European Canadians

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European Canadians
Total population
25,111,695
72.9% of the total Canadian population[1] (2016 Census)
Regions with significant populations
All areas of Canada
less prevalent in the North
Languages
Predominantly English • French
Historically Scottish Gaelic • Irish were spoken in certain regions
Religion
Predominantly Christianity (Protestantism and Roman Catholicism); Minority religions: Buddhism, Judaism, Islam
Related ethnic groups
European diaspora, Europeans, European Americans, European Australians, European New Zealanders, British (English, Scottish, Welsh, Ulster-Scots), Irish, French, German, Italian, Dutch, Ukrainian, Polish, Portuguese

It includes people who aren't of aboriginal origin and didn't make part of a visible minority group."/>

European Canadians (French: les Canadiens Européens), also known as Euro-Canadians, are Canadians with ancestry from Europe.[2][3][4] They form the largest panethnic group within Canada.

The French were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now Canada. Hélène Desportes is considered the first white child born in New France. She was born circa 1620, to Pierre Desportes (born Lisieux, Normandie, France) and Françoise Langlois.[5]

In the 2016 census, the largest European ancestry groups originated from the British Isles (11,211,850 including 6,320,085 English, 4,799,005 Scottish and 4,627,000 Irish), French (4,680,820), German (3,322,405), Italian (1,587,965).[6] However, the country's largest self-reported ethnic origin is "Canadian" (accounting for 11,135,965 of the population). Since 1996, "Canadian" as an ethnic group has been added to census questionnaires for possible ancestry, which likely caused English Canadians, British Canadians and French Canadians to become severely underrepresented. The grouping is similar to that of "American" in neighbouring United States and is most commonly espoused by European Canadians whose ancestors have been some of the earliest European settlers of what is now Canada, to the point where they no longer feel a connection to their countries of origin.[7] In the 2011 National Household Survey Profile, 10,563,805 people (32.1%) chose "Canadian" as their ethnic group, making it the single largest group in the country.[8]

Number of European Canadians[edit]

Year Population % of Canada Ref(s)
1871 3,433,315 98.5%1 [9][10][11]
1881 4,146,900 95.9%1 [9][11]
1901 5,170,522 96.0%1 [9][11]
1911 7,005,583 94.35%1 [9][11]
1921 8,568,584 96.0%1 [9][11]
1931 10,134,313 97.7% [9][11]
1941 11,242,868 97.8% [9][10]
1951 13,582,574 96.83% [9][10]
1961 17,653,864 96.8% [9][10]
1966 - 96.8% [9][10]
1971 20,763,915 96.3% [9][10]
1981 22,402,000 93.0% [12]
1986 - -
1991 - -
1996 24,531,635 86.0% [13]
2001 24,678,880 83.3% [14][15]
2006 25,000,155 80.0% [16]
2011 25,186,890 76.7% [17]
2016 25,111,695 72.9% [18]
^1 Census of 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911, 1921.[19]

The table shows the European-Canadian population showing a gradual increase from the 1871 Census, however, their proportion of the total Canadian population has been decreasing gradually since the mid-twentieth century to the most recent census in 2016. Canada enumerated its population by race between 1871 and 1971 and ethnic origins.

Today[edit]

European Canadians are still the largest ethnic group in Canada. Elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity. Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States.

The top ten cities as per population of European Canadians (not members of a visible minority and no Aboriginal status) are as follows (2016 Census):

  1. Toronto 1,282,750
  2. Montreal 1,082,615
  3. Calgary 744,625
  4. Ottawa 652,650
  5. Edmonton 524,265
  6. Quebec City 475,720
  7. Hamilton 415,740
  8. Winnipeg 412,645
  9. Halifax 336,375
  10. Mississauga 302,375

The top ten such Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) are as follows:

  1. Montreal 3,070,210
  2. Toronto 2,804,630
  3. Vancouver 1,179,100
  4. Ottawa - Gatineau 981,630
  5. Calgary 869,555
  6. Edmonton 857,085
  7. Quebec City 729,310
  8. Hamilton 590,310
  9. Winnipeg 473,360
  10. Kitchener - Cambridge - Waterloo 407,460

Culture[edit]

European Canadians celebrating Canada Day.

The culture of the Canadians of European descent, European-Canadian culture, is the main culture of Canada. From their earliest presence in North America, European Canadians have contributed literature, art, architecture, cinema and theater, religion and philosophy, ethics, agricultural skills, foods, medicine, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, business, economics, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to Canadian culture. European-Canadian culture derived its earliest influences from English, French, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers and is quantitatively the largest proportion of Canadian culture. The overall Canadian culture reflects European-Canadian culture, also known as White Canadian culture. The culture has been developing since long before Canada formed a separate country. Much of Canadian culture shows influences from English culture. Colonial ties to Great Britain spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.

Canadian flag[edit]

George Stanley designer of the current Canadian flag.

Music[edit]

Another area of cultural influence are Canadian Patriotic songs:

Sport[edit]

  • Ice Hockey - British soldiers and immigrants to Canada and the United States brought their stick-and-ball games with them and played them on the ice and snow of winter. Ice hockey was first played in Canada during the early nineteenth century, based on similar sports such as field hockey that were played in Europe.[26] The sport was originally played with a stick and ball, but in 1860 a group of English veterans from the Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment played a game in Kingston, Ontario, utilising a puck for what is believed to be the first time. This match, played on the frozen harbour by the city, is sometimes considered to be the birth of modern ice hockey.[27]

European ethnic origins table[edit]

Origins 18711 % 19513 % 2006 % 20114 % Change 2006-2011
Albania Albanian - - - - 22,395 - 28,270 - -
Austria Austrian - - 32,231 - 194,255 - 197,990 - -
Belgium Belgian - - 35,148 - 168,910 - 176,615 - -
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian - - - - 21,045 22,920
United Kingdom British Isles - - - - 403,915 576,030
United Kingdom Other British 7,773 0.2% 92,236
Bulgaria Bulgarian - - - - 27,255 30,485
Canada Canadian - - - - 10,066,290 32.22% 10,563,805 32.1%
Croatia Croatian - - - - 110,880 114,880
Czech Republic Czech - - - - 98,090 94,805
Czechoslovakia Czech and Slovak - - 63,959
Denmark Danish - - 42,671 200,035 203,080
Netherlands Dutch 29,662 0.85% 264,267 1,035,965 3.32% 1,067,245 3.2%
England English 706,369 20.3% 3,630,344 25.9% 6,570,015 21.03% 6,509,500 19.8%
Estonia Estonian - - - - 23,930 23,180
Finland Finnish - - 43,745 131,040 236,215
France French
(incl. Acadian)
1,082,940 31.07% 4,319,167 30.83% 4,941,210 15.82% 5,077,215 15.4%
Germany German 202,991 5.82% 619,995 3,179,425 10.18% 3,203,330 9.7%
Greece Greek 39 0.0% 13,966 242,685 252,960
Hungary Hungarian - - 60,460 315,510 316,765
Iceland Icelandic - - 23,307 88,875 94,205
Republic of Ireland Irish 846,414 24.3% 1,439,635 4,354,155 13.94% 4,544,870 13.8%
Italy Italian 1,035 0.03% 152,245 1,445,335 4.63% 1,488,425 4.5%
Latvia Latvian - - - - 27,870 27,355
Liechtenstein Liechtensteiner - - - -
Lithuania Lithuanian - - 16,224 46,690 49,130
Luxembourg Luxembourger - - - - 3,160 3,790
North Macedonia Macedonian - - - - 37,055 36,985
Malta Maltese - - - - 37,120 38,780
Moldova Moldovan - - - - 8,050
Monaco Monégasque - - - -
Montenegro Montenegrin - - - - 2,370 2,970
Norway Norwegian - - 119,266 432,515 452,705
Poland Polish - - 219,845 984,565 3.15% 1,010,705
Portugal Portuguese - - - - 410,850 1.25% 429,850 1.28%
Romania Romanian - - 23,601 192,170 204,625
Russia Russian 607 0.02% 91,279 500,600 1.60% 550,520
Scandinavian2 1,623 0.0% - - - - - - -
Scotland Scottish 549,946 15.8% 1,547,470 4,719,850 15.11% 4,714,970 14.3%
Serbia Serbian - - - - 72,690 80,320
Slovakia Slovak - - - - 64,145 66,545
Slovenia Slovene - - - - 35,935 37,170
San Marino Sammarinese - - - -
Spain Spanish - - - - 325,730 1.04% 368,305
Sweden Swedish - - 97,780 334,765 1.07% 341,845
Switzerland Swiss 2,962 0.1% 137,775 146,830
Ukraine Ukrainian - - 395,043 1,209,085 3.87% 1,251,170 3.8%
Wales Welsh 440,965 1.41% 458,705
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav - - 21,404 65,305 48,320
Europe Other European 3,791 0.0% 35,616 35,795 48,760
United Kingdom Total British 2,110,502 60.6% 6,709,685 47.89%
Canada Canada 3,433,315 98.49% 13,582,574 96.83% 20,157,9654 N/A
^1 First census of the Canadian federation.[19] The figures for 1871 are for the four original provinces only.
^2 Includes Danish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Swedish.^3 Canada 1951 Census[28][29]2006 Canada Census[30]
^4 Canada 2011 Census National Household Survey: Data tables[31] An extra 32% or 10,563,805 people identified as "Canadian" as their ethnic group, many
are of European origins.

Prime Ministers[edit]

Most of the heritage that all twenty-three Canadian Prime Ministers come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English, Scottish, Ulster Scot or Welsh) ancestry. Later Canadian Prime Ministers' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  2. ^ www.oxforddictionaries.com Euro-Canadian definition
  3. ^ Kappler, Maija. "Eye-Opening Show, 'First Contact,' Tackles White Canadians' Racism Toward Indigenous People". Huffington Post. Example of White Canadian being used
  4. ^ Menzies, Charles (1994). "Stories from Home: First Nations, Land Claims, and Euro-Canadians". American Ethnologist. American Anthropological Association. 21 (4): 776–791. doi:10.1525/ae.1994.21.4.02a00060. JSTOR 646839. Example of Euro-Canadian being used
  5. ^ Bennett, Ethel M. G. (1979) [1966]. "Desportes, Hélène". In Brown, George Williams (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. I (1000–1700) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  6. ^ Census Profile, 2016 Census - Ethnic origin population
  7. ^ The Changing Face of Canada: Essential Readings in Population
  8. ^ "National Household Survey Profile". Statistics Canada. 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ethnic origins Census of Canada (Page: 17)
  10. ^ a b c d e f Table 1: Population by Ethnic Origin, Canada, 1921-1971 Page: 2
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Canada Year Book 1922-23: Racial Origin" (PDF). Census and Statistics Office of Canada. 1921. pp. 158–59.
  12. ^ Nationalism and National Integration By Anthony H. Birch (Page: 169)
  13. ^ "Census of Canada, A population and dwelling counts" (PDF). Statistics Canada. 1997. Retrieved June 22, 2010.
  14. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  15. ^ "2001 Census Aboriginal Population Profiles". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  16. ^ "2006 Census Area Profiles". Statistics Canada. 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  17. ^ "National Household Survey Profile". Statistics Canada. 2011. A total of 25,186,890 persons didn't make part of a visible minority or didn't state an aboriginal origin.
  18. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  19. ^ a b CANADA - ORIGINS OF THE PEOPLE ACCORDING TO THE CENSUSES OF 1871, 1881, 1901, 1911 AND 1921. (Page: 134-135)
  20. ^ Foot, Richard (February 13, 2014). "The Stanley Flag". The Canadian Encyclopedia (online ed.). Historica Canada.
  21. ^ McIntosh, Andrew (March 26, 2012). "O Canada". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  22. ^ "Hymne national du Canada". Canadian Heritage. Government of Canada. June 23, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2008.
  23. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Canadian Heritage – National Anthem: O Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved June 29, 2010.
  24. ^ "Marches". L'Association Canadienne De L'Infanterie/Canadian Infantry Association. Archived from the original on April 22, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2012.
  25. ^ "Canadian Heritage – Patriotic Songs". Pch.gc.ca. March 3, 2010. Retrieved October 29, 2011.
  26. ^ "Ice Hockey Equipment and History". The Olympic Movement. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
  27. ^ "About Ice Hockey". Ice Hockey UK. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved December 27, 2011.
  28. ^ Multiculturalism and Immigration in Canada: An Introductory Reader By Elspeth Cameron (Page: 73-73)
  29. ^ Statistics Canada Distribution of the population, by ethnic group, census years 1941, 1951 and 1961
  30. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada - Data table". 2.statcan.ca. October 6, 2010. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
  31. ^ 2011 National Household Survey: Data tables

Further reading[edit]

Statistical[edit]