Euphorbia canariensis

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Euphorbia canariensis
Canary Island spurge close to the Mirador de Archipenque at Los Gigantes
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Genus: Euphorbia
E. canariensis
Binomial name
Euphorbia canariensis

Euphorbia canariensis Forssk.
Euphorbia canariensis Thunb.
Euphorbia canariensis Tremaut[3]
Tithymalus quadrangularis Kigg[4]

Euphorbia canariensis, commonly known as the Canary Island spurge, Hercules club[6] or in Spanish cardón,[7]: 206  is a succulent member of the genus Euphorbia and family Euphorbiaceae[2] endemic to the Canary Islands.[8] It is the plant symbol of the island of Gran Canaria.[9]


The Canary Island spurge is a succulent shrub, growing to between 3 and 4 metres (10 and 13 ft) high. It is made up of fleshy quadrangular or pentagonal trunks that look like cacti. It has no leaves, instead bearing spines 5 to 14 millimetres (0.20 to 0.55 in) long. It produces reddish-green flowers.[8] It is hardy to −2 °C (28 °F).[10]

The latex, which contains diterpenes[11] is poisonous.[12]


The species is found on the narrow coastal belt, from sea level to 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) in the Canary Islands.[12]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Beech, E. (2017). "Euphorbia canariensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T79727248A79727254. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T79727248A79727254.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Euphorbia canariensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
  3. ^ International Plant Names Index. "whole name = Euphorbia canariensis". Retrieved 2008-03-22.
  4. ^ Wijnands, D. O. (1983). "Euphorbiaceae". The Botany of the Commelins: A Taxonomical, Nomenclatural, and Historical. CRC Press. ISBN 978-90-6191-262-0. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
  5. ^ Decandolle, A.P. (1837). "Euphorbia canariensis". Plantarum historia succulentarum = Histoire des plantes grasses. Retrieved 2008-03-22.
  6. ^ Barbara J. Collins, Ph.D. (2007-08-09). "Photographs of succulents Euphorbia canariensis 4744". Photographs of succulents. California Lutheran University. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  7. ^ Bramwell, David & Bramwell, Zoë (2001). Wild Flowers of the Canary Islands (2nd ed.). Madrid: Rueda. p. 206. ISBN 978-84-7207-129-2.
  8. ^ a b "Canary Islands Flora - Arid Habitat". Archived from the original on 2008-03-06. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
  9. ^ "Símbolos de la naturaleza para las Islas Canarias" [Natural Symbols for the Canary Islands]. Ley No. 7/1991 of 30 April 1991 (in Spanish). Vol. 151. pp. 20946–20497 – via BOE.
  10. ^ Thijs de Graaf. "Euphorbia". euphorbia engels. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  11. ^ Marco, J.A., J; Sanz Cervera, J.F.; Yuste, A. (June 1997). "Ingenane and lathyrane diterpenes from the latex of Euphorbia canariensis". Phytochemistry-Oxford. 45 (3): 563–570. Bibcode:1997PChem..45..563M. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00018-6. Archived from the original on 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2008-03-23.
  12. ^ a b University of Connecticut (18 March 2008). "Euphorbia canariensis L." EEB Greenhouse Accession Data. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Greenhouses. Retrieved 2008-03-23.

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