Euratom Treaty

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Euratom Treaty
TypeFounding treaty
Signed25 March 1957
LocationCapitoline Hill, Rome, Italy
Effective1 January 1958
Signatories(original signatories):
Belgium
France
Italy
Luxembourg
the Netherlands
West Germany
Parties27[1] (all European Union member states)
DepositaryGovernment of Italy
Language(original): Dutch, German, French and Italian.
Languagesall 23[2] official Languages of the European Union
Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community at Wikisource

Consolidated (amended) version of the EURATOM treaty (2009)

The Euratom Treaty, officially the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, established the European Atomic Energy Community. It was signed on 25 March 1957, at the same time as the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC Treaty).

The Euratom treaty is less well-known due to the lower profile of the organisation it founded. While the EEC has evolved into what is now the European Union, Euratom has remained much the same as it was in 1957, albeit governed by the institutions of the European Union. It was established with its own independent institutions, but the 1967 Merger Treaty merged the institutions of Euratom and the European Coal and Steel Community with those of the EEC.

The Euratom treaty has seen very little amendment, due to the later sensitivity surrounding nuclear power amongst European public opinion. Owing to this, some argue that it has become too out-dated, particularly in the areas of democratic oversight. It was not included as part of the (not ratified) Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, which sought to combine all previous treaties, over fears that including nuclear power in the treaty would turn more people against it. Nevertheless, it forms part of the active treaties of the European Union.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Detailpagina Verdragenbank, Verdrag tot oprichting van de Europese Gemeenschap voor Atoomenergie (EURATOM)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Netherlands) (in Dutch). Retrieved 21 August 2011.
  2. ^ "Verdrag tot oprichting van de Europese Gemeenschap voor Atoomenergie (EURATOM) (consolidated version)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Netherlands) (in Dutch). Retrieved 21 August 2011.

External links[edit]

Since the end of World War II, European countries have entered into treaties that provide for cooperation in an increasing number of policy areas. The following timeline outlines the legal inception of the European Union (EU) ― the principal framework for such integration, also referred to as the European project or the construction of Europe (French: la construction européenne). Many of the EU's present responsibilities stem from the European Communities (EC), founded in the 1950s in the spirit of the Schuman Declaration, whose work and membership were inherited by the EU.

S: signing, F: entry into force, T: termination, E: expiry,   de facto supersession, relationship with the EC/EU framework: de facto inside; outside
Dunkirk Treaty¹
S: 4 March 1947
F: 8 September 1947
E: 8 September 1997
Brussels Treaty¹
S: 17 March 1948
F: 25 August 1948
T: 30 June 2011
London and Washington treaties¹
S: 5 May/4 April 1949
F: 3 August/24 August 1949
Paris treaties: ECSC and EDC
S: 18 April 1951/27 May 1952
F: 23 July 1952/―
E: 23 July 2002/―
Rome treaties: EEC² and EAEC
S: 25 March 1957
F: 1 January 1958
WEU-CoE agreement¹
S: 21 October 1959
F: 1 January 1960
Brussels (Merger) Treaty³
S: 8 April 1965
F: 1 July 1967
Davignon report
S: 27 October 1970
Single European Act (SEA)
S: 17/28 February 1986
F: 1 July 1987
Schengen Treaty and Convention
S: 14 June 1985/19 June 1990
F: 26 March 1995
Maastricht Treaty²,
S: 7 February 1992
F: 1 November 1993
Amsterdam Treaty
S: 2 October 1997
F: 1 May 1999
Nice Treaty
S: 26 February 2001
F: 1 February 2003
Lisbon Treaty
S: 13 December 2007
F: 1 December 2009
                               
Flag of Europe.svg European Union (EU)
Flag of Europe.svg European Communities (EC)  
European Atomic Energy Community (EAEC or Euratom) [Cont.]
Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 6 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 9 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 10 Star Version.svg / Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community 12 Star Version.svg European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)     [Cont.]
    European Economic Community (EEC)   European Community (EC)
            Schengen Rules
  Flag of NATO.svg North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO; i.e. Allied Command Europe, ACE) [Cont.] Terrorism, Radicalism, Extremism and Violence Internationally (TREVI) Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC)
Flag of France.svg Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
Franco-British alliance
[Defence org. handed to NATO] European Political Cooperation (EPC) Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP)
Flag of the Western Union.svg Western Union (WU) Flag of the Western European Union (1993-1995).svg / Flag of the Western European Union.svg Western European Union (WEU) [Tasks handed to EU]  
         
[Social, cultural tasks handed to CoE]   [Cont.]              
    Flag of Europe.svg Council of Europe (CoE)
           
¹Although not EU treaties per se, these treaties affected the development of the EU defence arm, a main part of the CFSP. The Franco-British alliance established by the Dunkirk Treaty was de facto superseded by WU. The CFSP pillar was bolstered by some of the security structures that had been established within the remit of the 1955 Modified Brussels Treaty (MBT). The Brussels Treaty was terminated in 2011, consequently dissolving the WEU, as the mutual defence clause that the Lisbon Treaty provided for EU was considered to render the WEU superfluous. The EU thus de facto superseded the WEU.
²The treaties of Maastricht and Rome form the EU's legal basis, and are also referred to as the Treaty on European Union (TEU) and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), respectively. They are amended by secondary treaties.
³The European Communities obtained common institutions and a shared legal personality (i.e. ability to e.g. sign treaties in their own right).
⁴Between the EU's founding in 1993 and consolidation in 2009, the union consisted of three pillars, the first of which were the European Communities. The other two pillars consisted of additional areas of cooperation that had been added to the EU's remit.
⁵The consolidation meant that the EU inherited the European Communities' legal personality and that the pillar system was abolished, resulting in the EU framework as such covering all policy areas. Executive/legislative power in each area was instead determined by a distribution of competencies between EU institutions and member states. This distribution, as well as treaty provisions for policy areas in which unanimity is required and qualified majority voting is possible, reflects the depth of EU integration as well as the EU's partly supranational and partly intergovernmental nature.