Euclides da Cunha
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Euclides (archaic spelling Euclydes) da Cunha (Portuguese pronunciation: [e̞wˈklidɪʒ dɐ ˈkũɲɐ], January 20, 1866 – August 15, 1909) was a Brazilian journalist, sociologist and engineer. His most important work is Os Sertões (Rebellion in the Backlands), a non-fictional account of the military expeditions promoted by the Brazilian government against the rebellious village of Canudos, known as the War of Canudos. This book was a favorite of Robert Lowell, who put it above Tolstoy, the Russian writer. Jorge Luis Borges also commented on it in his short story "Three Versions of Judas". The book was translated into English by Samuel Putnam and published by the University of Chicago Press in 1944. It remains in print.
Euclides da Cunha was also heavily influenced by Naturalism and its Darwinian proponents. Os Sertões characterised the coast of Brazil as a chain of civilisations while the interior was more primitively influenced.
Euclides da Cunha occupied the 7th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1903 until his death in 1909.
- January 20, 1866, Euclides da Cunha was born in Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where he lived until he was three years old.
- 1886 – Attended Escola Militar da Praia Vermelha, a military school in Rio.
- 1888 – Expelled from the military school, due to his participation in an act of protest during a visit of the Brazilian War Minister, Tomás Coelho (politician), who was a member of the last Conservative cabinet of the Brazilian Empire.
- 1889 – Admitted again to the Escola Militar.
- 1891 – Admitted to the Brazilian War School (Escola de Guerra).
- 1896 – Discharged from the Army in order to dedicate himself to studying civil engineering.
- 1897 – Accompanied the Army in the Campanha de Canudos, against a rebellious group of peasants under the leadership of Antonio Conselheiro. Between 7 August and 1 October, he was in the Sertão ("backland"), as war correspondent for the O Estado de S. Paulo newspaper.
- 1903 – Elected to the Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Academy of Letters) and the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico, the Historical and Geographic Institute
- 1909 – Admitted as chairman and professor of Logic at the Colégio Pedro II, a public secondary school in Rio.
- August 15, 1909 – Tries to kill a young Army lieutenant, who was the lover of his wife, but his brother shoots back in self-defense and thus Euclides da Cunha is killed.
- 1902 Os Sertões (Rebellion in the Backlands: University of Chicago Press ISBN 978-0-226-12444-5) -- also Penguin Classics in a new translation, ISBN 978-0-14-310607-4
- 1907 Contrastes e confrontos, lit. Contrasts and Confrontations
- 1907 Peru versus Bolívia
- 1939 Canudos, diário de uma expedição – news articles published in the periodical O Estado de S. Paulo
- 1967 Canudos e inéditos – news articles published by the periodical O Estado de S. Paulo
- Goldberg, Isaac (1922). "Euclides da Cunha." In: Brazilian Literature. New York: Alfred A. Knoff, pp. 210–221.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Euclides da Cunha.|
- Euclides da Cunha site, Biography and works (in Portuguese)
- Casa Euclidiana, São José do Rio Pardo, São Paulo, Brazil (in Portuguese)
- Short biography in English (down the article)
- Works by or about Euclides da Cunha at Internet Archive
- Works by Euclides da Cunha at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Valentim Magalhães (founder)
Brazilian Academy of Letters - Occupant of the 7th chair
1903 — 1909