European Banking Authority
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|Formed||1 January 2011|
Floor 46, One Canada Square,|
London E14 5AA, United Kingdom
The European Banking Authority (EBA) is a regulatory agency of the European Union headquartered in London. Its activities include conducting stress tests on European banks to increase transparency in the European financial system and identifying weaknesses in banks' capital structures. The EBA was established on 1 January 2011, upon which date it inherited all of the tasks and responsibilities of the Committee of European Banking Supervisors (CEBS). After the United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union referendum the agency is preparing to relocate to Paris.
The EBA has the power to overrule national regulators if they fail to properly regulate their banks. The EBA is able to prevent regulatory arbitrage and should allow banks to compete fairly throughout the EU. The EBA will prevent a race to the bottom because banks established in jurisdictions with less regulation will no longer be at a competitive advantage compared to banks based in jurisdictions with more regulations as all banks will henceforth have to comply with the higher pan European standard.
Mission and tasks
The main task of the EBA is to contribute, through the adoption of binding Technical Standards (BTS) and Guidelines, to the creation of the European Single Rulebook in banking. The Single Rulebook aims at providing a single set of harmonised prudential rules for financial institutions throughout the EU, helping create a level playing field and providing high protection to depositors, investors and consumers.
The Authority also plays an important role in promoting convergence of supervisory practices to ensure a harmonised application of prudential rules. Finally, the EBA is mandated to assess risks and vulnerabilities in the EU banking sector through, in particular, regular risk assessment reports and pan-European stress tests.
Other tasks set out in the EBA's mandate include:
- investigating alleged incorrect or insufficient application of EU law by national authorities
- taking decisions directed at individual competent authorities or financial institutions in emergency situations
- mediating to resolve disagreements between competent authorities in cross-border situations
- acting as an independent advisory body to the European Parliament, the Council or the Commission.
- taking a leading role in promoting transparency, simplicity and fairness in the market for consumer financial products or services across the internal market.
To perform these tasks, the EBA can produce a number of regulatory and non regulatory documents including binding Technical Standards, Guidelines, Recommendations, Opinions and ad-hoc or regular reports. The Binding Technical Standards are legal acts which specify particular aspects of an EU legislative text (Directive or Regulation) and aim at ensuring consistent harmonisation in specific areas. The EBA develops draft BTS which are finally endorsed and adopted by the European Commission. Contrary to other documents such as Guidelines or Recommendations, the BTS are legally binding and directly applicable in all Member States.
Common Reporting Framework
Common Reporting (COREP) is the standardised reporting framework issued by the EBA for the Capital Requirements Directive reporting. It covers credit risk, market risk, operational risk, own fund and capital adequacy ratios. This reporting framework has been adopted by almost 30 European countries. Regulated institutions are periodically required to file COREP reports, on both a solo and consolidated basis using XBRL in Eurofiling architecture taxonomies. All regulated organisations in the UK must use COREP to make their regular statutory reports from 1 January 2014 onwards.
As a consequence of the United Kingdom's planned withdrawal from the EU, the European Commission worked on plans to move the EBA (alongside with the European Medicines Agency) out of the United Kingdom, to keep it inside the remaining EU member states. Future homes for the agency that were being considered were Brussels, Dublin, Frankfurt, Luxembourg, Paris, Prague, Vienna and Warsaw. In the end, Paris was selected by drawing of lots to house the EBA, at 18:40 CET on Monday, 20 November 2017.
- European System of Financial Supervision
- European Systemic Risk Board
- European Central Bank (Single Supervisory Mechanism)
- European Securities and Markets Authority
- European Insurance and Occupational Pensions Authority
- European Medicines Agency
- List of acronyms: European sovereign-debt crisis
- "EBA at glance". European Banking Authority. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "New European Banking Regulator Will Conduct a Stress Test on Lenders". New York Times. 2011-01-13. Retrieved 2011-02-01.
- Rankin, Jennifer (2017-11-20). "London loses EU agencies to Paris and Amsterdam in Brexit relocation". the Guardian. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- "The Single Rulebook". Regulation and policy. European Banking Authority. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- "Common Reporting Framework (COREP)". Moody's Analytics. 2011-07-01.
- "Offers to host the European Banking Authority (EBA) - Consilium". www.consilium.europa.eu. Retrieved 2018-03-14.