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Amoeba proteus 2.jpg
Amoeba proteus
Scientific classification

Smirnov et al. 2005
Orders and Families

Sarcodina (subclass)
Uncertain placement

The Tubulinea are a major grouping of Amoebozoa, including most of the more familiar amoebae genera like Amoeba, Arcella, Difflugia and Hartmannella


During locomotion most Tubulinea have a roughly cylindrical form or produce numerous cylindrical pseudopods. Each cylinder advances by a single central stream of cytoplasm, granular in appearance, and has no subpseudopodia. This distinguishes them from other amoeboid groups, although in some members this is not the normal type of locomotion.


This class was anticipated by some biologists like Jahn, who grouped all amoebae with granular pseudopodia together,[1] but most split the lobose amoebae into testate Testacealobosia and naked Gymnamoebia. These latter are polyphyletic, but molecular trees by Bolivar et al.[2] identified a core monophyletic subgroup. Subsequent studies showed the testate lobose amoebae belong to the same group, which was thus renamed Lobosea sensu stricto[3] or Tubulinea.[4]


  1. ^ Jahn, Bovee, Jahn (1979). How to know the protozoa. Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers. ISBN 0-697-04759-8.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Bolivar, I., Fahrni, J.F., Smirnov, A. & Pawlowski, J. (2001). "SSU rRNA-based Phylogenetic Position of the Genera Amoeba and Chaos (Lobosea, Gymnamoebia): The Origin of Gymnamoebae Revisited". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 18 (12): 2306–2314. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a003777. PMID 11719580.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E-Y, Oates, B. (2004). "Molecular phylogeny of the Amoebozoa and evolutionary significance of the unikont Phalansterium". European Journal of Protistology. 40: 21–48. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2003.10.001.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  4. ^ Smirnov, A.V., Nassonova, E.S., Berney, C., Fahrni, J., Bolivar, I. & Pawlowski, J. (2005). "Molecular phylogeny and classification of the lobose amoebae". Protist. 156 (2): 129–142. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2005.06.002. PMID 16171181.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)