Mittelhauser graduated from the Saint-Cyr Military Academy in 1894 and joined the French Army. He served in the 2nd Rifle Regiment in Tunisia. From 1899 to 1901 he attended the École supérieure de guerre in Paris. Through the 1900s he served in Algeria and Morocco. In 1913 Mittelhauser commanded the 7st Battalion, 3rd Rifle Regiment. In 1915 he took command of the 60th Infantry Regiment. During World War I Mittelhauser was seriously wounded twice. In June 1918 he served as commander of the 36th Division. In February 1919 he was assigned to the French Military Mission to Czechoslovakia. From January 1921 to 30 December 1925 Mittelhauser was the Chief of staff of Czechoslovak Army. In June 1940 he was appointed to command the French forces in Syria and Lebanon. Initially he joined British, but later he obeyed order of French government and joined the Vichy regime.
- Stehlík, Eduard. "Srdce armády, Francouzská vojenská mise v Československu" (PDF). www.army.cz. Army of the Czech Republic. p. 14. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- Kolinsky, Martin (1999). Britain’s War in the Middle East: Strategy and Diplomacy, 1936–42. New York: Palgrave. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-312-22257-4. Retrieved 13 October 2017.
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