Etoxeridine was developed in the 1950s and investigated for use in surgical anesthesia, however it was never commercialised and is not currently used in medicine. As with other opioids which were not in clinical use during the drafting of the Controlled Substances Act, it is categorized as a Schedule I narcotic.
^Merlevede E, Levis S. Pharmacological study of carbetidine, a new synthetic analgesic. (French). Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie. 1958 May 1;115(1-2):213-32.
^Sironi PG. Brief note on a new synthetic analgesic: carbetidine hydrochloride. (Italian). Minerva Anestesiologica. 1959 Jun;25(6):251-4.
^Crawford JS, Foldes FF. Studies on the respiratory and circulatory effects of carbetidine HCI used for supplementation of thiopentone sodium-nitrous oxide-oxygen anaesthesia. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 1959 Aug;31:348-51.