious Thirteen Colonies, by then the United States. Early settlers included many of the Queen's Rangers, who Simcoe gave land to help protect the new capital of Upper Canada and develop this frontier area. In 1793-95, the Honourable Samuel Smith, a colonel in the Queen's Rangers, received land grants of 1,530 acres (6.2 km2), extending from today's Kipling Avenue to Etobicoke Creek, and north to Bloor Street.[8]

On March 18, 1797, Sergeant Patrick Mealey received the first land patent for a plot on the west side of Royal York Road on Lake Ontario.[9] This was part of the First Military Tract, or "Militia Lands", which extended from today's Royal York Road to Kipling Avenue, south from Bloor Street. The Crown was providing land to Loyalists in compensation for property they left behind in the U.S. and to veterans of the American Revolution in payment for service. In other parts of Ontario, the Crown granted land to the Iroquoian First Nations who had served as allies during the war and were forced to cede most of their land in New York to the state. The Crown granted more land to members of the Queen's Rangers in the First Military tract, but most did not occupy their land. Many sold their acreage after a short time.[citation needed]

The census of 1805 counted 84 people in the township of Etobicoke. In 1806, William Cooper built a grist mill and saw mill on the Humber river's west bank, just south of Dundas Street. The 1809 census counted 137 residents.[3] The Dundas Street bridge opened in 1816, making the township more accessible.[citation needed]

John Grubb's House, built in 1832. Grubb helped found the community of Thistletown in present-day Etobicoke.

On May 18, 1846, the Albion Road Company was incorporated. Its purpose was to build and maintain a road to the north-west corner of Etobicoke, where a new community was planned. At the same time, John Grubb, who had already founded Thistletown, hired land surveyor John Stoughton Dennis to plan a community at the intersection of Islington Avenue and Albion Road, to be named Saint Andrew's. Plan 6 for this community was registered on October 15, 1847. The French master of Upper Canada College, Jean du Petit Pont de la Haye, contracted land surveyor James McCallum Jr. to create a plan for the community planned by the Albion Road Company, and Plan 28 was registered for Claireville on October 12, 1849.[9]

The township of Etobicoke was incorporated on January 1, 1850.[10] The first meeting of the town council was held on January 21. Present at the meeting were reeve William Gamble, vice-reeve W. B. Wadsworth and aldermen Moses Appleby, Thomas Fisher, and John Geddes.[11] The council convened monthly meetings at a variety of places. In 1850, the township's population was 2904.[citation needed] By 1881, the population of Etobicoke township was 2976.[11]

In 1911, the community of Mimico was incorporated on land taken from Etobicoke township.[12] New Toronto was incorporated on January 1, 1913.[3] Early on, there was talk of merging Mimico and New Toronto. A 1916 referendum on amalgamating the two communities was approved by the residents of Mimico, but rejected by residents of New Toronto.[8] In 1917, Mimico became a town and in 1920, New Toronto became the Town of New Toronto. Long Branch was incorporated in 1930 as a village.[13]

In 1954, Etobicoke Township became a part of the newly formed regional government, the Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto ("Metro"). In 1967, the township of Etobicoke was merged with three small lakeside municipalities — the Village of Long Branch, the Town of New Toronto, and the Town of Mimico — to form the Borough of Etobicoke. The borough was reincorporated as a city in 1984.[10] In 1998, six local municipalities (including Etobicoke) and the Metropolitan Toronto government merged to form the amalgamated city of Toronto.[14]


Humber Bay Park is one of several municipal urban parks in Etobicoke.

Etobicoke has the lowest population density of the former cities and boroughs comprising the city of Toronto. This is mainly due to its expanses of industrial lands along the various expressways.

The residential areas are primarily single-family dwellings, although several large multi-story high-rise condominium developments have been built in south Etobicoke near the Humber River over the past few years. The central and northern areas of Etobicoke have many high-density apartment complexes set in the middle of sizable, open fields and parks. The central/southern areas, such as Markland Wood, The Kingsway, New Toronto, Mimico and Long Branch, have large green spaces, many parks, and main street shopping areas.

Etobicoke has many public parks. Located on the banks of the Humber River, James Gardens, a popular site for wedding photography, features seasonal flowers, walkways, a rock garden, streams, and waterfalls. Etobicoke also has Centennial Park, a large recreational park, and Colonel Samuel Smith Park and Humber Bay Park on the lakeshore. Etobicoke has several golf courses. St. George's Golf and Country Club was ranked in 2007 as one of the three best golf courses in Canada.[15]


New condos in Islington-City Centre West (2021)

Etobicoke is generally divided into three large areas roughly corresponding to its political ridings. Each has neighbourhoods, mostly developments of 19th-century 'postal villages' (rural neighbourhoods), that were built at key points along the early roads and railways; especially the three former 'Lakeshore Municipalities' that separated from Etobicoke in the early 20th century and Etobicoke's central Islington community:

A Neo-Georgian designed home in Mimico. The Lakeshore's neighbourhoods were first to urbanize in Etobicoke.

The Lakeshore (Etobicoke—Lakeshore), along the north shore of Lake Ontario and the "Lake Shore Road" (now Lake Shore Boulevard West), comprises three former municipalities that were the first to urbanize and became separate municipalities during the first half of the 20th century: Mimico, New Toronto and Long Branch, and related communities that were never separate from the Township of Etobicoke; namely, Alderwood (originally a suburb of New Toronto), and Humber Bay (a historic gateway community connecting to Toronto) which was originally sprawl from the east side of the Humber River that was subsequently split by the construction of Ontario's first motor vehicle 'freeway' in 1938, which cuts across the top of southern Etobicoke; (the Queen Elizabeth Way).

Today, the original remnant residential (northern) section of Humber Bay is north of The Queensway, east of Mimico Creek to the Humber River. The commercial, southern section of Humber Bay retains only Christie's Biscuits bakery, as high-rise condominium towers and clustered row housing have forced out virtually all other commercial/industrial employment uses. In the late 1990s, the former McGuiness Whisky factory was converted into a high-rise loft condominium which became the centrepiece of the Mystic Pointe development. Etobicoke's first railway opened through the area in 1855, just north of the Lake Ontario shoreline, leading to the first period of growth as it replaced Dundas Street in Central Etobicoke as the main means of transportation and the industrial centre along its right-of-way.

A residence in Humber Valley Village neighbourhood. Development in the Humber Valley Village began in the early 20th century.

Central Etobicoke (Etobicoke Centre); the oldest communities in Etobicoke developed along the first street, Dundas Street, in the south of this area, which crosses the width of Etobicoke on the escarpment formed by the ancient shoreline of Lake Iroquois. This area centres around the Islington community, the former administrative centre of Etobicoke and later Etobicoke's 'downtown' which is near the central 'Six Points' intersection at its western boundary. The rural Richview community developed directly to the north of Islington in the 19th century on Eglinton Ave. (formerly Richview Rd.), as did the gateway Humber Heights communities (connecting to Toronto): Westmount and Humbervale, to the east on Eglinton. Development of the until-then largely undeveloped eastern part of central Etobicoke (originally a forest reserved for the use of government mills as "The King's Mill Reserve"; "Kingsmill"), the "Humber Valley", was largely the work of Robert Home Smith starting about 1900 and including the communities of The Kingsway and Humber Valley Village. The Kingsway neighbourhood has attracted many affluent individuals and families (as of 2001, over 50% of households have an income in excess of CA$100,000/year).[16]

As Etobicoke developed in the post-war years, low-density residential areas filled in most of the rural areas between the old communities including Thorncrest Village, Princess-Rosethorn and Eringate – Centennial – West Deane as well as the older Eatonville community to the west of Islington. Central Etobicoke includes Etobicoke's most exclusive neighbourhoods, with fine housing stock and many large treed properties. Along the East and West Mall parallel to Highway 427 exists a mix of hi-rise rentals, townhouses and post-war bungalows. Markland Wood is the farthest western community within Etobicoke/Toronto; situated along Bloor Street West, it is predominately single family housing with some mixed hi-rise rentals.

Apartment buildings in Smithfield. Most neighbourhoods in North Etobicoke were built in the years following World War II.

North Etobicoke; The 19th-century Etobicoke communities are Clairville, Highfield, Rexdale, Smithfield, Thistletown which grew along two formerly private roads (now Albion Rd. and Rexdale Blvd.) constructed diagonally across farms in Northern Etobicoke as a shortcut for travellers to Peel County (especially modern Brampton). First developed as an urban area by Rex Heslop in the post-World War II years around the new Rexdale (the Elms) community, northern Etobicoke has many apartment buildings as well as a large 'skyway' industrial park to the west, developed after Malton Airport (in nearby Mississauga) became Toronto's main "Pearson International" Airport.


Most of Etobicoke's visible minorities and immigrants reside in North Etobicoke, with 62% of its population being foreign-born. Many people from India, Jamaica, Iraq, Guyana, Somalia, Ghana, Philippines, Nigeria, Pakistan and Bangladesh have settled in North Etobicoke. Etobicoke's central and south end has a large European population from countries such as Italy, Poland, and Ukraine, and some of the wealthiest neighbourhoods in Toronto such as The Kingsway.[17]

Ethnic groups in Etobicoke (2016)
Source: 2016 Canadian Census[18]
Ethnic origins Population %
European 201,505 55.9%
South Asian 47,780 13.3%
Black 40,520 11.2%
East Asian 15,985 4.4%
Southeast Asian 15,595 4.3%
Latin American 12,385 3.4%
Middle Eastern 10,775 3%
Aboriginal 4,130 1.1%
Other 12,270 3.4%
Total population 365,143 100%

As of 2016, English was the most spoken language in Etobicoke, followed by (in order) Italian, Punjabi, Spanish, Polish, Ukrainian, Gujarati, and Portuguese.[19][20][21]


Bloor Islington Place is a commercial centre in Islington–City Centre West.

Islington–City Centre West is one of several central business districts outside of downtown Toronto. Pizza Pizza and Sunwing Airlines have their headquarters in Etobicoke.[22][23] Skyservice[24] and Canada 3000[25][26] had their headquarters in Etobicoke before the closure of these airlines.

The construction industry in Etobicoke has been booming, with many new condominium towers developed along the waterfront near Humber Bay and along Bloor street. This has helped increase Etobicoke's population after a brief decline.[27] The area's film and television industry is also promising.[28]

Etobicoke is home to a rib fest held every year on Canada Day long weekend at Centennial Park. The weekend is filled with entertainment, food, midway, and music.


Humber College's is a public college in Etobicoke.

Four public school boards offer primary education and secondary education for residents living in Etobicoke, Conseil scolaire catholique MonAvenir (CSCM), Conseil scolaire Viamonde (CSV), the Toronto Catholic District School Board (TCDSB), and the Toronto District School Board (TDSB). CSV and TDSB operate as secular public school boards, the former operating French first language institution, whereas the latter operated English first language institutions. The other two school boards, CSCM and TCDSB, operate as public separate school boards, the former operating French first language separate schools, the latter operating English first language separate schools. Before 1998, the boards were responsible for the education in Etobicoke were the Etobicoke Board of Education for anglophone public secular schools and the Metropolitan Separate School Board for anglophone and francophone Roman Catholic separate schools.

In addition to primary and secondary schools, two post-secondary institutions are within Etobicoke. Humber College is a public college that operates two campuses in Etobicoke, the Humber North campus, and the Lakeshore campus, on the corner of Efstathia Avenue and Kourabiedes Lane. The University of Guelph-Humber is another post-secondary institution in Etobicoke that is jointly operated by Humber College, and the University of Guelph, based in Guelph, Ontario. Guelph-Humber is not an independent degree-granting institution, with its degrees and diplomas issued from Humber College, or the University of Guelph.


In 1924, Mimico High School was opened in the village of Mimico. This was followed by Etobicoke Collegiate Institute in 1928 in central Etobicoke. Today, the Mimico school building is used by John English Junior Middle School.

Other secondary schools were built:

In the village of New Toronto, New Toronto Secondary School was constructed in 1949 and opened in 1950 as a vocational trade school. Beginning in 1963, Kingsmill Vocational School, a junior vocational school, opened at a King's Mill site and two other schools erected: Humbergrove Vocational School to the north in 1965 and Westway Vocational School in 1969.

At its peak, Etobicoke operated 14 collegiates and 4 vocational schools in 1980. Downsizing occurred in the 1980s when nine high schools were closed due to declining enrollment; Alderwood and New Toronto merged to form Lakeshore Collegiate Institute in 1983 while Humbergrove, Kingsmill and Westway were consolidated to form Central Etobicoke High School in 1988.

Etobicoke's first Roman Catholic high school, Michael Power/St. Joseph High School was first opened in 1949 as St. Joseph's High School in the village of Islington with 150 girls by the Sisters of St. Joseph. Next door, the Basilian Fathers established an all-boys school Michael Power High School in 1957. In September 1982, the two schools were merged. Today, Michael Power/St. Joseph serves many students in the southern and central Etobicoke areas predominantly populated by Polish and Ukrainian Byzantine Catholics, who attend southern Etobicoke's two other high schools: Father John Redmond Catholic Secondary School (1986) and Bishop Allen Academy (1989).

The first art school in Etobicoke is the Etobicoke School of the Arts established in 1981. Father John Redmond was designated as the Regional Arts Centre in 2006.


The Ford Performance Centre is an ice hockey facility in Etobicoke, that is used as the home arena for the Toronto Furies, and as the practice facilities for the Toronto Maple Leafs.

Etobicoke has a wide range of indoor and outdoor sporting leagues including baseball, soccer, gridiron football, ice hockey, and ringette. Some of the prominent clubs include the Etobicoke Kangaroos Australian rules football club, the Serbian White Eagles FC club, Toronto Croatia, and FC Ukraine United, which operate in the Canadian Soccer League, and the Toronto Furies of the Canadian Women's Hockey League.

Southern Etobicoke is home to the Ford Performance Centre, the home arena for the Toronto Furies, and the practice rink of the Toronto Maple Leafs. The Toronto Patriots of the Ontario Junior Hockey League are based in Etobicoke. Etobicoke is the hometown of Major League Baseball star Joey Votto as well as National Hockey League stars P. K. Subban, Connor Brown, brothers Brendan and Reilly Smith, and National Hockey League Hall of Famer Brendan Shanahan. Etobicoke's Centennial Park is a large green space in west Toronto which is a venue for soccer, basketball, skiing, ice hockey, rugby, hiking, track and field. Rexdale (North Etobicoke) is home to the top ranked high school basketball program in Canada, Henry Carr Crusaders. Producing notable US Division 1 and NBA players such as Tyler Ennis and Sim Bhullar. Henry Carr Crusaders were the 2016 AAA Provincial high school basketball champions.


Several major expressways, such as Ontario Highways 427, 401, 409, and 27, the Queen Elizabeth Way, as well as the city-maintained Gardiner Expressway, are routed through the area. There are numerous four- and six-lane thoroughfares in Etobicoke, laid out in a grid system. Many exceptions to Toronto's gridded street matrix are found in Etobicoke. A number of overpasses and awkward intersections have been created in an effort to reconcile the grid with these planning anomalies.

A Toronto Transit Commission streetcar at Long Branch Loop

Public transportation is primarily provided by the Toronto Transit Commission's (TTC) bus, streetcar, and subway system. Line 2 Bloor-Danforth of the TTC subway system has its western terminus at Kipling, along with three other stations. Both Kipling and Islington stations are major transit hubs, with the former serving as a terminal for MiWay bus services to Mississauga. Former transit expansion plans in Etobicoke, including the Eglinton West subway and the extension of Line 2 from Kipling to Square One Bus Terminal in Mississauga, were cancelled by previous provincial governments. Future transit expansion plans include two light rail transit projects, namely the Eglinton line extension from the future Mount Dennis station to Toronto Pearson International Airport and a new Finch West line between University of Guelph-Humber (Humber College North Campus) and Finch West station.

Etobicoke is also home to four GO stations: Etobicoke North station on the Kitchener line, Kipling station on the Milton line, as well as Long Branch and Mimico stations on the Lakeshore West line.

See also[edit]



  1. ^ "Etobian sets record straight". The Toronto Star. February 22, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
  2. ^ Nichols, John D; Nyholm, Earl (1995). A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-2427-0. OCLC 31242698.
  3. ^ a b c d Willoughby, Paul. "A Brief History of Etobicoke". Archived from the original on March 24, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2012.
  4. ^ Nash, Alice; Strobel, Christoph (2006). Daily Life of Native Americans from Post-Columbian Through Nineteenth-Century America. Greenwood Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 9780313335150.
  5. ^ Lamoureux-St-Hilaire, Maxime; Macrae, Scott, eds. (2020). Detachment from Place: Beyond an Archaeology of Settlement Abandonment. University Press of Colorado. p. 61. ISBN 9781646420087.
  6. ^ Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation and Praxis Research Associates. Date unknown. The History of the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation. Hagersville, ON: Author.
  7. ^ "Fact Sheet - The Brant tract and the Toronto Purchase specific claims". Government of Canada. September 15, 2010. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 29, 2013.
  8. ^ a b "Early History". New Toronto Historical Society. Archived from the original on January 20, 2009.
  9. ^ a b Bob Given. "Beginnings!". Etobicoke Historical Society. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008.
  10. ^ a b "Etobicoke Records". City of Toronto. August 24, 2017.
  11. ^ a b Robert A Given. "Our Municipal Government". Etobicoke Historical Society. Archived from the original on October 10, 2007.
  12. ^ "Toronto Chronology". Archived from the original on September 29, 2007.
  13. ^ Secondary Schools: G to M « For King and Country. Torontofamilyhistory.org. Retrieved on July 26, 2013.
  14. ^ Roda McInnis. "The Toronto Amalgamation: Looking Back, Moving Ahead". Retrieved April 12, 2012.
  15. ^ "St. George's Golf and Country Club". January 28, 2007. Archived from the original on January 28, 2007.
  16. ^ Kingsway South (15): Social Profile #3 – Neighbourhoods Households & Income. 2001. City of Toronto. [1]
  17. ^ "Census Profile, Etobicoke North, 2016 Census". February 8, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  18. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census Etobicoke North [Federal electoral district], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". February 8, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2020.,
    "Census Profile, 2016 Census Etobicoke Centre [Federal electoral district], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". February 8, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2020.,
    "CCensus Profile, 2016 Census Etobicoke--Lakeshore [Federal electoral district], Ontario and Ontario [Province]". February 8, 2017. Retrieved March 25, 2020.
  19. ^ "2016 Census Profile. Etobicoke Lakeshore. Statistics Canada". Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  20. ^ "Census Profile, Etobicoke Centre, 2016 Census". February 8, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  21. ^ "Census Profile, Etobicoke Lakeshore, 2016 Census". February 8, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2018.
  22. ^ "“FIAT” ONLINE CONTEST RULES & REGULATIONS[permanent dead link]." Pizza Pizza. Retrieved on December 5, 2012. "Pizza Pizza, 500 Kipling Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M8Z 5E5"
  23. ^ "Privacy Policy Archived December 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." Sunwing Airlines. Retrieved on September 3, 2012. "27 Fasken Drive Toronto, On M9W 1K6 Canada"
  24. ^ "skyservice.corporatebrochure.pdf." Skyservice. September 20, 2008. Retrieved on September 4, 2012. "SKYSERVICE AIRLINES 31 Fasken Drive, Etobicoke Ontario, Canada M9W 1K6"
  25. ^ World Business Directory: 1997. Company Listings : Afghanistan - Germany, Volume 1. Gale Research, 1996. 474. Retrieved from Google Books on February 13, 2011. "3000 Airlines Ltd. 27 Fasken Dr. Etobicoke, ON, Canada M9W 1K6" ISBN 0-8103-6189-2, ISBN 978-0-8103-6189-8.
  26. ^ "Canada 3000 Airlines Worldwide Offices". Canada 3000. January 18, 2001. Archived from the original on January 18, 2001. Retrieved May 20, 2009. "CANADA 3000 Airlines Limited Head Office 27 Fasken Drive Toronto, Ontario M9W 1K6"
  27. ^ Dotan, Hamutal. (November 28, 2012) Mr. Christie, the Ontario Food Terminal, and Development in Etobicoke | cityscape. Torontoist. Retrieved on 2013-07-26.
  28. ^ Cinespace Studios in Etobicoke (Kipling s of Norseman). Urbantoronto.ca. Retrieved on July 26, 2013.

Further reading[edit]

  • Inside Toronto – The Weekender; March 27, 2005

External links[edit]