European Green Party

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European Green Party
PresidentEvelyne Huytebroeck and Thomas Waitz
Secretary-GeneralMar Garcia
Founded21 February 2004; 17 years ago (2004-02-21)
Preceded byEuropean Federation of Green Parties
HeadquartersRue du Taciturne 34, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
Think tankGreen European Foundation
IdeologyGreen politics[1]
Pro-Europeanism
Political positionCentre-left to left-wing
International affiliationGlobal Greens
European Parliament groupGreens–European Free Alliance
Colours  Green
European Parliament
52 / 705
European Lower Houses
221 / 9,874
European Upper Houses
48 / 2,714
Website
europeangreens.eu

The European Green Party (EGP), sometimes referred to as European Greens, is the European political party that operates as a federation of political parties across Europe supporting green politics. The EGP cooperates with the European Free Alliance (EFA), European Pirate Party and Volt Europa to form the Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) parliamentary group in the European parliament.

History[edit]

The European Green Party was founded on 22 February 2004 at the Fourth Congress of the European Federation of Green Parties (EFGP) in Rome attended by over 1,000 delegates. Thirty-four Green parties from all over Europe have joined this new pan-European party. The Greens were the first to form a political party at European level. The other European political federations followed suit in the period 2004–06. For the Greens this was the culmination of a process which had started with the formation of a loose co-ordination 1979–93 and the EFGP 1993–2004.[2]

1979 to 1993[edit]

In 1979, Daniel Brélaz became the world first green member of a national parliament (Switzerland).

In 1979 the Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties (CEGRP) was set up to co-ordinate the participation of Green and Radical parties in the 1979 European Parliament election: There were considerable differences between the Green and Radical groups and the parties were unable to form a common pan-European electoral platform.[3] Although some parties polled well, no Green entered the European Parliament.

In the 1984 election the Greens participated again. They held a congress in the spring of 1984 in Liège and set up a restructured European Green Coordination (EGC), with a secretariat provided by the Dutch Political Party of Radicals. They also issued a Joint Declaration of the European Green Parties. Furthermore, overall the member parties had grown stronger. Eleven MEPs of member parties were elected to the European Parliament.[a] They formed the Green Alternative European Link (GRAEL) in the European Parliament. The group was too small to be recognised by the Parliament for funds and committees and therefore it joined the Rainbow Group, which also encompassed regionalists, the Danish People's Movement against the European Community and some radicals and socialists.

The European Greens formed a loose confederal triangular structure with the autonomous GRAEL in parliament, the weak EGC as a supra-national co-ordinating body and the member parties. The position of the European Greens was also weakened by the principle of rotation which some member parties (Germany and the Netherlands) used, with their MEPs being replaced by another after serving half their term. This rotation technique originated with the German Greens to prevent their members being co-opted by the informal negotiation system within the Bundestag,[4] but it served them badly within the European Parliament.

For the Dutch parties, the choice for rotation was a compromise between three parties which had only two seats in parliament: one seat was kept by the top candidate while the second seat rotated between the second and the third candidate. This way each party would have a representative in the EP. Finally, there still was considerable diversity in the opinions of the Greens, especially between pro-European and Eurosceptic tendencies. These factors weakened the position of the Greens in Parliament.

In the 1989 election the Green parties won 26 seats.[b] Because of political conflicts with the continuing Rainbow Group, the European Greens formed a separate parliamentary group, The Green Group in the European Parliament. During this period, the Greens became more entrenched in parliament.

1993 to 2004[edit]

Dominique Voynet, Joschka Fischer and Pekka Haavisto. France, Germany and Finland had the first green ministers in a European government

In June 1993 the European Federation of Green Parties was formed by the members of the EGC in Kirkkonummi, Finland. The organisation became more structured, it now had a triennial Congress, a Council and a Federation Committee (executive). It strengthened its ties with the Green Group in the European parliament.

In the 1994 European elections Green parties won a total of 20 seats.[c] They were joined by a member of the Danish Socialist People's Party and one member of both the Italian South Tyrolean People's Party and The Network. Again the Greens formed a separate group from Rainbow Group, now renamed the European Radical Alliance.

In the 1999 European elections the European Greens performed particularly well winning 38 seats.[d] They formed a combined group with the European Free Alliance, which represented regionalist parties and independence movements, which previously participated in the European Radical Alliance. The relationship between the Greens and these parties was different from before, as the Greens were stronger both numerically and politically.

Since 2004[edit]

The European Green Party was founded at the Fourth Congress of the European Federation of Green Parties on 20–22 February 2004 in Rome, a party convention with over 1,000 delegates. Thirty-two Green parties from all over Europe joined this new pan-European party. The foundation of the new party was finalised with the signing of the treaty constituting the party in the Capitol of Rome. As such the Greens were the first to form a political party at European level, the other European federations followed suit between 2004 and 2006.

In the 2004 European Parliament election the member parties won 35 Seats. In the 2009 European Parliament election, even though the European Parliament was reduced in size, the EGP member parties won 46 seats, the best result of the Green Parties in 30 years.

In the 2014 European Parliament election the green candidates were José Bové and Ska Keller. The campaign was at a European level, Ska Keller participating in broadcast debates with the other candidates for the European Commission presidency. After the economic crisis, the green parties have consolidated its presence in the local and regional level. Green mayors as Éric Piolle in Grenoble or Fritz Kuhn in Stuttgart are good examples. Femke Halsema became the second green mayor of a European capital city, Amsterdam, after Francesco Rutelli (Rome). At the regional level, Winfried Kretschmann became President of Baden-Württemberg.

Inés Sabanés and Célia Blauel are respectively members of the local governments of Madrid and Paris, being both responsible of the environment portfolio.

Alexander Van der Bellen became the first green head of state in the world, representing Austria.

The candidates for the 2019 European Parliament election, are Ska Keller and Bas Eickhout.

In the year 2020 the European Greens achieves big gains in local elections throughout Europe, being elected green mayors in Lyon, Strasbourg, Besançon, Marseille or Bourdeaux among others in France and in capital city Dublin in Ireland as well as Aachen, Cologne or Bonn in Germany.

Also green parties presence in national governments are the highest in history, being junior coalition parties in the governments of Sweden, Austria, Finland, Luxembourg, Belgium, Republic of Ireland, Spain, North Macedonia and Montenegro.

Ideology and issues[edit]

In 2017, the climate law is signed by Isabella Lövin, Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden

The European Greens have committed themselves to the basic tenets of Green politics, such as environmental responsibility, individual freedom, inclusive democracy, diversity, social justice, gender equality, global sustainable development and non-violence.[5]

However, its relationship to the European Union and its institutions has changed dramatically and is still the subject of a lively debate. In the 1970s and 1980s the European Greens were generally sceptical of European political and economic integration, which was seen as contrary to environmental and social interests. In its 1984 program, the European Greens advocated the formation of an alternative Europe, which would be neutral and decentralised. In 1989, some member parties adopted a more parliamentary course and became more supportive of European integration. The program advocates the democratisation of Europe's institutions. In their 1994 program, the Greens abandoned their principled opposition of European integration and began to propose pragmatic alternatives for the European Union's policies and institutions. The 1999 and 2004 programs also reflect this.[citation needed]

In the area of Internet politics, the Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) parliamentary group became famous for the strong support of a proposed Free Information Infrastructure, especially in their work on the directive against software patents in 2003.[citation needed]

Nowadays the majority of the party is European federalist. Its former leader, Daniel Cohn-Bendit, is a member of the federalist The Spinelli Group, and has written with Guy Verhofstadt a book with a federalist manifesto purpose. The European Green Party affiliated to the European Movement International in February 2014.[6]

Other prominent green members of The Spinelli Group are Monica Frassoni, Isabelle Durant and Joschka Fischer, a former Vice-Chancellor of Germany and Minister for Foreign Affairs (Germany).

Representation[edit]

In this table one can see the results of the Greens for the six direct elections to the European Parliament, in terms of seats and votes. It also shows how many European Commissioners the European Greens have, who led the parliamentary group. It also lists how the Green parliamentary group and supra-national organisations was named and what European parliamentary group they joined.[7]

Year MEPs MEPs % Votes % EC Leaders EP Subgroup EP group Organization
1979 0 0 2.4% 0 none none none Coordination of European Green and Radical Parties
1984 11 2.5% 4.2% 0 Friedrich-Wilhelm Graefe zu Baringdorf (1984–86),
Bram van der Lek (1984–86),
Brigitte Heinrich (1986),
François Roelants du Vivier (1986),
Frank Schwalba-Hoth (1986–87),
Paul Staes (1987–88),
Wilfried Telkämper (1987–89)
Green Alternative European Link Rainbow Group European Green Coordination
1989 25 4.8% 7.4% 0 Maria Amelia Santos (1989–90),
Alexander Langer (1990),
Adelaide Aglietta (1990–94),
Paul Lannoye (1990–94)
Green Group in the European Parliament European Green Coordination
1994 21 3.7% 7.4% 0 Claudia Roth (1994–98),
Alexander Langer (1994–95),
Magda Aelvoet (1997–99)
Green Group in the European Parliament European Federation of Green Parties
1999 38 6.1% 7.7% 1[e] Heidi Hautala (1999–2002),
Paul Lannoye (1999–2002),
Monica Frassoni (2002–04),
Daniel Cohn-Bendit (2002–04)
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Federation of Green Parties
2004 35 4.8% 7.3% 0 Monica Frassoni (2004–09),
Daniel Cohn-Bendit (2004–09)
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
2009 48[f] 6.2% 7.3% 0 Rebecca Harms (2009–14),
Daniel Cohn-Bendit (2009–14)
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
2014 50[8][g] 6.7% 0 Rebecca Harms (2014–2016),
Ska Keller (2017– ),
Philippe Lamberts (2014– )
European Greens Greens–European Free Alliance European Green Party
2019 67 11.4% 0 Ska Keller and Bas Eickhout European Greens Greens-EFA European Green Party

Organisational structure[edit]

Ulrike Lunacek, ex vice-president of the European Parliament and Michaele Schreyer, the only Green European Commission member so far

The European Green Party is an international association without lucrative purpose constituted out of political parties from European countries (although not necessarily from European Union member states). Parties can also become associate member. Members of the Green Group not belonging to a member party can be admitted as a special member with speaking rights but no vote.

Alice Bah Kuhnke, Deputy chairwoman of the Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) group in the European Parliament.

The governing bodies of the EGP are the Council and the Committee.[9]

  • The Council consists of delegates of member parties. These are allotted on the basis of their most recent European or national election results. Each party has at least two delegates. The council is responsible for political affairs between congresses and it decides over organizational matters, such as the election of committee, the application of members and observers and the statutes of the EGP.[10]
  • The Committee consists of nine members, including two spokespersons (one man and one woman), a secretary-general and a treasurer. They are responsible for daily political affairs, execution of the council's decisions and the activities of the EGP office and staff.
  • The Congress is an enlarged meeting of the Council which is convened by the Council at least once every 5 years.

The European Greens are organised in several regional networks. These are organised around seas, creating somewhat of a bioregional structure: such as the Green Islands Network ("a network for Green Parties in Britain, Ireland and associated islands"), the Baltic Sea Greens, the Green Mediterranean Network, Green Adriatic Network and the North Sea Greens.

  States with member parties
  States with associate parties
  States with candidate parties

As of May 2018, the EGP comprises 37 (full) member parties, 4 associate member parties and 3 candidate member parties. These are listed in Annex B (pp. 22–23) of the respective Rule Book.[11]

Membership[edit]

Full members[edit]

Country Name MEPs National MPs Government status
 Albania Green Party of Albania Not in EU
0 / 140
Extra-parliamentary
 Andorra Greens of Andorra Not in EU
0 / 28
Extra-parliamentary
 Austria The Greens – The Green Alternative
3 / 18
26 / 183
In government
 Belgium  Flemish Groen
1 / 12
[h]
8 / 102
[i]
In government
 French
 German
Ecolo
2 / 9
[j]
13 / 63
[k]
In government
 Bulgaria The Greens
0 / 17
4 / 240
In opposition
 Cyprus Movement of Ecologists — Citizens' Cooperation
0 / 6
3 / 56
In opposition
 Czech Republic Green Party
0 / 22
0 / 200
Extra-parliamentary
 Denmark Socialist People's Party
2 / 13
15 / 179
Supporting government
 Estonia Estonian Greens
0 / 7
0 / 101
Extra-parliamentary
 Finland Green League
3 / 13
20 / 200
In government
 France Europe Ecology – The Greens
10 / 74
0 / 577
In opposition
 Georgia Green Party of Georgia Not in EU
0 / 150
Extra-parliamentary
 Germany Alliance 90/The Greens
21 / 96
118 / 735
In opposition
 Greece Ecologist Greens
0 / 21
0 / 300
Extra-parliamentary
 Hungary LMP – Hungary's Green Party
1 / 21
8 / 199
In opposition
 Ireland Green Party[l]
2 / 13
12 / 160
In government
 Italy Green Europe
1 / 73
0 / 630
Extra-parliamentary
 South Tyrol Greens
0 / 73
0 / 630
Extra-parliamentary
 Luxembourg The Greens
1 / 6
6 / 60
In government
 Malta AD+PD
0 / 6
0 / 67
Extra-parliamentary
 Moldova Ecologist Green Party Not in EU
0 / 101
Extra-parliamentary
 Netherlands GroenLinks
3 / 26
8 / 150
In opposition
 North Macedonia Democratic Renewal of Macedonia Not in EU
1 / 120
In government
 Norway Green Party Not in EU
3 / 169
In opposition
 Poland The Greens
1 / 51
3 / 460
In opposition
 Portugal Ecologist Party "The Greens"
0 / 21
2 / 230
In opposition
 Romania Green Party
0 / 32
0 / 329
Extra-parliamentary
 Slovenia Youth Party – European Greens
0 / 8
0 / 90
Extra-parliamentary
 Spain Equo
0 / 54
1 / 350
In opposition
 Catalonia Esquerra Verda[m]
1 / 54
2 / 350
In government
Catalunya en Comú
1 / 54
7 / 350
In government
 Sweden Green Party
3 / 20
16 / 349
[12]
In government
  Switzerland Green Party of Switzerland Not in EU
28 / 200
In opposition
 Ukraine Party of Greens of Ukraine Not in EU
0 / 450
Extra-parliamentary
 United Kingdom  England
 Wales
Green Party of England and Wales Not in EU
1 / 573
[n]
In opposition
 Scotland Scottish Greens
0 / 59
[o]
Extra-parliamentary
Northern Ireland Green Party in Northern Ireland [p]
0 / 18
[q]
Extra-parliamentary

Candidate members[edit]

Country Name MEPs National MPs
 Croatia Sustainable Development of Croatia
 Montenegro United Reform Action Not in EU
3 / 81
 Turkey Green Left Party Not in EU
sources[13][14]

Associate members[edit]

Country Name MEPs National MPs
 Belarus Belarusian Party "The Greens" Not in EU
0 / 110
 Croatia We can! – Political Platform
5 / 151
 Russia Green Alternative[15] Not in EU
0 / 170
sources[13]

Applicants[edit]

Country or region Name (in English) MEPs National MPs
 Serbia Greens of Serbia Not in EU
2 / 250

Former members[edit]

Former full members[edit]

Green Pro-European demonstration in Rome, 2017
Federation of Young European Greens demonstration in Copenhagen during the Climate Summit 2009

De Grønne from Denmark were expelled from the EGP in 2008. The reason was that De Grønne intended to co-operate with the People's Movement against the EU in the upcoming 2009 European elections, a national party which sits with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left parliamentary group instead of the Greens–European Free Alliance. The party was disbanded in 2014.

On 13 May 2012, the Council of the EGP withdrew the membership of Confederation of the Greens (Los Verdes) from Spain,[16] after several months of negotiations, and mainly because 13 out of 16 parties (formerly within the Confederation of the Greens) decided to join EQUO.

The Green Left from Hungary withdrew its membership on 7 September 2015 because of financial reasons. They disbanded in 2018.

On 10 November 2019, the Latvian Green Party was expelled from the EGP, due to its nationalist, anti-LGBT and anti-immigration views.[17]

The Greens from the Netherlands withdrew the EGP in 2017.[18]

Country Year left Name MEPs (current) National MPs (current)
 Denmark 2012 De Grønne n/a - defunct
 Hungary 2015 Green Left n/a - defunct
 Latvia 2019 Latvian Green Party -
6 / 100
 Netherlands 2017 The Greens - -
 Russia 2016[r] Green Alternative [s] Not in EU -
 Spain 2012 Confederation of the Greens - -

Former associate members[edit]

Country Name MEPs (current) National MPs (current)
 Azerbaijan Green Party of Azerbaijan Not in EU n/a - defunct
 Russia Union of Greens of Russia Not in EU n/a - defunct

Networks[edit]

The EGP hosts a collection of networks that have specific special interest focus, including:

Elected representatives of member parties[edit]

European institutions[edit]

Organisation Institution Number of seats
 European Union European Commission
0 / 28
European Council
(Heads of Government)
0 / 28
Council of the European Union
(Participation in Government)
6 / 27
European Parliament
52 / 751
 Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembly
3 / 318

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 7 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch Political Party of Radicals, 1 for the Dutch Pacifist Socialist Party, an ally of the PPR, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev
  2. ^ 7 for the German Greens, 8 for French Greens, 2 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 2 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Spanish IP, 2 for the Italian Rainbow Greens and 2 for the Italian Green Lists
  3. ^ 12 for the German Greens, 1 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 1 for Ecolo and 1 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish The Greens IP, 2 for the Italian Federation of the Greens and 2 for the Green Party
  4. ^ 7 for the German Alliance '90/The Greens, 4 for the Dutch GreenLeft, 3 for Ecolo and 2 for Agalev, 1 for the Luxembourgish The Greens, 2 for the Italian Federation of the Greens, 2 for the Green Party, 9 for The Greens of France, 2 for the Austrian Greens, 2 for the Finnish Green League, 2 for the Swedish Green Party and 2 for the Green Party of England and Wales
  5. ^ Michaele Schreyer for Alliance '90/The Greens
  6. ^ includes 6 independent MEPs elected for the Europe Écologie group
  7. ^ Includes 14 MEPs, from 8 countries, NOT affiliated with EGP member parties.
  8. ^ Dutch-speaking electoral college
  9. ^ Flemish seats in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives, including seats for bilingual Brussels.
  10. ^ All seats for the French and German-speaking electoral colleges.
  11. ^ All seats for French and German-speaking Communities in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives, including seats for bilingual Brussels.
  12. ^ The Irish Green Party operates also in Northern Ireland as the "Green Party in Northern Ireland". The Northern Irish party is separately listed in this table although it does not have separate membership in the EGP.
  13. ^ Esquerra Verda is member party of Catalunya en Comú.
  14. ^ English and Welsh seats in the House of Commons.
  15. ^ Scottish seats in the House of Commons.
  16. ^ It does not have separate membership in the EGP because it is a part of the Irish Green Party.
  17. ^ Northern Irish seats in the House of Commons.
  18. ^ Full member from 1994 to 2016. Downgraded to associate member in 2016.
  19. ^ Full member from 1994 to 2016. Downgraded to associate member in 2016.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  2. ^ history of the European Green Party at EuropeanGreens.eu
  3. ^ Elizabeth Bomberg (2 August 2005). Green Parties and Politics in the European Union. Routledge. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-134-85145-4.
  4. ^ Hines, Eric (2003). "The European Parliament and the Europeanization of Green Parties" (PDF). University of Iowa. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 1 March 2008.
  5. ^ "Charter of the European Greens". europeangreens.eu. 13–14 October 2006. Archived from the original on 4 February 2007.
  6. ^ "Greens join pro-European parties' network". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  7. ^ "Directory". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Results of the 2014 European elections – European Parliament". results-elections2014.eu. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  9. ^ "Statutes of the European Green Party" (PDF). europeangreens.eu. 20 May 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  10. ^ "Learn about the EGP". europeangreens.eu.
  11. ^ "Statutes of the European Green Party" (PDF). 20 May 2018. pp. 23–24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  12. ^ "2018: Val till riksdagen - Valda" (in Swedish). Valmyndigheten. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  13. ^ a b "Member Parties". European Greens.
  14. ^ "Search". Retrieved 26 August 2015.
  15. ^ Full member from 1994 to 2016. Downgraded to associate member in 2016.
  16. ^ "Confederación de Los Verdes" no longer part of the European Green family (retrieved on 13 May 2012)
  17. ^ "Latvian Green Party expelled from European Green Party". eng.lsm.lv. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  18. ^ "Proposal membership withdrawal De Groenen NL". European Greens.

External links[edit]