European Canadians

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European Canadians
Total population
25,111,700
72.9% of Canadian's population (2016)[1][nb 1]
Regions with significant populations
All areas of Canada
less prevalent in the North
Languages
English · French
Other European Languages
Historically: Scottish Gaelic · Irish
Religion
Majority:
Christianity:
Protestantism · Roman Catholicism · Eastern Orthodoxy · Oriental Orthodoxy · Mormonism · Other Latter Day Saints · Nondenominational and Other Christians
Minority:
Islam · Judaism
Related ethnic groups
European diaspora, Europeans, European Americans, European Australians, European New Zealanders, British (English, Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish), Irish, French, German, Italian, Dutch, Ukrainian, Polish, Portuguese

European Canadians (French: les Canadiens Européens), or Euro-Canadians, are Canadians with European ancestry.[2][3] They form the largest panethnic group within Canada. In the 2016 Canadian census, 25,111,700 Canadians self-identified as having origins from European countries, forming approximately 73% of the total Canadian population.[1] However, the sum of the identified ethnic groups is greater than the total population estimate, because a person may report more than one ethnic origin in the census[1]: note103  [4] Therefore, it is not possible to assess the total number of European Canadians as a percentage of Canada's total population.

Terminology[edit]

As with other panethnic groups, Statistics Canada records ethnic ancestry by employing the term "European origins" under the ethnic origin population section in the census data,[5] but does not specifically use the term "European Canadian". "Euro-Canadians" and "European Canadians" are terms primarily used by those opposed to immigration to Canada from the Third World, and their use has been criticised as conflating distinctions between very different European groups and nationalities.[6] Those employing the terms can recognise that most Canadians of European descent do not see that as their collective identity and instead identify with a specific ethnicity or country of ancestral origin, characterising themselves as for example "Anglo" or "Québecois" rather than as part of a larger "Euro-Canadian" group.[7] For most of the history of European settlement in North America, the French and the English were seen as two distinct races, with distinct cultures and national spirits.[8][9]

Statistics Canada has cautioned that "the reporting of ethnicity, and subsequent interpretation of the results, has become increasingly complex due to a number of factors, and poses challenges for historical data comparisons. The concept of ethnicity is fluid and is probably one of the more complex concepts measured in the census."[10] As well, patterns of self-reporting ethnic origins on the census vary with different population groups in Canada, with particular fluidity on self-reporting of the category "Canadian".[4][11] Use of statistics in this subject area must be approached with these cautions in mind.

The phrase "Euro-Canadian" can sometimes be a term used by members of the far right who express racist ideology, as for example in the name "Euro-Canadian Freedom Front", a telephone hotline maintained by the neo-Nazi Heritage Front in the 1990s.[12][13]

Subgroups[edit]

There are several subgroups of Canadians of European origin.[14] Although approximately defined categories (due to imprecise, or ethnocultural, regionalization of the continent), the subgroups have been utilized widely in ethnic and cultural identification.[15][16] This is especially relevant in diaspora, as is the case with European people in Canada.[17]

Statistics Canada does not use the term "European Canadian". The 2016 census asked individuals to self-identify their ethnic origins,[1] within six general categories:

History[edit]

Initial settlement[edit]

The French were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now Canada. Hélène Desportes is considered the first white child born in New France. She was born circa 1620, to Pierre Desportes (born Lisieux, Normandie, France) and Françoise Langlois.[18]

20th century[edit]

Hundreds of thousands of European immigrants came through Pier 21 in Halifax, Nova Scotia in the 1900s.[19]

Diaspora[edit]

Substantial numbers of European Canadians of French extraction migrated to New England beginning in the late nineteenth century, taking jobs in the cotton mills there and forming a Catholic French-speaking immigrant community.[20] Notable francophone European-Canadian Americans included Beat novelist Jack Kerouac and best-selling novelist Grace Metalious.

Notable Canadians of European descent who settled in the United States or lived in the United States for extended periods have included Joni Mitchell, Lorne Michaels, Hal Foster, Todd McFarlane, Pamela Anderson, Justin Bieber, Seth Rogen and William Shatner. Ted Cruz was a member of the Canadian diaspora who became active in American politics as a dual citizen; he renounced his Canadian citizenship when competing to be the Republican presidential candidate, effective 2016.

Demographics[edit]

Beginning with the first Canadian census in 1871, the European Canadian population as a percentage of the total Canadian population had a peak of 98.5 percent. Since then, their proportion of the total Canadian population has been decreasing gradually since the mid-20th century to the most recent census in 2016.[1][21][22] The actual decrease in the percentage of the population who are of European origins is hard to quantify, because individuals who fill out the census can self-identify under more than one category, based on their personal family history. Statistics Canada advises that the total number of people listed by ethnic origin is actually larger than the total population estimate.[1]: note103  [4] It is therefore not possible to express the number of individuals of European origin as a percentage of the total population.

The 2016 census recorded Canadians of European descent in the following categories: British Isles origins; French origins; Western European origins (except French origins); Northern European origins (except British Isles origins); Eastern European origins; and Southern European origins.[1]

"Canadian" was the single largest ethnic origin reported in the 2016 census, reported by 11,135,965 individuals, although the grouping from the British isles was collectively larger, at 11,211,850. The British category included 6,320,085 English, 4,799,005 Scottish, 4,627,000 Irish, and 474,805 Welsh. It was followed by France at 4,680,820. Other large groups included individuals with origins from Germany (3,322,405), Italy (1,587,965), Ukraine (1,359,655), The Netherlands (1,111,655), and Poland (1,106,585).[1]

European Canadian population in Canada
Year Population % of total population
1871[22][23] 3,433,315 98.5%
1881[23][24] 4,146,900 95.9%
1901[23][24] 5,170,522 96.0%
1911[23][24] 7,005,583 94.4%
1921[21][23][24] 8,568,584 96.0%
1931[21][22] 10,134,313 97.7%
1941[21][22] 11,242,868 97.8%
1951[21][22] 13,582,574 96.8%
1961[21][22] 17,653,864 96.8%
1966[22] N/A 96.8%
1971[21][22] 20,763,915 96.3%
1981[25] 22,402,000 93.0%
1986 N/A N/A
1991 N/A N/A
1996 N/A N/A
2001[26][27][nb 1] 24,678,880 83.3%
2006[28][nb 1] 25,000,150 80.0%
2011[29][nb 1] 25,186,890 76.7%
2016[1][nb 1] 25,111,700 72.9%
European Canadians by province and territory (2001–2016)
Province/territory Population (2001)[26][27] % of total ethnic population (2001) Population (2006)[28] % of total ethnic population (2006) Population (2011)[29] % of total ethnic population (2011) Population (2016)[1] % of total ethnic population (2016)
Flag of Ontario.svg Ontario 8,944,190 79.3% 9,041,200 75.2% 9,070,795 71.7% 8,982,180 67.8%
Flag of Quebec.svg Quebec 6,548,205 91.9% 6,673,120 89.7% 6,740,370 87.2% 6,750,200 84.7%
Flag of British Columbia.svg British Columbia 2,862,405 74.0% 2,869,450 70.4% 2,911,568 67.3% 2,908,420 63.8%
Flag of Alberta.svg Alberta 2,455,005 83.5% 2,613,790 80.3% 2,690,955 75.4% 2,786,340 70.0%
Flag of Manitoba.svg Manitoba 866,545 78.5% 849,025 74.9% 824,820 70.2% 800,540 64.5%
Flag of Nova Scotia.svg Nova Scotia 846,030 94.3% 841,230 93.2% 825,050 91.1% 798,195 87.9%
Flag of Saskatchewan.svg Saskatchewan 805,380 83.6% 778,060 81.2% 787,745 78.1% 779,665 72.8%
Flag of New Brunswick.svg New Brunswick 693,295 96.3% 688,650 95.7% 696,085 94.6% 676,785 92.6%
Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg Newfoundland and Labrador 485,450 95.6% 471,430 94.2% 464,540 91.6% 454,710 88.8%
Flag of Prince Edward Island.svg Prince Edward Island 130,860 98.1% 130,645 97.4% 130,885 95.3% 130,310 93.3%
Flag of Yukon.svg Yukon 20,955 73.5% 21,395 70.9% 23,595 70.8% 23,915 68.1%
Flag of the Northwest Territories.svg Northwest Territories 16,925 45.4% 18,150 44.2% 16,915 41.6% 16,320 39.7%
Flag of Nunavut.svg Nunavut 3,735 14.0% 3,990 13.6% 3,820 12.1% 4,115 11.6%
Flag of Canada.svg Canada 24,678,880 83.3% 25,000,150 80.0% 25,186,890 76.7% 25,111,695 72.9%

Ethnicity[edit]

European Canadian population by country of origin (1871–1911)
Ethnicity Population (1871)[24] % of Canadian population (1871) Population (1881)[24] % of Canadian population (1881) Population (1901)[24] % of Canadian population (1901) Population (1911)[24] % of Canadian population (1911)
Albania Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Austria Austrian N/A N/A N/A N/A 10,947 0.2% 42,535 0.6%
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belgium Belgian N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,994 0.1% 9,593 0.1%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgaria Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Croatia Croatian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cyprus Cypriot N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Czech Republic Czech N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Denmark Danish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Netherlands Dutch 29,662 0.9% 30,412 0.7% 33,845 0.6% 54,986 0.8%
England English 706,369 20.3% 881,301 20.4% 1,260,899 23.5% 1,823,150 25.3%
Estonia Estonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Finland Finnish N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,502 0.1% 15,497 0.2%
France French 1,082,940 31.1% 1,298,929 30.0% 1,649,371 30.7% 2,054,890 28.5%
Germany German 202,991 5.8% 254,319 5.9% 310,501 5.8% 393,320 5.5%
Greece Greek N/A N/A N/A N/A 291 0.0% 3,594 0.0%
Hungary Hungarian N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,549 0.0% 11,605 0.2%
Iceland Icelandic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Republic of Ireland Irish 846,414 24.3% 957,403 22.1% 988,721 18.4% 1,050,384 14.6%
Italy Italian 1,035 0.0% 1,849 0.0% 10,834 0.2% 45,411 0.6%
Kosovo Kosovar N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Latvia Latvian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Lithuania Lithuanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Luxembourg Luxembourger N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
North Macedonia Macedonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Malta Maltese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Moldova Moldovan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Montenegro Montenegrin N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Norway Norwegian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Poland Polish N/A N/A N/A N/A 6,285 0.1% 33,365 0.5%
Portugal Portuguese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Romania Romanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Russia Russian 607 0.0% 1,227 0.1% 19,825 0.4% 43,142 0.6%
Scotland Scottish 549,946 15.8% 699,863 16.2% 800,154 14.9% 997,880 13.9%
Serbia Serbian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovakia Slovak N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovenia Slovene N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Spain Spanish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Sweden Swedish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Switzerland Swiss 2,962 0.1% 4,588 0.1% 3,865 0.1% 6,625 0.1%
Ukraine Ukrainian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Wales Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
European Canadian population by country of origin (1921–1961)
Ethnicity Population (1921)[24] % of Canadian population (1921) Population (1941)[30][31] % of Canadian population (1941) Population (1951)[30][31] % of Canadian population (1951) Population (1961)[30][31] % of Canadian population (1961)
Albania Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belgium Belgian 20,234 0.2% 29,711 0.3% 35,148 0.3% 61,382 0.3%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgaria Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Croatia Croatian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cyprus Cypriot N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian N/A N/A 42,912 0.4% 63,959 0.4% 73,061 0.4%
Czech Republic Czech N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Denmark Danish N/A N/A 37,439 0.3% 42,671 0.3% 85,473 0.5%
Netherlands Dutch 117,506 1.2% 212,863 1.8% 264,267 1.9% 429,679 2.4%
England English 2,545,496 29.0% 2,968,402 25.1% 3,630,344 25.9% 4,195,175 23.0%
Estonia Estonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Finland Finnish 21,494 0.2% 41,683 0.4% 43,745 0.3% 59,436 0.3%
France French 2,452,751 27.9% 3,483,038 29.5% 4,319,167 30.8% 5,540,346 30.4%
Germany German 294,636 3.4% 464,682 3.9% 619,995 4.4% 1,049,599 5.8%
Greece Greek 5,740 0.1% 11,692 0.1% 13,966 0.1% 56,475 0.3%
Hungary Hungarian 13,181 0.1% 54,598 0.5% 60,460 0.4% 126,220 0.7%
Iceland Icelandic N/A N/A 21,050 0.2% 23,307 0.2% 30,623 0.2%
Republic of Ireland Irish 1,107,817 12.6% 1,267,702 10.7% 1,439,635 10.3% 1,753,351 9.6%
Italy Italian 66,769 0.8% 112,625 1.0% 152,245 1.1% 459,351 2.5%
Kosovo Kosovar N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Latvia Latvian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Lithuania Lithuanian N/A N/A 7,789 0.1% 16,224 0.1% 27,629 0.2%
Luxembourg Luxembourger N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
North Macedonia Macedonian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Malta Maltese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Moldova Moldovan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Montenegro Montenegrin N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Norway Norwegian N/A N/A 100,718 0.9% 119,266 0.9% 148,681 0.8%
Poland Polish 53,403 0.6% 167,485 1.4% 219,845 1.6% 323,517 1.8%
Portugal Portuguese N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Romania Romanian N/A N/A 24,689 0.2% 23,601 0.2% 43,805 0.2%
Russia Russian 100,064 1.1% 83,708 0.7% 91,279 0.6% 119,168 0.7%
Scotland Scottish 1,173,637 13.4% 1,403,974 11.9% 1,547,470 11.0% 1,902,302 10.4%
Serbia Serbian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovakia Slovak N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Slovenia Slovene N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Spain Spanish N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Sweden Swedish N/A N/A 85,396 0.7% 97,780 0.7% 121,757 0.7%
Switzerland Swiss 12,837 0.2% N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Ukraine Ukrainian N/A N/A 305,929 2.6% 395,043 2.8% 473,337 2.6%
Wales Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 21,214 0.2%
European Canadian population by country of origin (1991–2006)
Ethnicity Population (1991)[32] % of Canadian population (1991) Population (1996)[33] % of Canadian population (1996) Population (2001)[34] % of Canadian population (2001) Population (2006)[35] % of Canadian population (2006)
Albania Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A 14,935 0.1% 22,395 0.1%
Austria Austrian 107,671 1.2% 37,715 0.3% 32,231 0.2% 106,535 0.6%
Austria Austrian N/A N/A N/A N/A 147,585 0.5% 194,255 0.6%
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,715 0.0% 4,975 0.0%
Belgium Belgian N/A N/A N/A N/A 129,780 0.4% 168,910 0.5%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A 15,720 0.1% 21,045 0.1%
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) N/A N/A N/A N/A 150,585 0.5% 403,915 1.3%
Bulgaria Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A N/A 15,195 0.1% 27,255 0.1%
Croatia Croatian N/A N/A N/A N/A 97,050 0.3% 110,880 0.4%
Cyprus Cypriot N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,060 0.0% 3,395 0.0%
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian N/A N/A N/A N/A 33,540 0.1% 36,970 0.1%
Czech Republic Czech N/A N/A N/A N/A 79,910 0.3% 98,090 0.3%
Denmark Danish N/A N/A N/A N/A 170,780 0.6% 200,035 0.6%
Netherlands Dutch 961,600 3.4% 916,215 3.1% 923,310 3.1% 1,035,965 3.3%
England English 8,605,125 30.7% 6,832,095 23.1% 5,978,875 20.2% 6,570,015 21.0%
Estonia Estonian N/A N/A N/A N/A 22,085 0.1% 23,930 0.1%
Finland Finnish N/A N/A N/A N/A 114,690 0.4% 131,040 0.4%
France French 8,369,210 29.9% 5,597,845 18.9% 4,668,410 15.8% 4,941,210 15.8%
Germany German 2,793,775 10.0% 2,757,140 9.3% 2,742,765 9.3% 3,179,425 10.2%
Greece Greek 191,475 0.7% 203,345 0.7% 215,105 0.7% 242,685 0.8%
Hungary Hungarian N/A N/A N/A N/A 267,255 0.9% 315,510 1.0%
Iceland Icelandic N/A N/A N/A N/A 75,090 0.3% 88,875 0.3%
Republic of Ireland Irish N/A N/A N/A N/A 3,822,660 12.9% 4,354,155 13.9%
Italy Italian 1,147,780 4.1% 1,207,475 4.2% 1,270,370 4.3% 1,445,335 4.6%
Kosovo Kosovar N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,200 0.0% 1,530 0.0%
Latvia Latvian N/A N/A N/A N/A 22,615 0.1% 27,870 0.1%
Lithuania Lithuanian N/A N/A N/A N/A 36,485 0.1% 46,690 0.1%
Luxembourg Luxembourger N/A N/A N/A N/A 2,390 0.0% 3,225 0.0%
North Macedonia Macedonian N/A N/A N/A N/A 31,265 0.1% 37,055 0.1%
Malta Maltese N/A N/A N/A N/A 33,000 0.1% 37,120 0.1%
Moldova Moldovan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Montenegro Montenegrin N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,055 0.0% 2,370 0.0%
Norway Norwegian 286,240 1.0% N/A N/A 363,760 1.2% 432,515 1.4%
Poland Polish 740,720 2.6% 786,735 2.7% 817,085 2.8% 984,565 3.2%
Portugal Portuguese 292,185 1.0% 335,110 1.1% 357,690 1.2% 410,850 1.3%
Romania Romanian N/A N/A N/A N/A 131,830 0.4% 192,170 0.6%
Russia Russian N/A N/A N/A N/A 337,960 1.1% 500,600 1.6%
Scotland Scottish 4,248,365 15.2% 4,260,840 14.4% 4,157,210 14.0% 4,719,850 15.1%
Serbia Serbian N/A N/A N/A N/A 55,540 0.2% 72,690 0.2%
Slovakia Slovak N/A N/A N/A N/A 50,860 0.2% 64,145 0.2%
Slovenia Slovene N/A N/A N/A N/A 28,910 0.1% 35,935 0.1%
Spain Spanish 158,915 0.6% 204,360 0.7% 213,105 0.7% 325,730 1.0%
Sweden Swedish N/A N/A N/A N/A 282,760 1.0% 334,765 1.1%
Switzerland Swiss N/A N/A N/A N/A 110,795 0.4% 137,775 0.4%
Ukraine Ukrainian 1,054,295 3.8% 1,026,470 3.5% 1,071,060 3.6% 1,209,085 3.9%
Wales Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A 350,365 1.2% 440,965 1.4%
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav 21,404 0.2% 68,587 0.4% 65,505 0.2% 65,305 0.2%
European Canadian population by country of origin (2011–2016)
Ethnicity Population (2011)[36] % of Canadian population (2011) Population (2016)[1] % of Canadian population (2016)
Albania Albanian 28,270 0.1% 36,185 0.1%
Austria Austrian 197,990 0.6% 207,050 0.6%
Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque 5,570 0.0% 6,965 0.0%
Belgium Belgian 176,615 0.5% 186,665 0.5%
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian 22,920 0.1% 26,740 0.1%
United Kingdom British Isles (not otherwise specified) 576,030 1.8% 644,695 1.9%
Bulgaria Bulgarian 30,485 0.1% 34,565 0.1%
Croatia Croatian 114,880 0.3% 133,970 0.4%
Cyprus Cypriot 4,815 0.0% 5,650 0.0%
Czechoslovakia Czechoslovakian 40,035 0.1% 40,715 0.1%
Czech Republic Czech 94,805 0.3% 104,580 0.3%
Denmark Danish 203,080 0.6% 207,470 0.6%
Netherlands Dutch 1,067,245 3.2% 1,111,655 3.2%
England English 6,509,500 19.8% 6,320,085 18.3%
Estonia Estonian 23,180 0.1% 24,530 0.1%
Finland Finnish 136,215 0.4% 143,645 0.4%
France French 5,065,690 15.4% 4,670,595 13.6%
Germany German 3,203,330 9.8% 3,322,405 9.6%
Greece Greek 252,960 0.8% 271,410 0.8%
Hungary Hungarian 316,765 1.0% 348,085 1.0%
Iceland Icelandic 94,205 0.3% 101,795 0.3%
Republic of Ireland Irish 4,544,870 13.8% 4,627,000 13.4%
Italy Italian 1,488,425 4.5% 1,587,970 4.6%
Kosovo Kosovar 2,760 0.0% 2,865 0.0%
Latvia Latvian 27,355 0.1% 30,725 0.1%
Lithuania Lithuanian 49,130 0.1% 59,285 0.2%
Luxembourg Luxembourger 3,790 0.0% 3,915 0.0%
North Macedonia Macedonian 36,985 0.1% 43,110 0.1%
Malta Maltese 38,780 0.1% 41,920 0.1%
Moldova Moldovan 8,050 0.0% 14,915 0.0%
Montenegro Montenegrin 2,970 0.0% 4,160 0.0%
Norway Norwegian 452,705 1.4% 463,275 1.3%
Poland Polish 1,010,705 3.1% 1,106,585 3.2%
Portugal Portuguese 429,850 1.3% 482,605 1.4%
Romania Romanian 204,625 0.6% 238,050 0.7%
Russia Russian 550,520 1.7% 622,445 1.8%
Scotland Scottish 4,714,970 14.4% 4,799,005 13.9%
Serbia Serbian 80,320 0.2% 96,530 0.3%
Slovakia Slovak 66,545 0.2% 72,285 0.2%
Slovenia Slovene 37,170 0.1% 40,470 0.1%
Spain Spanish 368,305 1.1% 396,460 1.2%
Sweden Swedish 341,845 1.0% 349,645 1.0%
Switzerland Swiss 146,830 0.4% 155,120 0.5%
Ukraine Ukrainian 1,251,170 3.8% 1,359,655 3.9%
Wales Welsh 458,705 1.4% 474,805 1.4%
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav 48,320 0.1% 38,480 0.1%

Language and immigration[edit]

In the 2016 census, the largest non-official European mother tongue languages were Spanish (458,850), German (384,035), Italian (375,635) and Portuguese (221,540) and Russian (188,255).[1] English and French are not included in this table because most Canadians have one of those languages as their mother tongue, regardless of their ethnic origin.[37]

European mother tongue by language (1991–2001)
Language Population (1991)[38] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (1991)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (1991)
Population (1996)[39] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (1996)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (1996)
Population (2001)[40] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2001)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2001)
Albanian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Belarusan N/A N/A N/A 420 0.0% 0.0% 530 0.0% 0.0%
Bosnian N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Bulgarian N/A N/A N/A 6,330 0.1% 0.0% 9,130 0.2% 0.0%
Catalan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Croatian N/A N/A N/A 50,105 1.1% 0.2% 54,880 1.1% 0.2%
Czech N/A N/A N/A 24,985 0.5% 0.1% 24,795 0.5% 0.1%
Danish N/A N/A N/A 20,280 0.4% 0.1% 18,230 0.4% 0.1%
Dutch 124,535 3.5% 0.5% 133,805 2.9% 0.5% 128,670 2.5% 0.4%
Estonian N/A N/A N/A 10,690 0.2% 0.0% 8,720 0.2% 0.0%
Finnish N/A N/A N/A 24,735 0.5% 0.1% 22,400 0.4% 0.1%
Flemish N/A N/A N/A 6,980 0.2% 0.0% 6,010 0.1% 0.0%
Frisian N/A N/A N/A 2,915 0.0% 0.0% 3,185 0.1% 0.0%
German 424,645 12.0% 1.6% 450,140 9.8% 1.6% 438,080 8.4% 1.5%
Greek 114,370 3.2% 0.4% 121,180 2.6% 0.4% 120,365 2.3% 0.4%
Hungarian 72,900 2.1% 0.3% 77,235 1.7% 0.3% 75,550 1.5% 0.3%
Icelandic N/A N/A N/A 2,675 0.1% 0.0% 2,075 0.0% 0.0%
Italian 449,660 12.7% 1.7% 484,500 10.5% 1.7% 469,485 9.0% 1.6%
Latvian N/A N/A N/A 9,635 0.2% 0.0% 8,230 0.2% 0.0%
Lithuanian N/A N/A N/A 9,385 0.2% 0.0% 8,770 0.2% 0.0%
Macedonian N/A N/A N/A 19,300 0.4% 0.1% 16,905 0.3% 0.1%
Maltese N/A N/A N/A 7,120 0.2% 0.0% 7,375 0.1% 0.0%
Norwegian N/A N/A N/A 10,235 0.2% 0.0% 8,725 0.2% 0.0%
Polish 171,975 4.9% 0.6% 213,410 4.6% 0.7% 208,370 4.0% 0.7%
Portuguese 186,995 5.3% 0.7% 211,290 4.6% 0.7% 213,815 4.1% 0.7%
Romanian N/A N/A N/A 35,710 0.8% 0.1% 50,900 1.0% 0.2%
Russian N/A N/A N/A 57,495 1.3% 0.2% 94,555 1.8% 0.3%
Scottish Gaelic N/A N/A N/A 2,175 0.0% 0.0% 2,155 0.0% 0.0%
Serbian N/A N/A N/A 28,620 0.6% 0.1% 41,175 0.8% 0.1%
Serbo-Croatian N/A N/A N/A 17,940 0.4% 0.1% 26,685 0.5% 0.1%
Slovak N/A N/A N/A 18,285 0.4% 0.1% 17,540 0.3% 0.1%
Slovene N/A N/A N/A 14,085 0.3% 0.0% 12,800 0.2% 0.0%
Spanish 158,655 4.5% 0.6% 212,890 4.6% 0.8% 245,495 4.7% 0.8%
Swedish N/A N/A N/A 9,760 0.2% 0.0% 9,070 0.2% 0.0%
Ukrainian 166,830 4.7% 0.6% 162,695 3.5% 0.6% 148,085 2.8% 0.5%
Welsh N/A N/A N/A 1,670 0.0% 0.0% 1,615 0.0% 0.0%
Yiddish N/A N/A N/A 21,415 0.1% 0.5% 19,290 0.4% 0.1%
European mother tongue by language (2006–2016)
Language Population (2006)[41] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2006)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2006)
Population (2011)[42] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2011)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2011)
Population (2016)[1] % of non-official language mother
tongue speakers in Canada (2016)
% of all language mother tongue
speakers in Canada (2016)
Albanian N/A N/A N/A 23,820 0.4% 0.1% 26,890 0.4% 0.1%
Belarusan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 810 0.0% 0.0%
Bosnian 12,790 0.2% 0.0% 11,685 0.2% 0.0% 12,210 0.2% 0.0%
Bulgarian 16,790 0.3% 0.1% 19,050 0.3% 0.1% 20,025 0.3% 0.1%
Catalan N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 865 0.0% 0.0%
Croatian 55,335 0.9% 0.2% 49,730 0.8% 0.2% 48,200 0.7% 0.1%
Czech 24,450 0.4% 0.1% 23,585 0.4% 0.1% 22,290 0.3% 0.1%
Danish 18,735 0.3% 0.1% 14,145 0.2% 0.0% 12,630 0.2% 0.0%
Dutch 128,905 2.1% 0.4% 110,490 1.7% 0.3% 99,020 1.4% 0.3%
Estonian 8,245 0.1% 0.0% 6,385 0.1% 0.0% 975 0.0% 0.0%
Finnish 21,030 0.3% 0.1% 17,415 0.3% 0.1% 2,790 0.0% 0.0%
Flemish 5,665 0.1% 0.0% 4,690 0.1% 0.0% 3,895 0.1% 0.0%
Frisian 2,890 0.0% 0.0% 14,935 0.1% N/A 2,100 0.0% 0.0%
German 450,570 7.3% 1.4% 409,200 6.2% 1.2% 384,035 5.2% 1.1%
Greek 108,925 1.7% 0.3% 106,525 1.5% 0.3% 117,285 1.9% 0.4%
Hungarian 73,335 1.2% 0.2% 67,920 1.0% 0.2% 61,235 0.8% 0.2%
Icelandic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,285 0.0% 0.0%
Italian 455,040 7.4% 1.5% 407,485 6.2% 1.2% 375,635 5.1% 1.1%
Latvian 6,995 0.1% 0.0% 6,200 0.1% 0.0% 5,455 0.1% 0.0%
Lithuanian 8,335 0.1% 0.0% 7,245 0.1% 0.0% 7,075 0.1% 0.0%
Macedonian 18,440 0.3% 0.0% 17,245 0.3% 0.1% 16,775 0.2% 0.0%
Maltese 6,405 0.1% 0.0% 6,220 0.1% 0.0% 5,565 0.1% 0.0%
Norwegian 7,225 0.1% 0.0% 5,800 0.1% 0.0% 4,615 0.1% 0.0%
Polish 211,175 3.4% 0.7% 191,645 2.9% 0.6% 181,710 2.5% 0.5%
Portuguese 219,270 3.6% 0.7% 211,335 3.2% 0.6% 221,540 3.0% 0.6%
Romanian 78,500 1.3% 0.3% 90,300 1.4% 0.3% 96,665 1.3% 0.3%
Russian 133,575 2.2% 0.4% 164,330 2.5% 0.5% 188,255 2.6% 0.5%
Scottish Gaelic N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,090 0.0% 0.0%
Serbian 51,665 0.8% 0.2% 56,420 0.9% 0.2% 57,350 0.8% 0.2%
Serbo-Croatian 12,510 0.2% 0.0% 10,155 0.2% 0.0% 9,555 0.1% 0.0%
Slovak 18,825 0.3% 0.1% 17,580 0.3% 0.1% 17,580 0.2% 0.1%
Slovene 13,135 0.2% 0.0% 10,775 0.2% 0.0% 9,790 0.1% 0.0%
Spanish 345,345 5.6% 1.1% 410,670 6.3% 1.2% 458,850 6.3% 1.3%
Swedish 8,220 0.1% 0.0% 7,350 0.1% 0.0% 6,840 0.1% 0.0%
Ukrainian 134,500 2.2% 0.4% 111,540 1.7% 0.3% 102,485 1.4% 0.3%
Welsh N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 1,075 0.0% 0.0%
Yiddish 16,295 0.3% 0.1% 15,205 0.2% 0.0% 13,555 0.2% 0.0%
European immigrant population in Canada
Year Population % of immigrants
in Canada
% of Canadian
population
1986[43] 2,430,470 62.2% 9.3%
1991[43] 2,364,695 54.5% 8.4%
1996[43] 2,334,005 47.0% 7.9%
2001[44] 2,287,535 42.0% 7.4%
2006[45] 2,269,705 36.7% 7.0%
2011[46] 2,226,100 30.8% 6.5%
2016[47] 2,082,765 27.6% 5.7%

Culture[edit]

The various cultures of the Canadians of European descent have had a predominant influence on the culture of Canada. Over time, many people of European Canadian origins have brought with them or contributed literature, art, architecture, cinema and theater, religion and philosophy, ethics, agricultural skills, foods, medicine, science and technology, fashion and clothing styles, music, language, business, economics, legal system, political system, and social and technological innovation to Canadian culture. European settlers brought with them European plants, animals, viruses and bacteria, remaking significant portions of the Canadian ecology and landscape in the image of their homelands.[48][49] Canadian culture evolved in large part from the culture that the English, French, Scottish, Welsh, and Irish settlers brought with them, long before Canada became a country. Much of English-Canadian culture shows influences from the cultures of the British Isles, with later influence, due to 19th-century immigration from different regions of Europe, such as Eastern Europe. Colonial ties to Great Britain and the cultural presence of the United States spread the English language, legal system and other cultural attributes.

Elements of Aboriginal, French, British and more recent immigrant customs, languages and religions have combined to form the culture of Canada and thus a Canadian identity, without eradicating specific regional or cultural identities such as Aboriginal or Québecois.[dubious ] Canada has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States.

Many Canadians see the Cultural Mosaic, which promotes multiculturalism and an equality of cultures, as a distinctive feature of Canadian culture, one that sets it apart from the melting pot philosophy of many Americans.[50][51]

Music[edit]

Another area of cultural influence are Canadian Patriotic songs:

Sport[edit]

  • Ice Hockey - British soldiers and immigrants to Canada and the United States brought their stick-and-ball games with them and played them on the ice and snow of winter. Ice hockey was first played in Canada during the early nineteenth century, based on similar sports such as field hockey that were played in Europe.[62] The sport was originally played with a stick and ball, but in 1860 a group of English veterans from the Royal Canadian Rifle Regiment played a game in Kingston, Ontario, utilising a puck for what is believed to be the first time. This match, played on the frozen harbour by the city, is sometimes considered to be the birth of modern ice hockey.[63] According to legend, the first hockey pucks were molded from fresh cow dung that was then allowed to freeze in below-zero outdoor temperatures.[64] Whether or not this was how the first puck was made, the use of horse or cow droppings was common thereafter, a distinctively Euro-Canadian aspect of the game made possible by the country's Northern climate.[65][66]

Prime Ministers[edit]

Most of the heritage that all twenty-three Canadian Prime Ministers come from (or in some combination thereof): is British (English, Scottish, Ulster Scot or Welsh) ancestry. Later Canadian Prime Ministers' ancestry can often be traced to ancestors from multiple nations in Europe.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Statistic includes all persons that did not make up part of a visible minority or an aboriginal identity.

References[edit]

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  2. ^ www.oxforddictionaries.com Euro-Canadian definition
  3. ^ Menzies, Charles (1994). "Stories from Home: First Nations, Land Claims, and Euro-Canadians". American Ethnologist. American Anthropological Association. 21 (4): 776–791. doi:10.1525/ae.1994.21.4.02a00060. JSTOR 646839. Example of Euro-Canadian being used
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  14. ^ A. S. Whiteley, “The Peopling of the Prairie Provinces of Canada.” American Journal of Sociology 38#2 (1932), pp. 240–52, online states: "The Prairie born constituted the largest single element in the population in 1926 and with those from other provinces comprised 62.75 per cent of the total. With respect to "origin," about one-half of those from Central, South, and East Europe and less than one-fourth of those from Northwest European stocks were foreign born."
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Further reading[edit]

Statistical[edit]