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|Motto||Innovation across borders|
|Focus||Market R&D support, innovation policy, science & technology|
|Greater Europe, World|
|41 Members, 1 Partner Country, 3 Associated Members|
EUREKA, often abbreviated as E!, or Σ! (from the ancient Greek way to write "E" and unrelated to modern "Sigma") is an intergovernmental organisation for pan-European research and development funding and coordination. EUREKA is an open platform for international cooperation in innovation.
As of March 2018, EUREKA has 41 full members, including the European Union (represented by the European Commission), 1 partner country (South Korea) and 3 associated members (Canada, Chile, South Africa) All 28 EU Member States are also members of EUREKA.
EUREKA is not an EU research program, but rather an intergovernmental organisation, of which the EU is a member. Cooperation and synergy are sought between EUREKA and the research activities of the EU proper, notably with European Union's Horizon 2020 and the European Research Area.
Founded in 1985 by major figures of the European political scene, EUREKA's steady growth over the years has helped to make it one of the longest running European organisations dedicated to the financing of joint European R&D projects. EUREKA is loosely affiliated with COST, its non-competitive research counterpart, although the two focus on different aspects of R&D with COST's efforts geared towards more socially focused areas of public interest while EUREKA's mandate is to provide funding for projects envisaged, developed, and executed by private industry.
EUREKA was established with the "Paris Declaration" of July 17, 1985, and its principles are based on the later Hannover Declaration, subscribed by Ministers on November 6, 1985. The two main founders were former head of states François Mitterrand (France) and Helmut Kohl (Germany). Other important personalities involved were Hubert Curien, French ex-Minister of Research and former Chairman of the European Space Agency and Jacques Attali, adviser to François Mitterrand.
Briefly, it [EUREKA] is about assuring the technological independence of Europe in the key domains of the future; encouraging, wherever possible, co-operation between European businesses and researchers; mobilising the necessary financial resources; accompanying the efforts of our enterprises by creating the necessary environment and supporting the unification of our internal markets.
There are numerous obstacles. Once the initial idea of EUREKA was formulated, we were able to foresee the difficulties to be faced. But we know that each time we come together — for example to address high-energy physics, research into nuclear fusion, the development of an integrated space programme or the construction of crucial scientific equipment — our successes encourage us in the idea that we can work together in R&D areas close to industrial markets, despite the problems arising from the normal and legitimate competition between firms. François Mitterrand, Paris, 17 July 1985.
Before 1989, EUREKA chairmanship changed hands every six months. Since then, the chairmanship rotates every 1 July, for a period of one year.
|1985, 2nd semester||France|
|1986, 1st semester||Germany|
|1986, 2nd semester||United Kingdom|
|1987, 1st semester||Sweden|
|1987, 2nd semester||Spain|
|1988, 1st semester||Denmark|
|1988, 2nd semester||Austria|
|National Information Points||Joined|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||2009|
Eureka projects are numbered, preceded by 'E! '.
- E! 45 helped to fund the Prometheus project for safer road vehicles, such as through autonomous driving with 745 million euros.[N 1]
- E! 95 was a 730 million euros HDTV project, which created the HD-MAC standard for high definition television.[N 2]
- E! 147 was a 93 million euros digital audio broadcasting project whose technologies went into Musicam, and which was used as the basis for MPEG-1 Layer II (MP2) and used in DAB (Digital Audio Broadcast), and ASPEC (Adaptive Spectral Perceptual Entropy Coding), which was used in a modified form in MP3 audio.[N 3]
- E! 127 paid 3.8bn euros into the JESSI project (Joint European Submicron Silicon Initiative) whose goal was to regain ground lost to Asia and the USA in microchips.[N 4]
- E! 2551 cost 6.1 million euros for the integration of existing CAD/CAM programs under a common user interface, part of which was paid to Vero Software.[N 5]
- E! 3674 is Information Technology for European Advancement (ITEA2), an industry-driven cooperative R & D programme for maintaining European leadership in software-intensive systems, with the project due to end in January 2014 having received 3.0bn euros. ITEA2 Projects notably include WellCom, OSAMI-E (Open Source AMbient Intelligence) and Easy Interactions.[N 6]
- E! 4986 AlienVault developed a security software called OSSIM (Open Source Security Information Management) that is now not only a reference in the field but also an essential component in modern cyber-wars. E! 4986 received 1.2 million euros.
- E! 3728 OMIM (MIMO) invented a new method of medical waste disposal. MIMO is safe for the environment and treats infectious waste by applying a combination of heat and pressure. This is an alternative to incineration methods that use fossil fuels. The project was an initiative between Spain, Portugal and Morocco. E! 3728 received 0.37 million euros.
EUREKA ‘Clusters’ are long-term, strategically significant industrial initiatives. They usually have a large number of participants, and aim to develop inclusive technologies of key importance for European competitiveness mainly in ICT, energy and more recently in the biotechnology and automation sectors. Eureka Clusters are known to have had a particular impact on the ability of the European microelectronics sector to compete with other continents.
- Eureka Clusters are
- CATRENE: for microelectronics and nanoelectronics
- EURIPIDES: for electronic packaging and smart systems
- ITEA 3: for software-intensive systems
- CELTIC Plus: for telecommunications
- EUROGIA2020: for low-carbon energy technologies
- MF.IND: for advanced production systems
- ACQUEAU: for water related technologies and innovation[EL 1]
Umbrellas are thematic networks within the Eureka framework which focus on a specific technology area or business sector. The main goal of an umbrella is to facilitate the generation of EUREKA projects in its own target area.
- Eureka Umbrellas (past and present) are
- Eureka Tourism (ended 30.06.2012)
- Eureka build 2 (2010–2013)
- EuroAgri Foodchain (2009–2013)
- Pro-Factory (2007–2011)[EL 2]
- E! SURF (2010–2015)
- Eniwep (Ended 1.2.2010)
- Eulasnet II (Ended 31.5.2010)
- Logchain + (Ended 21.2.2011)
- "20TH Anniversary Report – Two decades of support for European innovation" (PDF). Belgium: the EUREKA Secretariat. September 2005. pp. 68 p. 12 (PDF-p. 18). Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
- "EUREKA Project > 45 PROMETHEUS – PROgramMe for a European Traffic system with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety ". Eureka. 1995-03-30.
- "EUREKA Project > 95 HDTV (IMP) – Compatible High Definition Television (HDTV) System (Phase III Implementation) ". Eureka. 1994-07-05.
- "EUREKA > 147 DAB (IMP) – Digital Audio Broadcasting system ". EUREKA. 2001-04-08.
- "EUREKA Project > 127 JESSI – Joint European Submicron Silicon Initiative ". Eureka. 1997-06-05.
- "EUREKA Project > 2551 VISI-XX – Integration of Existing CAD/CAM Programs under a Common User Interface — Vero International Software ". EUREKA. 2004-12-21.
- "Eureka Project > 3674 ITEA 2 – European Leadership in Software-Intensive Systems — Information Technology for European Advancement ". EUREKA. 25 June 2006.