Euarchontoglires

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Euarchontoglires
Temporal range: Paleocene - Holocene, 65–0 Ma
Ring tail lemur leaping.JPG
Ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Magnorder: Boreoeutheria
Superorder: Euarchontoglires
Murphy et al., 2001
Orders

Euarchontoglires (synonymous with Supraprimates) is a clade and a superorder of mammals, the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents, lagomorphs, treeshrews, colugos and primates.

Evolutionary relationships[edit]

The Euarchontoglires clade is based on DNA sequence analyses and retrotransposon markers that combine the clades Glires (Rodentia + Lagomorpha) and Euarchonta (Scandentia + Primates + Dermoptera).[citation needed]

So far, few if any distinctive anatomical features have been recognized that support Euarchontoglires, nor does any strong evidence from anatomy support alternative hypotheses.[citation needed] Although both Euarchontoglires and diprotodont marsupials are documented to possess a vermiform appendix, this feature evolved as a result of convergent evolution.[1]

Euarchontoglires is now recognized as one of the four major subclades within the clade Eutheria (i.e., placentalia (placental mammals)[2]), and it is usually discussed without a taxonomic rank but has been called a cohort, magnorder, or superorder. Relations among the four cohorts (Euarchontoglires, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria) and the identity of the placental root, remain controversial.[3]

Euarchontoglires probably split from the Laurasiatheria sister group about 85 to 95 million years ago, during the Cretaceous, and developed in the Laurasian island group that would later become Europe. This hypothesis is supported by molecular evidence; so far, the earliest known fossils date to the early Paleocene.[4] The combined clade of Euarchontoglires and Laurasiatheria is recognized as Boreoeutheria.[citation needed]

Organization[edit]

The hypothesized relationship among the Euarchontoglires is as follows:[5]

Boreoeutheria
Euarchontoglires
Gliriformes

Anagaloidea?

Arctostylopida[6]

Glires

Rodentia (rodents)Ruskea rotta.png

Lagomorpha (rabbits, hares, pikas)Bruno Liljefors - Hare studies 1885 white background.jpg

Euarchonta

Scandentia (treeshrews or banxrings)Die Säugthiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur, mit Beschreibungen (Plate 34) (white background).jpg

Primatomorpha

Dermoptera (colugos)Cynocephalus volans Brehm1883 (white background).jpg

PrimatesCynocephalus doguera - 1700-1880 - Print - Iconographia Zoologica - Special Collections University of Amsterdam - (white background).tiff

Plesiadapiformes

Laurasiatheria

One study based on DNA analysis suggests that Scandentia and Primates are sister clades, but did not discuss the position of Dermoptera.[7] Although it is known that Scandentia is one of the most basal Euarchontoglire clades, the exact phylogenetic position is not yet considered resolved, and it may be a sister of Glires, Primatomorpha or Dermoptera or to all other Euarchontoglires.[8][9][10] Some recent studies place Scandentia as sister of the Glires, invalidating Euarchonta.[11][12]

Whole-genome duplication took place in the ancestral Euarchontoglires.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Smith, H. F.; Fisher, R. E.; Everett, M. L.; Thomas, A. D.; Randal-Bollinger, R.; Parker, W. (October 2009). "Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix". Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 22 (10): 1984–1999. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01809.x. PMID 19678866. 
  2. ^ Murphy, William J.; Eizirik, Eduardo; O'Brien, Stephen J.; Madsen, Ole; Scally, Mark; Douady, Christophe J.; Teeling, Emma; Ryder, Oliver A.; Stanhope, Michael J.; de Jong, Wilfried W.; Springer, Mark S. (2001). "Resolution of the early placental mammal radiation using Bayesian phylogenetics". Science. 294 (5550): 2348–2351. doi:10.1126/science.1067179. PMID 11743200. 
  3. ^ Asher, RJ; Bennett, N; Lehmann, T (2009). "The new framework for understanding placental mammal evolution". BioEssays. 31 (8): 853–864. doi:10.1002/bies.200900053. PMID 19582725. 
  4. ^ O'Leary, M. A.; Bloch, J. I.; Flynn, J. J.; Gaudin, T. J.; Giallombardo, A.; Giannini, N. P.; Cirranello, A. L. (2013). "The placental mammal ancestor and the post–K-Pg radiation of placentals". Science. 339 (6120): 662–667. doi:10.1126/science.1229237. PMID 23393258. 
  5. ^ Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Oliveros, Carl H.; Swanson, Mark T.; Faircloth, Brant C. (2017-08-26). "Investigating Difficult Nodes in the Placental Mammal Tree with Expanded Taxon Sampling and Thousands of Ultraconserved Elements". Genome Biology and Evolution. 9 (9): 2308–2321. doi:10.1093/gbe/evx168. PMC 5604124Freely accessible. PMID 28934378. 
  6. ^ Missiaen P, Smith T, Guo DY, Bloch JI, Gingerich PD (2006). "Asian gliriform origin for arctostylopid mammals". Naturwissenschaften. 93 (8): 407–411. doi:10.1007/s00114-006-0122-1. PMID 16865388. 
  7. ^ Song S, Liu L, Edwards SV, Wu S (2012). "Resolving conflict in eutherian mammal phylogeny using phylogenomics and the multispecies coalescent model". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science of the United States. 
  8. ^ Foley, Nicole M.; Springer, Mark S.; Teeling, Emma C. (2016-07-19). "Mammal madness: Is the mammal tree of life not yet resolved?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. London, UK. 371 (1699): 20150140. doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0140. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 4920340Freely accessible. PMID 27325836. 
  9. ^ Kumar, Vikas; Hallström, Björn M.; Janke, Axel (2013-04-01). "Coalescent-Based Genome Analyses Resolve the Early Branches of the Euarchontoglires". PLOS ONE. 8 (4): e60019. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060019. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3613385Freely accessible. PMID 23560065. 
  10. ^ Zhou, Xuming; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang; Li, Ming (2015-03-01). "The position of tree shrews in the mammalian tree: Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful". Integrative Zoology. 10 (2): 186–198. doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12116. ISSN 1749-4877. 
  11. ^ Meredith, Robert W.; Janečka, Jan E.; Gatesy, John; Ryder, Oliver A.; Fisher, Colleen A.; Teeling, Emma C.; Goodbla, Alisha; Eizirik, Eduardo; Simão, Taiz L. L. (2011-10-28). "Impacts of the Cretaceous terrestrial revolution and KPg extinction on mammal diversification". Science. 334 (6055): 521–524. doi:10.1126/science.1211028. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 21940861. 
  12. ^ Zhou, Xuming; Sun, Fengming; Xu, Shixia; Yang, Guang; Li, Ming (2015-03-01). "The position of tree shrews in the mammalian tree: Comparing multi-gene analyses with phylogenomic results leaves monophyly of Euarchonta doubtful". Integrative Zoology. 10 (2): 186–198. doi:10.1111/1749-4877.12116. ISSN 1749-4877. 
  13. ^ Dehal, Paramvir; Boore, Jeffrey L. (2005-09-06). "Two Rounds of Whole Genome Duplication in the Ancestral Vertebrate". PLOS Biology. 3 (10): e314. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030314. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 1197285Freely accessible. PMID 16128622. 

Further reading[edit]