Euphorbia heterophylla, also known under the common names of (Mexican) fireplant, painted euphorbia, Japanese poinsettia, desert poinsettia, wild poinsettia, fire on the mountain, paintedleaf, painted spurge, milkweed, and kaliko plant, is a plant belonging to the Euphorbiaceae or spurge family.
It is a hardy, ruderal species, growing between 30 and 70 cm in height. The leaves at the upper end of the stalk, close to the cyathium, have a striking, scarlet red coloration. Leaves are mainly 2-4 lobed and 4–7 cm long by 1.5–3 cm wide. Their contrast with the lower dark green leaves gives this euphorbia most of its common names.
The stalk exudes a toxic milky white latex. The cyathia or false flowers, are located in clusters at the head of the stalk and are yellowish green. They have no petals, the red color being part of the young leaves' coloration. The fruits are small, segmented capsules.
This plant often loses its coloration when it grows wild as a weed. It is resistant to herbicide.
Toxicity is documented in most members of the genus Euphorbia. Individuals sensitive to latex are known to have strong reactions, including dermatitis and anaphylaxis, to the latex exuded by this plant.
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