Polypodiineae

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Polypodiineae
Polypodium vulgare (aka).jpg
Common Polypody,
Polypodium vulgare
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Polypodiales
Suborder: Polypodiineae
Dumort.[1]
Families[1]

Polypodiineae is a suborder of ferns in the order Polypodiales. It is equivalent to the clade eupolypods I in earlier systems,[1][2] and to the very broadly defined family Polypodiaceae in the classification of Christenhusz & Chase (2014).[3] It probably diverged from the suborder Aspleniineae (eupolypods II) during the mid-Cretaceous. The divergence is supported by both molecular data and an often overlooked morphological characteristic which lies in the vasculature of the petiole. Most species that make up the suborder have three vascular bundles. The only exceptions are the grammitid ferns which have one, and the genus Hypodematium which has two. This differs from eupolypods II which mostly have two vascular bundles (except the well-nested blechnoid ferns which generally have at least three).[4]

Phylogeny[edit]

The Polypodiineae is one of two major groups of eupolypod families, treated as suborders, within the order Polypodiales. In 2016, the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group published a consensus cladogram, based on "numerous phylogenetic studies" between 2001 and 2015. The location of the Polypodiineae within the order Polypodiales in this cladogram is:[1]

Polypodiales

four basal families

Pteridaceae

Dennstaedtiaceae

eupolypods

Aspleniineae (eupolypods II)

Polypodiineae (eupolypods I)

To the level of families, the subtree for the Polypodiineae is:[1]

Polypodiineae

Didymochlaenaceae (1 genus)

Hypodematiaceae (2 genera)

Dryopteridaceae (26 genera)

Nephrolepidaceae (1 genus)

Lomariopsidaceae (4 genera)

Tectariaceae (7 genera)

Oleandraceae (1 genus)

Davalliaceae (1 genus)

Polypodiaceae (65 genera)

Of the 108 genera in the suborder, 91 (84%) are placed in two families, Dryopteridaceae and Polypodiaceae.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229.
  2. ^ Alan R. Smith; Kathleen M. Pryer; Eric Schuettpelz; Petra Korall; Harald Schneider; Paul G. Wolf (2006). "A classification for extant ferns" (PDF). Taxon. 55 (3): 705–731. doi:10.2307/25065646. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-26.
  3. ^ Christenhusz, Maarten J. M.; Chase, Mark W. (13 February 2014). "Trends and concepts in fern classification". Annals of Botany. 113 (4): 571–594. doi:10.1093/aob/mct299. PMC 3936591.
  4. ^ S. Blair Hedges; Sudhir Kumar (2009). The Timetree of Life. US: Oxford University Press. pp. 154–156. ISBN 9780191560156. Retrieved 23 August 2011.