Euchaita

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Euchaita (Greek: Εὐχάιτα) was a Byzantine town and (arch)bishopric in northern Asia Minor (modern Asian Turkey).

It was identified with modern Avhat (Avk(h)at). Today the Turkish village Beyözü, in the Anatolian province of Çorum (in the subprovince of Mecitözü), partly lies on the ruins.

History[edit]

Euchaita, in the Roman province of Helenopontus (Civil diocese of Pontus, was known in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages as the centre of the cult of Saint Theodore of Amasea (martyred ?306), and became a major pilgrimage site after his remains were moved there from neighbouring Amasea. Its episcopal see was originally a suffragan (no incumbents known) of the Metropolitan of the provincial capital Amasea, in the sway of patriarchate of Constantinople. In the 5th century, the town was a favourite site of exile for disgraced senior churchmen. In 515, the unfortified town was sacked by a Hunnic raid, after which it was rebuilt, fortified and raised to the status of a city by Byzantine Emperor Anastasius I.[1]

The city was later burned down by the Sassanid Persians in 615, and attacked by the Arabs under second Umayyad Caliph Mu'awiya I in 640. A second Arab attack captured the city in 663; the raiders plundered the city, destroyed the church of St. Theodore, and wintered there, while the population fled to fortified refuges in the surrounding countryside.[1] It became an autocephalous archbishopric in the early 7th century,[1] as attested by the Notitia Episcopatuum edition of pseudo-Epiphanius, from the reign of Byzantine emperor Heraclius I (circa 640).

The city was rebuilt and soon recovered. The Arabs scored a victory in its vicinity in 810, taking captive the local strategos of the Armeniac Theme and his entire treasury.

It became a full metropolitan see under Leo VI the Wise (r. 886–912) [1] and Patriarch Photius of Constantinople, ranking 51st among the Metropolitanates of the Patriarchate, with four suffragan sees : Gazala, Koutziagra, Sibiktos and Bariané, but apparently lost them all no later than the tenth century.

In 972, Emperor John I Tzimiskes renamed the neighbouring Euchaneia, whose exact relation or identity with Euchaita is unclear, into Theodoropolis.[1] The town is recorded as having a vibrant fair during the festival of St. Theodore in the middle of the 11th century, but its history thereafter is unknown.[1]

Episcopal Ordinaries[edit]

Bishops
Archbishops
Metropolitans
  • Euthymios (Euphemianos) (IX CE), expelled[4]
  • Euthymius (Euphemianus) (869/870—later 882/886), got a second term
  • Theodorus Santabarenos (880—886)
  • Symeon (IX CE)
  • Philaretos (in 945)[5]
  • Philotheos (fl 963—971), synkellos[6]
  • Theophilus (?—?)
  • Symeon (begin XI CE)[7]
  • Michael (1028—1032)[8]
  • Manuel (Emmanuei) (XI CE), synkellos[9]
  • Eustratios (?—?)
  • John Mauropous (fl 1047), protosynkellos
  • Nikolaos (in 1054)
  • Theodore (before 1082)
  • Basil (1082—1092)
  • unknown metropolitan (1157)
  • Constantine (1161—1171)
  • Leo (1173)
  • unknown metropolitan (1185)
  • Basil (1260)
  • Alexius (1275)
  • unknown metropolitan (1318)
  • Gabriel (1351), metropolitan of Apros
  • unknown
Titular metropolitans
  • Meletius (1632)
  • Jacob (1656)
  • Parthenius (1674)
  • Joasaph (later 1674)
  • unknown
  • Synesius (1835—1840)
  • vacant

Latin Titular archbishopric[edit]

The archbishopric was nominally restored in 1922 as Latin Titular archbishopric of Eucaita (Latin = Curiate Italian). In 1925 it was demoted as Titular bishopric of Eucaita (Latin = Curiate Italian), but before another incumbent could take possession it was in 1929 again promoted as Titular Archiepiscopal See, now under the names Euchaitæ (Latin) / Eucaita (Curiate Italian) / Euchaiten(us) (Latin adjective).

It is vacant since decades, having had the following incumbents, of the fitting archiepiscopal (intermediate) rank : BIOS TO ELABORATE

Excavations[edit]

In the early 21st Century, the town became the focus of an interdisciplinary archaeological project (the Avkat Archaeological Project), under the direction of John Haldon of Princeton University. Additional institutions contributing resources and personnel include Trent University, the College of Charleston, the University of Birmingham, Ankara University and the Middle East Technical University (Ankara).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Foss 1991, p. 737.
  2. ^ Fedalto G., Hierarchia Ecclesiastica Orientalis Series Episcoporum Ecclesiarum Christianarum Orientalium I: Patriarchatus Constantinopolitanus. — Padοva, 1998. — P. 80
  3. ^ Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art. / Edit. by Eric McGeer, John Nesbitt, Nicolas Oikonomides. — Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001. — Vol. IV: The East. — PP. 45—46. — (Dumbarton Oaks Collection Series). — ISBN 0-88402-282-X
  4. ^ Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art. / Edit. by Eric McGeer, John Nesbitt, Nicolas Oikonomides. — Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001. — Vol. IV: The East. — P. 44. — (Dumbarton Oaks Collection Series). — ISBN 0-88402-282-X
  5. ^ Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art. / Edit. by Eric McGeer, John Nesbitt, Nicolas Oikonomides. — Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001. — Vol. IV: The East. — P. 46. — (Dumbarton Oaks Collection Series). — ISBN 0-88402-282-X
  6. ^ Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art. / Edit. by Eric McGeer, John Nesbitt, Nicolas Oikonomides. — Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001. — Vol. IV: The East. — P. 47. — (Dumbarton Oaks Collection Series). — ISBN 0-88402-282-X
  7. ^ Mitsakis K. Symeon Metropolitan of Euchaita and the Byzantine Ascetic Ideals in the Eleventh Century // Βυζαντινα : επιστημονικο οργανο κεντρου βυζαντινων ερευνων φιλοσοφικης σχολης αριστοτελειου πανεπιστημιου 2 (1970): pp. 301—334. — ISSN 1105-0772
  8. ^ Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art. / Edit. by Eric McGeer, John Nesbitt, Nicolas Oikonomides. — Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001. — Vol. IV: The East. — P. 45. — (Dumbarton Oaks Collection Series). — ISBN 0-88402-282-X
  9. ^ Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art. / Edit. by Eric McGeer, John Nesbitt, Nicolas Oikonomides. — Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2001. — Vol. IV: The East. — PP. 44—45. — (Dumbarton Oaks Collection Series). — ISBN 0-88402-282-X

Sources and external links[edit]

  • GCatholic - (former and) titular (arch)bishopric
  • Foss, Clive (1991). "Euchaita". In Kazhdan, Alexander. The Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 737. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. 
  • Janin, Raymond (1969). La géographie ecclésiastique de l'empire byzantin, première partie: Le siège de Constantinople et le patriarcat oecuménique, Tome III: les églises et les monastères (in French). Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. pp. 148–155. 
  • Trombley, Frank (1985). "The Decline of the Seventh-Century Town: The Exception of Euchaita". In Vryonis, Speros. Byzantine Studies in Honor of Milton V. Anastos. Malibu, California. pp. 65–90. 
  • Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 442
  • Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, vol; I, coll. 543-548
  • Jean Darrouzès, Remarques sur des créations d'évêchés byzantins, in Revue des études byzantines, vol. 47, 1989, pp. 215–221
  • Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, pp. 529–641

Coordinates: 40°34′12″N 35°16′05″E / 40.570°N 35.268°E / 40.570; 35.268