Euphorbia canariensis

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Euphorbia canariensis
Euphorbia canariensis Tenerife 2012.jpg
Canary Island spurge close to the Mirador de Archipenque at Los Gigantes
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Euphorbiaceae
Tribe: Euphorbieae
Subtribe: Euphorbiinae
Genus: Euphorbia
Species: E. canariensis
Binomial name
Euphorbia canariensis

Euphorbia canariensis Forssk.
Euphorbia canariensis Thunb.
Euphorbia canariensis Tremaut[2]
Tithymalus quadrangularis Kigg[3] [4]

Euphorbia canariensis, commonly known as the Canary Island spurge, Hercules club[5] or in Spanish cardón,[6]:206 is a succulent member of the genus Euphorbia and family Euphorbiaceae[1] endemic to the Canary Islands.[7] It is the plant symbol of the island of Gran Canaria.[8]


The Canary Island spurge is a succulent shrub, growing to between 3 and 4 metres (10 and 13 ft) high. It is made up of fleshy quadrangular or pentagonal trunks that look like cacti. The leaves grow in clusters of three or four and have inward-turning spines 5 to 14 millimetres (0.20 to 0.55 in) long. It produces reddish-green flowers.[7] It is hardy to −2 °C (28 °F).[9]

The latex, which contains diterpenes[10] is poisonous.[11]


The species is found on the narrow coastal belt, from sea level to 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) in the Canary Islands.[11]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (1998-10-29). "Taxon: Euphorbia canariensis L.". Taxonomy for Plants. USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program, National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  2. ^ International Plant Names Index. "whole name = Euphorbia canariensis". Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  3. ^ Wijnands, D. O. (1983). "Euphorbiaceae". The Botany of the Commelins: A Taxonomical, Nomenclatural, and Historical. CRC Press. ISBN 90-6191-262-8. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  4. ^
    Decandolle, A.P. (1837). "Euphorbia canariensis". Plantarum historia succulentarum = Histoire des plantes grasses. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  5. ^ Barbara J. Collins, Ph.D. (2007-08-09). "Photographs of succulents Euphorbia canariensis 4744". Photographs of succulents. California Lutheran University. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  6. ^ Bramwell, David & Bramwell, Zoë (2001). Wild Flowers of the Canary Islands (2nd ed.). Madrid: Rueda. p. 206. ISBN 84-7207-129-4. 
  7. ^ a b "Canary Islands Flora - Arid Habitat". Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  8. ^ Ley 7/1991, de 30 de abril, de símbolos de la naturaleza para las Islas Canarias
  9. ^ Thijs de Graaf. "Euphorbia". euphorbia engels. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  10. ^ Marco, J.A. : Sanz Cervera, J.F. : Yuste, A., J (June 1997). "Ingenane and lathyrane diterpenes from the latex of Euphorbia canariensis.". Phytochemistry-Oxford. Elsevier Science Ltd. 45 (3): 563–570. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00018-6. Retrieved 2008-03-23. 
  11. ^ a b University of Connecticut (18 March 2008). "Euphorbia canariensis L.". EEB Greenhouse Accession Data. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Greenhouses. Retrieved 2008-03-23.  External link in |publisher= (help)

External links[edit]