Eugene Garfield

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Eugene Garfield
Eugene Garfield HD2007 Richard J. Bolte Sr. Award.TIF
Eugene Garfield at the Heritage Day awards in 2007
Born Eugene Eli Garfinkle[1]
(1925-09-16)September 16, 1925
New York City
Died February 26, 2017(2017-02-26) (aged 91)[2]
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Alma mater
Thesis An algorithm for translating chemical names to molecular formulas (1961)
Known for
Notable awards
Website
garfield.library.upenn.edu

Eugene Eli Garfield (September 16, 1925 – February 26, 2017)[2][3] was an American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics.[4] He helped to create Current Contents, Science Citation Index (SCI), Journal Citation Reports, and Index Chemicus, among others, and founded the magazine The Scientist.[5][6][7][8]

Early life and education[edit]

Garfield was born in 1925 in New York City as Eugene Eli Garfinkle,[2] and was raised in a Lithuanian[9]-Italian Jewish family.[10] He studied at the University of Colorado and University of California, Berkeley before getting a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry from Columbia University in 1948.[11][12] Garfield also received a degree in Library Science from Columbia University in 1953[13] [14]He went on to do his PhD in the Department of Linguistics at the University of Pennsylvania, which he completed in 1961 for developing an algorithm for translating chemical nomenclature into chemical formulas.[1][15]

Career and research[edit]

Garfield founded the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), which was located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[16] ISI formed a major part of the science division of Thomson Reuters. In October 2016 Thomson Reuters completed the sale of its intellectual property and science division; it is now known as Clarivate Analytics.[17]

Garfield is responsible for many innovative bibliographic products, including Current Contents, the Science Citation Index (SCI), and other citation databases, the Journal Citation Reports, and Index Chemicus. He is the founding editor and publisher of The Scientist, a news magazine for life scientists. In 2003, the University of South Florida School of Information was honored to have him as lecturer for the Alice G. Smith Lecture. In 2007, he launched HistCite, a bibliometric analysis and visualization software package.

Following ideas inspired by Vannevar Bush's highly cited 1945 article As We May Think, Garfield undertook the development of a comprehensive citation index showing the propagation of scientific thinking; he started the Institute for Scientific Information in 1955 (it was sold to the Thomson Corporation in 1992[18]). According to Garfield, "the citation index ... may help a historian to measure the influence of an article — that is, its 'impact factor'".[19] The creation of the Science Citation Index made it possible to calculate impact factor,[20] which ostensibly measures the importance of scientific journals. It led to the unexpected discovery that a few journals like Nature and Science were core for all of hard science. The same pattern does not happen with the humanities or the social sciences.[citation needed]

His entrepreneurial flair in having turned what was, at least at the time, an obscure and specialist metric into a highly profitable business has been noted.[21]

Garfield's work led to the development of several information retrieval algorithms, like the HITS algorithm and PageRank. Both use the structured citation between websites through hyperlinks. Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin acknowledged Gene in their development of PageRank, the algorithm that powers their company's search engine.[21]

Honors and awards[edit]

Garfield was awarded the John Price Wetherill Medal in 1984[citation needed] and the Richard J. Bolte Sr. Award in 2007.[citation needed] The Association for Library and Information Science Education has a fund for doctoral research through an award named after Garfield.

Personal life[edit]

Garfield was married and had a daughter and three sons, as well as a step-daughter.[2][22][23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Garfield, Eugene Eli (1961). An Algorithm for Translating Chemical Names to Molecular Formulas. proquest.com (PhD thesis). University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 1132327. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Scientometrics Pioneer Eugene Garfield Dies". The Scientist. February 27, 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-02-28. 
  3. ^ "Founding Father of Clarivate Analytics' Web of Science, Dr. Eugene Garfield Dies at 91". PR Newswire. Feb 27, 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 
  4. ^ Garfield, Eugene, Blaise Cronin, and Helen Barsky Atkins.The Web of Knowledge: A Festschrift in Honor of Eugene Garfield. Medford, N.J.: Information Today, 2000.
  5. ^ Garfield, Eugene (1955). "Citation indexes for science...". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 122 (3159): 108–111. PMID 14385826. doi:10.1126/science.122.3159.108.  The concept of the Science Citation Index is first articulated.
  6. ^ Garfield, Eugene (September 16, 2005). "The Agony and the Ecstasy—The History and Meaning of the Journal Impact Factor" (PDF). International Congress on Peer Review and Biomedical Publication. Chicago. Retrieved 2011-05-09. 
  7. ^ "History of Citation Indexing" (Available online). Thomson Reuters. October 15, 2010. Retrieved 2011-05-09. Dr. Eugene Garfield, founder and now Chairman Emeritus of ISI® (now Thomson Reuters), was deeply involved in the research relating to machine generated indexes in the mid-1950s and early 1960s 
  8. ^ "Fifty Years of Citation Indexing and Analysis" (Available online). Thomson Reuters. October 6, 2010. Fifty years ago, on July 15, 1955, Eugene Garfield, Ph.D published his groundbreaking paper on citation indexing, "Citation Indexes for Science: A New Dimension in Documentation through Association of Ideas." This innovative paper envisioned information tools that allow researchers to expedite their research process, evaluate the impact of their work, spot scientific trends, and trace the history of modern scientific thoughts. 
  9. ^ "Deeds and Dreams of Eugene Garfield" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 16 October 2013. 
  10. ^ World Encyclopedia of Library and Information Services. Retrieved 14 October 2013. 
  11. ^ "Eugene Garfield Biography". infoplease.com. 
  12. ^ Elmes, John (2017). "Citation analytics pioneer Eugene Garfield dies, aged 91". Times Higher Education. London. Archived from the original on 2017-03-02. 
  13. ^ Wouters, Paul (2017-03-23). "Eugene Garfield (1925-2017)". Nature. 543 (7646): 492–492. ISSN 0028-0836. doi:10.1038/543492a. 
  14. ^ Cronin, Blaise (2000). The Web on Knowledge. Medford, NJ: ASIS. p. 17. ISBN 1-57387-099-4. 
  15. ^ Garfield, Eugene (1962). "An Algorithm for Translating Chemical Names to Molecular Formulas.". Journal of Chemical Documentation. 2 (3): 177–179. ISSN 0021-9576. doi:10.1021/c160006a021. 
  16. ^ Wiliams, Robert V. (July 29, 1997). "Interview with Eugene Garfield" (PDF). Center for Oral History, Chemical Heritage Foundation. 
  17. ^ "Acquisition of the Thomson Reuters Intellectual Property and Science Business by Onex and Baring Asia Completed". clarivate.com. 
  18. ^ "Thomson Corporation acquired ISI". Online. July 1992. Retrieved 2015-01-15. 
  19. ^ Garfield E (1955). "Citation indexes for science: A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas". Science. 122: 108–11. PMID 14385826. doi:10.1126/science.122.3159.108. 
  20. ^ Garfield E (2006). "The history and meaning of the journal impact factor". JAMA. 295 (1): 90–3. PMID 16391221. doi:10.1001/jama.295.1.90. 
  21. ^ a b Gallagher, Richard (2017). "Eugene Garfield – 1925-2017 – a life of impact". annualreviewsnews.org. Archived from the original on 2017-02-28. 
  22. ^ "Eugene Garfield tells his life story (video)". webofstories.com. 
  23. ^ Wiliams, Robert V. (July 29, 1997). "Interview with Eugene Garfield" (PDF). Center for Oral History, Chemical Heritage Foundation.