Euler product

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In number theory, an Euler product is an expansion of a Dirichlet series into an infinite product indexed by prime numbers. The name arose from the case of the Riemann zeta-function, where such a product representation was proved by Leonhard Euler.


In general, if a is a multiplicative function, then the Dirichlet series

\sum_{n} a(n)n^{-s}\,

is equal to

\prod_{p} P(p, s)\,

where the product is taken over prime numbers p, and P(p, s) is the sum

1+a(p)p^{-s} + a(p^2)p^{-2s} + \cdots .

In fact, if we consider these as formal generating functions, the existence of such a formal Euler product expansion is a necessary and sufficient condition that a(n) be multiplicative: this says exactly that a(n) is the product of the a(p^k) whenever n factors as the product of the powers p^k of distinct primes p.

An important special case is that in which a(n) is totally multiplicative, so that P(p, s) is a geometric series. Then

P(p, s)=\frac{1}{1-a(p)p^{-s}},

as is the case for the Riemann zeta-function, where a(n) = 1, and more generally for Dirichlet characters.


In practice all the important cases are such that the infinite series and infinite product expansions are absolutely convergent in some region

Re(s) > C

that is, in some right half-plane in the complex numbers. This already gives some information, since the infinite product, to converge, must give a non-zero value; hence the function given by the infinite series is not zero in such a half-plane.

In the theory of modular forms it is typical to have Euler products with quadratic polynomials in the denominator here. The general Langlands philosophy includes a comparable explanation of the connection of polynomials of degree m, and the representation theory for GLm.


The Euler product attached to the Riemann zeta function \zeta(s), using also the sum of the geometric series, is

 \prod_{p} (1-p^{-s})^{-1} = \prod_{p} \Big(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}p^{-ns}\Big) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^{s}} = \zeta(s) .

while for the Liouville function \lambda(n) = (-1)^{\Omega(n)}, it is,

 \prod_{p} (1+p^{-s})^{-1} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\lambda(n)}{n^{s}} = \frac{\zeta(2s)}{\zeta(s)}

Using their reciprocals, two Euler products for the Möbius function \mu(n) are,

 \prod_{p} (1-p^{-s}) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\mu (n)}{n^{s}} = \frac{1}{\zeta(s)}


 \prod_{p} (1+p^{-s}) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{|\mu(n)|}{n^{s}} = \frac{\zeta(s)}{\zeta(2s)}

and taking the ratio of these two gives,

 \prod_{p} \Big(\frac{1+p^{-s}}{1-p^{-s}}\Big) = \prod_{p} \Big(\frac{p^{s}+1}{p^{s}-1}\Big) = \frac{\zeta(s)^2}{\zeta(2s)}

Since for even s the Riemann zeta function \zeta(s) has an analytic expression in terms of a rational multiple of \pi^{s}, then for even exponents, this infinite product evaluates to a rational number. For example, since \zeta(2)=\pi^2/6, \zeta(4)=\pi^4/90, and \zeta(8)=\pi^8/9450, then,

 \prod_{p} \Big(\frac{p^{2}+1}{p^{2}-1}\Big) = \frac{5}{2}
 \prod_{p} \Big(\frac{p^{4}+1}{p^{4}-1}\Big) = \frac{7}{6}

and so on, with the first result known by Ramanujan. This family of infinite products is also equivalent to,

 \prod_{p} (1+2p^{-s}+2p^{-2s}+\cdots) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}2^{\omega(n)} n^{-s} = \frac{\zeta(s)^2}{\zeta(2s)}

where \omega(n) counts the number of distinct prime factors of n and 2^{\omega(n)} the number of square-free divisors.

If \chi(n) is a Dirichlet character of conductor N, so that \chi is totally multiplicative and \chi(n) only depends on n modulo N, and \chi(n) = 0 if n is not coprime to N then,

 \prod_{p} (1- \chi(p) p^{-s})^{-1} = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\chi(n)n^{-s} .

Here it is convenient to omit the primes p dividing the conductor N from the product. Ramanujan in his notebooks tried to generalize the Euler product for Zeta function in the form:

 \prod_{p} (x-p^{-s})\approx \frac{1}{\operatorname{Li}_{s} (x)}

for s > 1 where \operatorname{Li}_s(x) is the polylogarithm. For x=1 the product above is just  1/ \zeta (s).

Notable constants[edit]

Many well known constants have Euler product expansions.

The Leibniz formula for π,

\pi/4=\sum_{n=0}^\infty \, \frac{(-1)^n}{2n+1}=1 - \frac{1}{3} + \frac{1}{5} - \frac{1}{7} + \cdots,

can be interpreted as a Dirichlet series using the (unique) Dirichlet character modulo 4, and converted to an Euler product of superparticular ratios

\pi/4=\left(\prod_{p\equiv 1\pmod 4}\frac{p}{p-1}\right)\cdot\left( \prod_{p\equiv 3\pmod 4}\frac{p}{p+1}\right)=\frac{3}{4} \cdot \frac{5}{4} \cdot \frac{7}{8} \cdot \frac{11}{12} \cdot \frac{13}{12} \cdots,

where each numerator is a prime number and each denominator is the nearest multiple of four.[1]

Other Euler products for known constants include:

Twin prime constant:

 \prod_{p>2} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{(p-1)^2}\Big) = 0.660161...

Landau-Ramanujan constant:

 \frac{\pi}{4} \prod_{p = 1\,\text{mod}\,4} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{p^2}\Big)^{1/2} = 0.764223...
 \frac{1}{\sqrt{2}} \prod_{p = 3\,\text{mod}\,4} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{p^2}\Big)^{-1/2} = 0.764223...

Murata's constant (sequence A065485 in OEIS):

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 + \frac{1}{(p-1)^2}\Big) = 2.826419...

Strongly carefree constant \times\zeta(2)^2 OEISA065472:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{(p+1)^2}\Big) = 0.775883...

Artin's constant OEISA005596:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{p(p-1)}\Big) = 0.373955...

Landau's totient constant OEISA082695:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 + \frac{1}{p(p-1)}\Big) = \frac{315}{2\pi^4}\zeta(3) = 1.943596...

Carefree constant \times\zeta(2) OEISA065463:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{p(p+1)}\Big) = 0.704442...

(with reciprocal) OEISA065489:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 + \frac{1}{p^2+p-1}\Big) = 1.419562...

Feller-Tornier constant OEISA065493:

 \frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{2} \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{2}{p^2}\Big) = 0.661317...

Quadratic class number constant OEISA065465:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{p^2(p+1)}\Big) = 0.881513...

Totient summatory constant OEISA065483:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 + \frac{1}{p^2(p-1)}\Big) = 1.339784...

Sarnak's constant OEISA065476:

 \prod_{p>2} \Big(1 - \frac{p+2}{p^3}\Big) = 0.723648...

Carefree constant OEISA065464:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{2p-1}{p^3}\Big) = 0.428249...

Strongly carefree constant OEISA065473:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{3p-2}{p^3}\Big) = 0.286747...

Stephens' constant OEISA065478:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{p}{p^3-1}\Big) = 0.575959...

Barban's constant OEISA175640:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 + \frac{3p^2-1}{p(p+1)(p^2-1)}\Big) = 2.596536...

Taniguchi's constant OEISA175639:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{3}{p^3}+\frac{2}{p^4}+\frac{1}{p^5}-\frac{1}{p^6}\Big) = 0.678234...

Heath-Brown and Moroz constant OEISA118228:

 \prod_{p} \Big(1 - \frac{1}{p}\Big)^7 \Big(1 + \frac{7p+1}{p^2}\Big) = 0.0013176...


  1. ^ Debnath, Lokenath (2010), The Legacy of Leonhard Euler: A Tricentennial Tribute, World Scientific, p. 214, ISBN 9781848165267 .


  • G. Polya, Induction and Analogy in Mathematics Volume 1 Princeton University Press (1954) L.C. Card 53-6388 (A very accessible English translation of Euler's memoir regarding this "Most Extraordinary Law of the Numbers" appears starting on page 91)
  • Apostol, Tom M. (1976), Introduction to analytic number theory, Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics, New York-Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-0-387-90163-3, MR 0434929, Zbl 0335.10001  (Provides an introductory discussion of the Euler product in the context of classical number theory.)
  • G.H. Hardy and E.M. Wright, An introduction to the theory of numbers, 5th ed., Oxford (1979) ISBN 0-19-853171-0 (Chapter 17 gives further examples.)
  • George E. Andrews, Bruce C. Berndt, Ramanujan's Lost Notebook: Part I, Springer (2005), ISBN 0-387-25529-X
  • G. Niklasch, Some number theoretical constants: 1000-digit values"

External links[edit]