Eupatorium cannabinum

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Eupatorium cannabinum
Eupatorium cannabinum (xndr).jpg
IJmuiden, Netherlands
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Eupatorium
Species: E. cannabinum
Binomial name
Eupatorium cannabinum

Eupatorium cannabinum, commonly known as hemp-agrimony,[2] or holy rope,[3] is a herbaceous plant of the daisy family. It is a robust perennial native to many areas of Europe.[3][4] It is cultivated as an ornamental and occasionally found as a garden escape in scattered locations in China,[5] the United States and Canada.[6][7]

If the genus Eupatorium is defined in a restricted sense (about 42 species), E. cannabinum is the only species of that genus native to Europe (with the remainder in Asia or North America).[8]


Eupatorium cannabinum is a perennial herb up to 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) tall or more and 1.2 meters (3.9 feet) wide.[4] It lives in moist low-lying areas in temperate Eurasia. It is dioecious, with racemes of mauve flower heads which are pollinated by insects from July to early September. The flowers are visited by many types of insects, and can be characterized by a generalized pollination syndrome.[9] The flower heads are tiny, fluffy and can be pale dusty pink or whitish.[4] The fruit is an achene about 2 or 3 mm long, borne by a pappus with hairs 3 to 5 mm long, which is distributed by the wind. The plant over-winters as a hemicryptophyte.[8]

Eupatorium cannabinum bluete.jpeg
Eupatorium cannabinum0.jpg


Eupatorium cannabinum contains tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[10]

  • Eupatorium cannabinum L. subsp. cannabinum - most of species range
  • Eupatorium cannabinum L. subsp. corsicum (Req. ex Loisel.) P.Fourn. - Corsica, Sardinia, Basilicata, Apulia


  1. ^ The Plant List, Eupatorium cannabinum L.
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ a b Altervista Flora Italiana, Holy Rope, gewöhnlicher Wasserdost, hampflockel, Canapa acquatica includes photos and European distribution map
  4. ^ a b c "Botanica. The Illustrated AZ of over 10000 garden plants and how to cultivate them", p 359. Könemann, 2004. ISBN 3-8331-1253-0
  5. ^ Flora of China, Eupatorium cannabinum Linnaeus, 1753. 大麻叶泽兰 da ma ye ze lan
  6. ^ "Eupatorium cannabinum". Flora of North America. 
  7. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  8. ^ a b Schmidt, Gregory J. & Schilling, Edward E. (2000): Phylogeny and biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data. Am. J. Bot. 87(5): 716-726. doi:10.2307/2656858 PMID 10811796 PDF fulltext
  9. ^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2016). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers" (PDF). Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. 
  10. ^ Fu, P.P., Yang, Y.C., Xia, Q., Chou, M.C., Cui, Y.Y., Lin G., "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids-tumorigenic components in Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements", Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2002, pp. 198-211 [1][permanent dead link]