Europe of 100 Flags

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Map of Europe in the year 998 AD, showing some of the independent states sought by proponents of a Europe of 100 Flags[citation needed]

Europe of 100 Flags is a concept developed by Breton nationalist Yann Fouéré in his 1968 book, L'Europe aux Cent Drapeaux.[1][2] It proposes a redrawing of European borders in a way that more resembles a map of the region during the Middle Ages, including the creation of states for Basques, Bretons, and Kosovars.[1][3] These regions would be designed to promote regionalism and European federalism as a replacement for nationalism, and redefine extreme European boundaries more strictly in terms of ethnically homogeneous "authentic" historic regions. These individually ethnically "pure" states would then be incorporated under a "post-liberal-pan-European framework".[4][3][5][3]

It has been embraced by many in the far-right, such as those among the Identitarian movement and the Nouvelle Droite – the French New Right – and has been described as a "multiculturalism of the right", one based on exclusion,[6] homogeneity,[7] and ethnoregionalism.[3] The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right describes it as a minor exception to the radical right's preference for ethnic nationalism. Political scientist Alberto Spektorowski described it as a way for the radical-right to publicly recognize outsiders while preventing them from assimilating or gaining political power.[3] It has also been described as a form of "ultra-regionalism" as a re-framing of the ultra-nationalism common to fascism.[3][8]

The radical federalist concept of breaking Europe up into small self-administering regions was raised by Count Helmuth James Moltke, one of the members of the Kreisau Circle – a clandestine group which opposed Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime – as a possible post-Nazi political system for the continent.[9]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Kelly, Mike (ndg) "What the French really think about Brexit" University of Southampton website
  2. ^ Davies, Noel (ndg) "Future based on a hundred flags" (review of L'Europe aux cent drapeaux by Yann Fouéré) Welsh Nation
  3. ^ a b c d e f Bar-On, Tamir (March 2018). "The Radical Right and Nationalism". In Rydgren, Jens (ed.). The Oxford Handbook of the Radical Right. Oxford University Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-19-027455-9.
  4. ^ Backes, Uwe; Moreau, Patrick (7 December 2011). The Extreme Right in Europe: Current Trends and Perspectives. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 340. ISBN 978-3-647-36922-8.
  5. ^ Schlembach, Raphael (1 April 2016). Against Old Europe: Critical Theory and Alter-Globalization Movements. Routledge. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-317-18388-4.
  6. ^ Spektorowski, Alberto (26 April 2012) "The French New Right: multiculturalism of the right and the recognition/exclusionism syndrome" Journal of Global Ethics v.8 n.1
  7. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (9-10 February 2015) "Alain de Benoist: Neo-fascism with a human face?" Paper presented at the conference "Entgrenzter Rechtsextremismus? Internationale Perspektiven und Gegenstrategien". Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung
  8. ^ Bar-On, Tamir (1 January 2012). "The French New Right's Quest for Alternative Modernity". Fascism. 1 (1): 18–52. doi:10.1163/221162512X631198.
  9. ^ Bracher, Karl Dietrich (1970). The German Dictatorship. Translated by Jean Steinberg. New York: Penguin Books. p. 544. ISBN 978-0-14-013724-8.