|Molar mass||164.20 g/mol|
|Melting point||−7.5 °C (18.5 °F; 265.6 K)|
|Boiling point||254 °C (489 °F; 527 K)|
|Acidity (pKa)||10.19 at 25 °C|
|Flash point||104 °C (219 °F; 377 K)|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is: / ?)(|
Eugenol // is a phenylpropene, an allyl chain-substituted guaiacol. Eugenol is a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds. It is a colorless to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, basil and bay leaf. It is present in concentrations of 80–90% in clove bud oil and at 82–88% in clove leaf oil.
Eugenol is used in perfumeries, flavorings, essential oils and in medicine as a local antiseptic and anaesthetic. Eugenol can be combined with zinc oxide to form a material – known as zinc oxide eugenol – which has restorative and prosthodontic applications in dentistry. For example, zinc oxide eugenol is used for root canal sealing It can be used to reduce the presence of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei in food. They are also used in manufacturing stabilizers and antioxidants for plastics and rubbers. Attempts have been made to develop eugenol derivatives for intravenous injection, such as propanidid and G.29.505. The latter produced unacceptable side effects around the site of injection in many patients. It is one of many compounds that is attractive to males of various species of orchid bees, which apparently gather the chemical to synthesize pheromones; it is commonly used as bait to attract and collect these bees for study. It also attracts female cucumber beetle. It is recently discovered that eugenol and isoeugenol, floral volatile scent compounds, are catalyzed by single type of enzyme in Gymnadenia species and gene encoding for this enzyme is first functionally characterized gene in this species so far.
It is commonly used in wisdom tooth extraction surgeries complicated by dry socket. Clove oil is growing in popularity as an anaesthetic for use on aquarium fish as well as on wild fish when sampled for research and management purposes. Where readily available, it presents a humane method to euthanise sick and diseased fish either by direct over-dose or to induce sleep before an overdose of ethanol. It is also used in some mousetraps and kills certain human colon cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Eugenol may have potential therapeutic effects against diseases characterized by excessive osteoclast activity.
Eugenol is hepatotoxic, meaning it may cause damage to the liver. Overdose is possible, causing a wide range of symptoms from blood in the patient's urine, to convulsions, diarrhoea, nausea, unconsciousness, dizziness, or rapid heartbeat. According to a published 1993 report, a 2-year old boy nearly died after taking between 5 and 10 ml. Eugenol is subject to restrictions on its use in perfumery as some people may become sensitised to it, however, the degree to which eugenol can cause an allergic reaction in humans is disputed.
Eugenol is a component of Balsam of Peru, to which some people are allergic. When eugenol is used in dental preparations such as surgical pastes, dental packing, and dental cement, it may cause contact stomatitis and allergic cheilitis. The allergy can be discovered via a patch test.
List of plants that contain the chemical
- Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)
- Cinnamomum tamala
- Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans)
- Ocimum basilicum – Sweet Basil
- Ocimum gratissimum – African Basil
- Ocimum tenuiflorum (Ocimum sanctum) – Tulsi or Holy Basil
- Japanese star anise
- "Constituents of the essential oil from leaves and buds of clove (Syzigium caryophyllatum (L.) Alston" (PDF). Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research BCSIR Laboratories 4: 451–454.
- "Investigation of the essential oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad". wiley.com. doi:10.1002/ffj.2730100403. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Yield and Oil Composition of 38 Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Accessions Grown in Mississippi[dead link]
- "Typical G.C. for bay leaf oil". Thegoodscentscompany.com. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Barnes, J; Anderson, LA; Phillipson, JD (2007) . Herbal Medicines (PDF) (3rd ed.). London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. ISBN 978-0-85369-623-0.
- Jadhav BK, Khandelwal KR, Ketkar AR, Pisal SS.; Khandelwal; Ketkar; Pisal (February 2004). "Formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive tablets containing eugenol for the treatment of periodontal diseases". Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 30 (2): 195–203. doi:10.1081/DDC-120028715. PMID 15089054.
- Jack L. Ferracane, Materials in Dentistry: Principles and Applications, 2001, 2d Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 0-7817-2733-2
- Mechanisms of Bactericidal Action of Cinnamaldehyde against Listeria monocytogenes and of Eugenol against L. monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei. Alexander O. Gill and Richard A. Holley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., October 2004, vol. 70, no. 10, pages 5750–5755, doi:10.1128/AEM.70.10.5750-5755.2004
- Right DA, Payne JP; Payne (June 1962). "A clinical study of intravenous anaesthesia with a eugenol derivative, G.29.505" (ABSTRACT). British Journal of Anaesthesia 34 (6): 379–385. doi:10.1093/bja/34.6.379. PMID 14008420.
- Schiestl FP, Roubik DW; Roubik (January 2003). "Odor Compound Detection in Male Euglossine Bees". Journal of Chemical Ecology 29 (1): 253–257. doi:10.1023/A:1021932131526. PMID 12647866.
- "Cucumber Beetles: Organic and Biorational Integrated Pest Management (Summary)". Attra.ncat.org. 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Gupta A K, Schauvinhold I, Pichersky E, and Schiestl F P. 2014. Eugenol synthase genes in floral scent variation in Gymnadenia species
- Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Surgery in Pet Fish. Atlantic Coast Veterinary Conference. 2001. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- Grush, J; Noakes, DLG; Moccia, RD (February 2004). "The Efficacy of Clove Oil As An Anesthetic for the Zebrafish". Zebrafish 1 (1): 46–53. doi:10.1089/154585404774101671. PMID 18248205.
- Monks, Neale, Ph.D. (2009-04-02). "Aquarium Fish Euthanasia" (PDF). Fish Channel. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- ".". Lowes.com. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Jaganathan, SK; Supriyanto, E (May 2012). "Antiproliferative and molecular mechanism of eugenol-induced apoptosis in cancer cells." (PDF). Molecules 17 (6): 6290–304. doi:10.3390/molecules17066290. PMID 22634840.
- Deepak, Vishwa; Kasonga, Abe; Kruger, Marlena C.; Coetzee, Magdalena; Wagner, C; Hänsch, G. M. (18 November 2014). "Inhibitory effects of eugenol on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation via attenuation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways". Connective Tissue Research 45 (12): 3330–7. doi:10.3109/03008207.2014.989320. PMID 18538847.
- Thompson, DC; Barhoumi, R; Burghardt, RC (1998). "Comparative toxicity of eugenol and its quinone methide metabolite in cultured liver cells using kinetic fluorescence bioassays". Toxicology and applied pharmacology 149 (1): 55–63. doi:10.1006/taap.1997.8348. PMID 9512727.
- Fujisawa, S; Atsumi, T; Kadoma, Y; Sakagami, H (2002). "Antioxidant and prooxidant action of eugenol-related compounds and their cytotoxicity". Toxicology 177 (1): 39–54. doi:10.1016/S0300-483X(02)00194-4. PMID 12126794.
- Eugenol Oil Overdose, New York Times Health Guide
- Hartnoll, G; Moore, D; Douek, D (1993). "Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves". Archives of Disease in Childhood 69 (3): 392–3. doi:10.1136/adc.69.3.392. PMC 1029532. PMID 8215554.
- www.ifraorg.org[dead link]
- "." (PDF). www.leffingwell.com. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Gottfried Schmalz, Dorthe Arenholt Bindslev (2008-10-10). Biocompatibility of Dental Materials. ISBN 9783540777823. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Derk P. Bruynzeel (2014). "Balsam of Peru (Myroxylon pereirae)". Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-55706-4_11. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- Pathak, SB; Niranjan, K; Padh, H; Rajani, M (2004). "TLC Densitometric Method for the Quantification of Eugenol and Gallic Acid in Clove". Chromatographia 60 (3–4): 241–244. doi:10.1365/s10337-004-0373-y.
- Bullerman, LB; Lieu, FY; Seier, SA (July 1977). "INHIBITION OF GROWTH AND AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION BY CINNAMON AND CLOVE OILS. CINNAMIC ALDEHYDE AND EUGENOL". Journal of Food Science 42 (4): 1107–1109. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.1977.tb12677.x.
- Lee, Kwang-Geun; Takayuki Shibamoto (2001). "Antioxidant property of aroma extract isolated from clove buds [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry]". Food Chemistry 74 (4): 443–448. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(01)00161-3.
- Kreydiyyeh, SI; Usta, J; Copti, Rtitle = Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na+-K+-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum (2000). "Effect of cinnamon, clove and some of their constituents on the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and alanine absorption in the rat jejunum". Food and Chemical Toxicology 38 (9): 755–762. doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(00)00073-9. PMID 10930696.
- Dighe, VV; Gursale, AA; Sane, RT; Menon, S; Patel, PH (2005). "Quantitative Determination of Eugenol from Cinnamomum tamala Nees and Eberm. Leaf Powder and Polyherbal Formulation Using Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography". Chromatographia 61 (9–10): 443–446. doi:10.1365/s10337-005-0527-6.
- Bennett, A; Stamford, IF; Tavares, IA; Jacobs, S; Capasso, F; Mascolo, N; Autore, G; Romano, V; Di Carlo, G (1988). "The biological activity of eugenol, a major constituent of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans): Studies on prostaglandins, the intestine and other tissues". Phytotherapy Research 2 (3): 124–130. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650020305.
- Johnson, CB; Kirby, J; Naxakis, G; Pearson, S (1999). "Substantial UV-B-mediated induction of essential oils in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.)". Phytochemistry 51 (4): 507–510. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00767-5.
- Nakamura, CV; Ueda-Nakamura, T; Bando, E; Melo, AFN; Cortez, DAG; Dias Filho, BP (September 1999). "Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil" (PDF). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 94 (5): 675–678. doi:10.1590/S0074-02761999000500022. PMID 10464416.
- Ize-Ludlow, D; Ragone, S; Bruck, IS; Bernstein, JN; Duchowny, M; Peña, BM (2004). "Neurotoxicities in Infants Seen With the Consumption of Star Anise Tea". Pediatrics 114 (5): e653–e656. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0058. PMID 15492355.
- "Lemon balm". University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved 2010-12-07.
- Kegley, SE; Hill, BR; Orme S; Choi AH; Toxicity Information for Eugenol in PAN Pesticide Database, Pesticide Action Network, North America (San Francisco, CA, 2010)
- "Eugenol (Mmm, dentist) : Molecule of the Day". ScienceBlogs. 4 October 2006. Retrieved 7 December 2010. (Eugenol entry on the Molecule of the Day blog)