Eupatorium cannabinum

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Eupatorium cannabinum
Eupatorium cannabinum (xndr).jpg
IJmuiden, Netherlands
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Eupatorium
Species:
E. cannabinum
Binomial name
Eupatorium cannabinum
Synonyms[1]

Eupatorium cannabinum, commonly known as hemp-agrimony,[2] or holy rope,[3] is a herbaceous plant of the daisy family. It is a robust perennial native to many areas of Europe.[3][4] It is cultivated as an ornamental and occasionally found as a garden escape in scattered locations in China,[5] the United States and Canada.[6][7]

If the genus Eupatorium is defined in a restricted sense (about 42 species), E. cannabinum is the only species of that genus native to Europe (with the remainder in Asia or North America).[8]

Description[edit]

Eupatorium cannabinum is a perennial herb up to 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) tall or more and 1.2 meters (3.9 feet) wide.[4] It lives in moist low-lying areas in temperate Eurasia. It is dioecious, with racemes of mauve flower heads which are pollinated by insects from July to early September. The flowers are visited by many types of insects, and can be characterized by a generalized pollination syndrome.[9] The flower heads are tiny, fluffy and can be pale dusty pink or whitish.[4] The fruit is an achene about 2 or 3 mm long, borne by a pappus with hairs 3 to 5 mm long, which is distributed by the wind. The plant over-winters as a hemicryptophyte.[8]

Toxicity[edit]

Eupatorium cannabinum contains tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids.[10] The alkaloids may be present in the plant material as their N-oxides.[11]

Pharmacology[edit]

E. cannabinum is used in the European traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory agent for respiratory tract diseases, and several of its sesquiterpene lactone constituents were identified to have anti-inflammatory effect in isolated human neutrophils, with the anti-inflammatory action of the sesquiterpene lactone eupatoriopicrin being verified also in mouse peritonitis model.[12]

Subspecies
  • Eupatorium cannabinum L. subsp. cannabinum - most of species range
  • Eupatorium cannabinum L. subsp. corsicum (Req. ex Loisel.) P.Fourn. - Corsica, Sardinia, Basilicata, Apulia

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Plant List, Eupatorium cannabinum L.
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  3. ^ a b Altervista Flora Italiana, Holy Rope, gewöhnlicher Wasserdost, hampflockel, Canapa acquatica includes photos and European distribution map
  4. ^ a b c "Botanica. The Illustrated AZ of over 10000 garden plants and how to cultivate them", p 359. Könemann, 2004. ISBN 3-8331-1253-0
  5. ^ Flora of China, Eupatorium cannabinum Linnaeus, 1753. 大麻叶泽兰 da ma ye ze lan
  6. ^ "Eupatorium cannabinum". Flora of North America.
  7. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  8. ^ a b Schmidt, Gregory J. & Schilling, Edward E. (2000): Phylogeny and biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data. Am. J. Bot. 87(5): 716-726. doi:10.2307/2656858 PMID 10811796 PDF fulltext
  9. ^ Van Der Kooi, C. J.; Pen, I.; Staal, M.; Stavenga, D. G.; Elzenga, J. T. M. (2016). "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers". Plant Biology. 18 (1): 56–62. doi:10.1111/plb.12328. PMID 25754608.
  10. ^ Fu, P.P., Yang, Y.C., Xia, Q., Chou, M.C., Cui, Y.Y., Lin G., "Pyrrolizidine alkaloids-tumorigenic components in Chinese herbal medicines and dietary supplements", Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2002, pp. 198-211 [1][permanent dead link]
  11. ^ Woerdenbag, H. J. (October 1986). "Eupatorium cannabinum L.". Pharmaceutisch Weekblad Scientific Edition. 8 (5): 245–251. doi:10.1007/bf01960068. ISSN 0167-6555.
  12. ^ Michalak B, Piwowarski JP, Granica S, Waltenberger B, Atanasov AG, Khan SY, Breuss JM, Uhrin P, Żyżyńska-Granica B, Stojakowska A, Stuppner H, Kiss AK. Eupatoriopicrin Inhibits Pro-inflammatory Functions of Neutrophils via Suppression of IL-8 and TNF-alpha Production and p38 and ERK 1/2 MAP Kinases. J Nat Prod. 2019 Feb 22;82(2):375-385. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.8b00939.