2019 European Parliament election

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

2019 European Parliament election

← 2014 23–26 May 2019[1] 2024 →

All 751 seats to the European Parliament
376 seats needed for a majority
Turnout50.95%[2] Increase 8.34 pp
  Weber looking sideways A closeup of Timmermans Guy Verhofstadt die 30 Martis 2012.jpg
Leader Manfred Weber Frans Timmermans Guy Verhofstadt
Alliance EPP S&D Renew EU
Leader's seat Germany Netherlands Belgium (Dutch)
Last election 221 seats, 29.4% 191 seats, 25.4% 67 seats, 8.9%
Seats before 216 185 69
Seats won 179 153 106
Seat change Decrease 37 Decrease 32 Increase 37

  Eickhout smiling Keller at a microphone Zahradil's face
Leader Bas Eickhout
Ska Keller
Marco Zanni Jan Zahradil
Alliance Greens/EFA ID ECR
Leader's seat Netherlands
Germany
Italy Czech Republic
Last election 50 seats, 6.7% New group 70 seats, 9.3%
Seats before 52 36 77
Seats won 75 73 61
Seat change Increase 23 Increase 37 Decrease 16

  Farage onstage A protrait of Tomić Cué looking toward the camera
Leader Nigel Farage[3] Violeta Tomić
(defeated)
Nico Cué
Alliance EFDD GUE/NGL
Leader's seat South East England Slovenia
(lost seat)
Belgium (French)
Last election 48 seats, 6.4% 52 seats, 6.9%
Seats before 42 52
Seats won 43 38
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 14

The leading party in Malta, Portugal, and Spain is S&D; in UK it is EFDD; in Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands it is ALDE; in France and Italy it is ENF; in Poland it is ECR; and in the other 15 it is EPP.
Map of Europe showing the European parliamentary group leading in each constituency. In constituencies where some groups have had the same number of seats, the groups with the most seats are displayed with hashing.

  EPP   S&D   RE   G/EFA   ECR   ID   EFDD   GUE/NGL

  NI

President of the European Commission before election

Jean-Claude Juncker
EPP

Elected President of the European Commission

TBD

Flag of Europe.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
the European Union
Flag of Europe.svg European Union portal

An election to the European Parliament was held between 23 and 26 May 2019, the ninth parliamentary election since the first direct elections in 1979. A total of 751 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) represent more than 512 million people from 28 member states. In February 2018, the European Parliament had voted to decrease the number of MEPs from 751 to 705 if the United Kingdom were to withdraw from the European Union on 29 March 2019.[4] However, the United Kingdom participated alongside other EU member states after an extension of Article 50 to 31 October 2019; therefore, the allocation of seats between the member states and the total number of seats remained as it had been in 2014.[5] The Ninth European Parliament will have its first plenary session on 2 July 2019.[6]

On 26 May 2019, the European People's Party led by Manfred Weber won the most seats in the European Parliament, making Weber the leading candidate to become the next President of the European Commission.[7][8] The centre-left and centre-right parties suffered significant losses, while pro-EU centrist liberal, environmentalist, Eurosceptic and right-wing populist parties made substantial gains.[9]

New law[edit]

On 7 June 2018, the Council agreed at ambassador level to change the EU electoral law and to reform old laws from the 1976 Electoral Act. The purpose of the reform is to increase participation in elections, raise understanding of their European character and prevent irregular voting while at the same time respecting the constitutional and electoral traditions of the member states.[10] The reform forbids double voting and voting in third countries, thus improving the visibility of European political parties.[10] To avoid double voting, contact authorities are established to exchange data on voters, a process that has to start at least six weeks before the elections.[10]

The European Parliament gave its consent on 4 July 2018 and the Act was adopted by the Council on 13 July 2018. However, not all member states ratified the Act prior to the 2019 elections and therefore this election took place in line with the previous rules.[11][12]

Political groups and candidates[edit]

The Spitzenkandidat process involves the nomination by European political parties of candidates for the role of Commission President, the party winning the most seats in the European Parliament receiving the first opportunity to attempt to form a majority to back their candidate (akin to how heads of government are elected in national parliamentary democracies). This process was first used in 2014 and was opposed by some in the European Council. The future of the process is uncertain, but the European Parliament has attempted to codify the process and the parties are almost certain to select the candidates again.[13] On 23 January 2018, the Constitutional Affairs Committee adopted a text stating that the Spitzenkandidat process could not be overturned, and that Parliament "will be ready to reject any candidate in the investiture procedure of the Commission President who was not appointed as a Spitzenkandidat in the run-up to the European elections".[14]

In May 2018 a Eurobarometer poll suggested that 49% of the 27,601 individuals from all 28 EU countries surveyed think that the Spitzenkandidat process will help them vote in the next European elections while 70% also think that the process requires a real debate on European issues.[15]

European People's Party[edit]

Incumbent Jean-Claude Juncker has stated he will not seek a second term as President of the European Commission.[16]

Two candidates sought the nomination of the EPP:

At their 2018 Congress in Helsinki, the EPP elected Manfred Weber as their Spitzenkandidat for President of the European Commission.[19]

Party of European Socialists[edit]

Previous candidate Martin Schulz left the European Parliament in 2017 to head the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but he stepped down from the latter position in 2018.

Two candidates were nominated by PES member parties and organisations:

  • Maroš Šefčovič (Vice-President of the Commission) announced in September his bid to head the Commission.[20]
  • Frans Timmermans (first Vice-President of the Commission, previous Dutch Foreign Affairs Minister) announced in October his bid to head Commission.[21]

Šefčovič announced his withdrawal in November and supported Frans Timmermans as the Common Candidate.[22]

The party will convene an extraordinary Congress in Lisbon to ratify the election of the candidate and to vote upon the manifesto.

European Conservatives and Reformists[edit]

Jan Zahradil, an MEP for the Czech Civic Democratic Party, is the Spitzenkandidat of the European Conservatives and Reformists.

European Green Party[edit]

As in 2014, the Greens adopted the principle of having two leading candidates for the European Elections 2019.[23] Unlike in 2014, where the candidates were chosen through an open online primary elections, the two leading candidates were elected by the Council of the Party in Berlin in November 2018.[24] Four people, two of them being currently MEPs, have declared their candidacy:[24]

At their 2018 Congress in Berlin, the party elected Ska Keller and Bas Eickhout as their Spitzenkandidat for the President of the European Commission.

European Free Alliance[edit]

Oriol Junqueras, a Catalan historian, academic and former Vice President of Catalonia who is currently imprisoned because of his involvement in the 2017 Catalan independence referendum, is the Spitzenkandidat of the European Free Alliance.[25][26]

Alliance of Liberals and Democrats[edit]

Rather than present a single candidate, the ALDE group presented a Team Europe of seven people as the alliance's leading candidates:[27]

Party of the European Left[edit]

The designated candidates are Violeta Tomič from Slovenia and Belgian trade-unionist Nico Cué.[31]

Populist and Eurosceptic groups[edit]

The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy was widely expected to disband after the election. One reason was that its biggest share of MEPs came from the United Kingdom, which was long expected to leave the EU before the election. The second was that the second-biggest partner, Italy's Five Star Movement (M5S), felt uneasy about this alliance anyway, having unsuccessfully tried to join the Greens/EFA or ALDE group instead. In February 2019, M5S alongside partners from Croatia, Finland, Greece and Poland presented a new alliance of anti-establishment parties that claim to be neither left nor right.[32]

The Movement is an alliance of populist parties set up by Steve Bannon in 2018 with the purpose of contesting the European elections. Participating parties included, at least temporarily, Lega Nord, People's Party of Belgium and Brothers of Italy and possibly French National Rally. Originally envisioned as an attempt to unite the populist parties in Europe, The Movement has so far been snubbed by the Alternative for Germany,[33] the Freedom Party of Austria[34] and the UK Independence Party.[35] In March 2019, reporters assessed Bannon's project as a failure.[36][37] Shortly ahead of the election, Marine Le Pen of the French National Rally distanced herself from Bannon, clarifying that he played no role in her party's campaign.[38]

In April 2019, Matteo Salvini of Italy's Lega launched the European Alliance of Peoples and Nations as a new coalition of populist, hard Eurosceptic and anti-immigration parties. It has been joined by most of the members of the outgoing Europe of Nations and Freedom group (including Lega, the French National Rally, Freedom Party of Austria and the Dutch Party for Freedom) as well as some former EFDD (Alternative for Germany) and ECR parties (Danish People's Party and Finns Party). It has been predicted to become the fourth largest group in parliament with an estimate of more than 80 MEPs.[39]

New parties[edit]

2019 saw the debut of new parties such as Wiosna of Poland, Czech Pirate Party of Czech Republic, USR and PLUS of Romania, Human Shield and Most of Croatia, ĽSNS and Progressive Slovakia of Slovakia. Some of the new parties have already joined European parties, e.g. LMŠ of Slovenia is a member of ALDE.

The biggest new party is La République En Marche! (LREM) of French President Emmanuel Macron that was formed in 2016 and won the French presidential and parliamentary elections of the following year. Initially, it balked at joining any of the existing party families, instead trying to form a new parliamentary group of pro-European centrists who support Macron's plans to reform the European institutions, drawing away members from ALDE, EPP and S&D.[40][41] Possible partners for such a project were expected to include Spanish Ciudadanos, Progressive Slovakia and the Hungarian Momentum Movement.[40] However, the hypothetical group was considered to have dificulties to find MEPs from at least seven member states as is required to form a new group.[40] In November 2018, LREM decided to cooperate with the liberal ALDE group instead. Nevertheless, Macron stressed that this was merely a loose alliance and his party is not a member of the ALDE Europarty. He bluntly criticised ALDE for accepting donations from the Bayer-Monsanto chemical group while LREM's campaign chief threatened to recall the alliance.[42] In April and May 2019, LREM continued its efforts to build a broader group, including ALDE, but also centrist and centre-left parties outside of ALDE.[43][44]

The European Spring initiated from the Democracy in Europe Movement 2025 ran as a pan-European party alliance with one unified vision for Europe, the European Green New Deal.[45] The most prominent figure is the former Greek minister Yanis Varoufakis, who ran as a candidate in the constituency of Germany.

Televised debates[edit]

The candidates standing onstage
European Commission presidency candidates at Eurovision Debate (May 2019). Left to right: Zahradil, Cué, Keller, Vestager, Timmermans, Weber
Table of televised debates
Date Time (CEST) Institute Participants Location Language Main presenter(s)
17 April 2019 21:00 France 24 and RFI[46] Timmermans and Weber Strasbourg French Caroline de Camaret (France 24) and Dominique Baillard (RFI)
17 April 2019 22:00 France 24[47][48] Timmermans and Weber Strasbourg English Catherine Nicholson (France 24)
29 April 2019 19:00 Politico Europe[49] Eickhout, Timmermans, Tomić, Verhofstadt and Zahradil Maastricht English Ryan Heath (Politico Europe) and Rianne Letschert (Maastricht University)
2 May 2019 18:00 Financial Times[50] Keller, Timmermans, Verhofstadt and Weber Florence English Martin Sandbu (Financial Times)
7 May 2019 20:15 ARD[51] Timmermans and Weber Cologne German Ellen Ehni and Andreas Cichowicz (both ARD)
15 May 2019 21:00 EBU[52] Cué, Keller, Timmermans, Vestager, Weber, and Zahradil Brussels English Emilie Tran Nguyen (France Television), Markus Preiss (ARD Germany), and Annastiina Heikkilä (YLE Finland)
16 May 2019 20:15 ZDF and ORF[53] Timmermans and Weber Berlin German Peter Frey (ZDF) and Ingrid Thurnher (ORF)
21 May 2019 22:00 NOS and NTR[54] Timmermans and Weber Hilversum German and Dutch Jeroen Wollaars (NOS)

Apportionment of seats[edit]

Pre-Brexit allocation[edit]

As the United Kingdom was still a member of the EU at the time of the election, the elections were held with the same allocation of seats as in 2014.[55]

State Seats State Seats State Seats State Seats
 Germany 96  Netherlands 26  Austria 18  Lithuania 11
 France 74  Belgium 21  Bulgaria 17  Latvia 8
 Italy 73  Czech Republic 21  Denmark 13  Slovenia 8
 United Kingdom 73  Greece 21  Finland 13  Cyprus 6
 Spain 54  Hungary 21  Slovakia 13  Estonia 6
 Poland 51  Portugal 21  Croatia 11  Luxembourg 6
 Romania 32  Sweden 20  Ireland 11  Malta 6
Total 751

Potential post-Brexit allocation[edit]

If or when the United Kingdom leaves the EU, 27 of the seats will be reallocated to other EU member states as shown below and the other 46 seats will be kept in reserve for future enlargements, resulting in a total of 705 MEPs.

State Seats State Seats State Seats State Seats
 Germany 96 Steady 0  Belgium 21 Steady 0  Bulgaria 17 Steady 0  Latvia 8 Steady 0
 France 79 Increase 5  Czech Republic 21 Steady 0  Denmark 14 Increase 1  Slovenia 8 Steady 0
 Italy 76 Increase 3  Greece 21 Steady 0  Finland 14 Increase 1  Estonia 7 Increase 1
 Spain 59 Increase 5  Hungary 21 Steady 0  Slovakia 14 Increase 1  Cyprus 6 Steady 0
 Poland 52 Increase 1  Portugal 21 Steady 0  Ireland 13 Increase 2  Luxembourg 6 Steady 0
 Romania 33 Increase 1  Sweden 21 Increase 1  Croatia 12 Increase 1  Malta 6 Steady 0
 Netherlands 29 Increase 3  Austria 19 Increase 1  Lithuania 11 Steady 0  United Kingdom 0 Decrease 73
Total 705

Results[edit]

Results[edit]

2019 results by political group
Name Seats 2019 Outgoing
seats[56]
Christian democrats and liberal conservatives EPP 179 216 Decrease −37
Social democrats S&D 153 185 Decrease −32
Social liberals and conservative liberals Renew Europe 106 69 Increase +37
Greens and regionalists Greens/EFA 75 52 Increase +23
Right-wing populists and nationalists ID 73 36 Increase +37
National conservatives and sovereignists ECR 61 77 Decrease −16
Populists and hard eurosceptics EFDD 43 42 Increase +1
Democratic socialists and communists GUE/NGL 38 52 Decrease −14
Non-inscrits Non-Inscrits 9 20 Decrease −11
Others and new parties N/A 14 2 vacant N/A
Total 751 751 Steady

Groups[edit]

State Political groups MEPs
EPP
(EPP)
S&D
(PES)
RE
(ALDE, EDP)
ECR
(AECR, ECPM)
GUE/NGL
(EL, NGLA, EACL)
G/EFA
(EGP, EFA)
EFDD ID NI New parties
w/o affiliation
Austria
Austria
7 (ÖVP) +2 5 (SPÖ) = 1 (NEOS) = 2 (Grüne) −1 3 (FPÖ) −1 18
Belgium
Belgium
2 (CD&V)
1 (CDH)
1 (CSP)
=
=
=
2 (PS)
1 (SP.A)
−1
=
2 (Open VLD)
2 (MR)
−1
−1
3 (N-VA) −1 1 (PTB) +1 2 (ECOLO)
1 (Groen)
+1
=
3 (VB) +2 21
Bulgaria
Bulgaria
6 (GERB)
1 (DSB)
=
+1
5 (BSP) +1 3 (DPS) −1 2 (IMRO) +1 17
Croatia
Croatia
4 (HDZ) = 3 (SDP) +1 1 (AMS) +1 1 (HKS) = 1 (Human Shield) +1 1
(Kolakušić)
11
Cyprus
Cyprus
2 (DISY) = 1 (EDEK)
1 (DIKO)
=
=
2 (AKEL) = 6
Czech Republic
Czech
Republic
2+1 (TOP 09+STAN)
2 (KDU–ČSL)
−1
−1
6 (ANO) +2 4 (ODS) +2 1 (KSČM) −2 3 (Piráti) +3 2 (SPD) +2 21
Denmark
Denmark
1 (C) = 3 (S) = 3 (V)
2 (B)
+1
+1
1 (RG) +1 2 (SF) +1 1 (O) −3 13
France
France
8 (LRLC) −12 5 (PSPP
ND)
−8 21 (LREMMoDem) +21 6 (FI) +6 12 (EELV) +6 22 (RN) −2 74
Estonia
Estonia
2 (SDE) +1 2 (RE)
1 (KE)
=
=
1 (EKRE) +1 6
Finland
Finland
3 (Kok.) = 2 (SDP) = 2 (Kesk.)
1 (SFP)
−1
=
1 (Vas.) = 2 (VIHR) +1 2 (PS) = 13
Germany
Germany
23 (CDU)
6 (CSU)
−5
+1
16 (SPD) −11 5 (FDP)
2 (FW)
+2
+1
1 (Familie) = 5 (Linke)
1 (Tierschutz)
−2
=
21 (B’90/Grüne)
1 (ÖDP)
1 (Piraten)
1 (Volt Europa)
1 (Die Partei)
+10
=
=
+1
+1
11 (AfD) +4 1 (Die Partei) = 96
Greece
Greece
8 (ND) +3 2 (KINAL) = 1 (Greek Solution)[57] +1 6 (SYRIZA) = 2 (KKE)
2 (XA)
=
=
21
Hungary
Hungary
12+1 (Fidesz+KDNP) +1 1 (MSZP)
4 (DK)
−1
+2
2 (MoMo) +2 1 (Jobbik) −2 21
Republic of Ireland
Ireland
4 (FG) = 1 (FF) = 2 (I4C)
1 (SF)
1 (Flanagan)
+2
−2
=
2 (GP) +2 11
Italy
Italy
6 (FI)
1 (SVP)
−7
=
19 (PD) −12 5 (FdI) +5 14 (M5S) −3 28 (LN) +23 73
Latvia
Latvia
2 (JV) −2 2 (Saskaņa SDP) +1 1 (AP!) +1 2 (NA) +1 1 (LKS) = 8
Lithuania
Lithuania
3 (TS–LKD) +1 2 (LSDP) = 1 (DP)
1 (LRLS)
=
−1
1 (LLRA) = 2 (LVŽS) +1 1 (Maldeikienė) +1 11
Luxembourg
Luxembourg
2 (CSV) −1 1 (LSAP) = 2 (DP) +1 1 (Gréng) = 6
Malta
Malta
2 (PN) −1 4 (PL) +1 6
Netherlands
Netherlands
4 (CDA)
1 (50+)
−1
+1
6 (PvdA) +3 2 (D66)
4 (VVD)
−2
+1
3 (FvD) = 1 (PvdD) = 3 (GL) +1 2 (CU-SGP) 26
Poland
Poland
17 (PO+PSL) −6 5 (SLD)
3 (WIOSNA)
=
+3
26 (PiS) +7 51
Portugal
Portugal
6 (PSD
1 (CDS–PP)
=
=
9 (PS) +1 2 (CDU: PCP)
2 (BE)
−1
+1
1 (PAN) +1 21
Romania
Romania
10 (PNL)
2 (UDMR)
2 (PMP)
−1
=
=
8 (PSD)
1 (PRO Romania)
−8
+1
8 (USRPLUS) +8 1 (PRO Romania) +1 32
Slovakia
Slovakia
2 (SPOLU)
1 (KDH)
1 (OĽaNO)
+2
−1
=
3 (Smer–SD) −1 2 (PS) +2 2 (SaS) +1 2 (ĽSNS) +2 13
Slovenia
Slovenia
2+1 (SDS+SLS)
1 (NSi)
−1
=
2 (SD) +1 2 (LMS) +2 8
Spain
Spain
12 (PP) −4 20 (PSOE) +6 7 (C's)
1 (CEUS)
+1
=
3 (VOX) +3 6 (Podemos–IU) −5 3 (Ahora Repúblicas) = 2 (JuntsxCat) +2 54
Sweden
Sweden
4 (M)
2 (KD)
+1
+1
5 (S) = 2 (C)
1 (L)
+1
−1
3 (SD) +1 1 (V) = 2 (MP) −2 20
United Kingdom
United
Kingdom
10 (Lab) −10 16 (LibDem)
1 (Alliance Party)
+15
+1
4 (Con) −15 1 (SF) = 7 (Green)
3 (SNP)
1 (PC)
+4
+1
=
29 (Brexit Party) +29 1 (DUP) = 73
Total MEPs
EPP S&D RE ECR GUE/NGL G/EFA EFDD ID NI New parties
179 (23.8%) −42 153 (20.2%) −38 108 (14.6%) +41 62 (8.1%) -8 41 (5.5%) −11 75 (10.0%) +25 44 (5.9%) -4 73 (9.7%) +73 10 (1.3%) −42 6 (0.8%) 751

Seat projections[edit]

There were no pan-European polls for the European elections. However, several organisations calculated the theoretical seat distribution in the European Parliament based on national polls in all member states. The table below displays these different projections. Since the United Kingdom notified its intention to leave the European Union in March 2017, the United Kingdom was expected not to participate in the European elections and was therefore excluded from projections. On 10 April 2019, the European Council extended the Brexit deadline to 31 October 2019, and the UK did participate in the European elections.[58] The UK was included in most projections after that date.

Percent[edit]

The following table shows projections with vote share instead of seats.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "European elections: 23-26 May 2019". European Parliament. Archived from the original on 25 February 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  2. ^ "Turnout of 2019 European election - European Parliament".
  3. ^ "Nigel Farage". Efddgroup.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  4. ^ "Size of Parliament to shrink after Brexit" (Press release). European Parliament. 7 February 2018. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
  5. ^ "Brexit delayed until 31 October - UK and EU agree". BBC News. 11 April 2019. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  6. ^ "European elections 2019: what's next? (infographic)". European Parliament. 30 April 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  7. ^ "EU center-right claims European Commission presidency". 27 May 2019 – via Japan Times Online.
  8. ^ "Center-right candidate for EU Commission chair says ready to..." 28 May 2019 – via www.reuters.com.
  9. ^ Smith, Alexander (27 May 2019). "European Parliament elections: 5 takeaways from the results". NBC News. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  10. ^ a b c "European Parliament elections: Council reaches agreement on a set of measures to modernise EU electoral law - Consilium". Consilium.
  11. ^ "Reform of the Electoral Law of the EU". European Parliament. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  12. ^ mq86mq. "mq86mq on Twitter: "#Direktwahlakt: Stand der Ratifikation. Meine Beschwerde gegen Geheimhaltung hat der @EUCouncil wegen technical inconvenience verschlampt, aber nach erneuter Beschwerde hab ich die Liste gekriegt, offenbar ohne formellen Ratsbeschluss. #Sperrklausel #Europawahl @hotstegs_recht‌ t.co/2gbRzcM0HC"". Twitter.com. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  13. ^ Wieland: "Spitzenkandidat genie is well and truly out of the bottle", Euractiv 11 May 2016.
  14. ^ Spitzenkandidat system here to stay, MEPs warn capitals, EU Observer 23 January 2018.
  15. ^ "Countdown to 2019 European Elections - The Malta Independent". Independent.
  16. ^ EU chief Jean-Claude Juncker 'will not seek second term', BBC, 11 February 2017.
  17. ^ "Finland's fitness fiend ready for exhausting EU race". Financial Times. 1 October 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  18. ^ "Merkel backs Bavarian ally as center-right's EU Commission candidate: media | Reuters". 31 August 2018. Archived from the original on 31 August 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  19. ^ "Europe's conservatives nominate Manfred Weber for EU top job". POLITICO. 8 November 2018. Retrieved 8 November 2018.
  20. ^ Slovakia's Sefcovic announces bid to head European Commission, Reuters 17 September 2018
  21. ^ Juncker's Dutch deputy bids to succeed him as EU chief, Reuters 10 October 2018
  22. ^ "PES Unites Behind Timmermans As Lead Candidate For 2019 European Elections". PES.
  23. ^ "Procedure for 2019 Green leading candidates". European Greens. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  24. ^ a b "Four Greens enter race to become European Green Party leading candidates". European Greens. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  25. ^ "Oriol Junqueras elected as EFA Lead Candidate for European elections". European Free Alliance. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  26. ^ "Junqueras chosen as EFA party candidate to head European Commission in upcoming election". Catalan News Agency. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  27. ^ Leading liberals join EU election fray, Politico.EU, 19 April 2019
  28. ^ Race is on for Commission president in 2019, Politico 13 February 2017
  29. ^ "Macron ♥ Vestager". 14 November 2017.
  30. ^ The race to succeed Juncker begins, Euractiv 17 January 2018
  31. ^ "European Left party elects two 'Spitzenkandidaten'". EUobserver. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  32. ^ Piotr Kaczyński (18 February 2019). "The Five Star Movement's attempt to create a European Parliament group". Euractiv.com./
  33. ^ "German far Right rebuffs Steve Bannon's effort to forge Europe-wide populist movement". The Telegraph. Agence France-Presse. 11 August 2018. Retrieved 9 September 2018.
  34. ^ "Austria's far-right unwilling to collaborate with Bannon". The Times of Israel. Agence France-Presse. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 19 September 2018.
  35. ^ James, William (21 September 2018). "UKIP will not join Steve Bannon's anti-EU movement, says leader". Reuters. Retrieved 21 September 2018.
  36. ^ Maïa de La Baume; Silvia Sciorilli Borrelli (5 March 2019). "Steve Bannon's stuttering European adventure". Politico.
  37. ^ Daniel DePetris (6 March 2019). "How Steve Bannon tried – and failed – to crack Europe". Spectator.
  38. ^ Adam Nossiter; Jason Horowitz (24 May 2019). "Bannon's Populists, Once a 'Movement,' Keep Him at Arm's Length". The New York Times.
  39. ^ Alexander Sarti (8 April 2019). "European Alliance of Peoples and Nations: What we know so far". Europe Elects.
  40. ^ a b c Maïa de La Baume (9 February 2018). "Macron's opening European gambit". Politico.
  41. ^ Cécile Barbière (15 February 2018). "Macron's plans for a party in the European Parliament". Euractiv.
  42. ^ Maïa de La Baume; Rym Momtaz. "Cash clash strains Macron's liberal love-in".
  43. ^ Aline Robert (10 May 2019). "Macron's Renaissance to reveal allies in Strasbourg". Euractiv.com.
  44. ^ Aline Robert (15 May 2019). "Why centrists in European Parliament are prepared to drop the term 'liberal'". Euractiv.com.
  45. ^ "European Spring".
  46. ^ "Présidence de la Commission européenne : revivez le débat des candidats sur France 24". france24.com. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  47. ^ "EU Commission Clash: The Candidates' Debate - Part 1". france24.com. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  48. ^ "EU Commission Clash: The Candidates' Debate - Part 2". france24.com. 17 April 2014. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  49. ^ "The Maastricht Debate". Politico Europe. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  50. ^ "The Florence Debate". European University Institute. 2 May 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  51. ^ "Wahlarena zur Europawahl - Europawahl 2019 - ARD | Das Erste". Das Erste (in German). Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  52. ^ "EBU - Eurovision Debate". European Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
  53. ^ "TV-Duell und Schlagabtausch: Europawahl-Abend im ZDF: Was Sie wissen müssen". ZDF (in German). Retrieved 17 May 2019.
  54. ^ "Debat tussen Spitzenkandidaten Timmermans en Weber maandag bij Nieuwsuur". Retrieved 24 May 2019.
  55. ^ European Council Decision (EU) 2018/937 of 28 June 2018 establishing the composition of the European Parliament
  56. ^ "2019 European election results – Seats by political group and country: 2014-2019 – Outgoing parliament". European Parliament. April 2019. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  57. ^ "ECR Group welcome new members". ECR Group website. 5 June 2019.
  58. ^ Chris Morris (14 March 2019). "Brexit: Does the UK need to hold European elections?". BBC News. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  59. ^ "Home - 2019 European election results - European Parliament". election-results.eu.
  60. ^ a b c d "How Europe Elects predicts an election". europeelects. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  61. ^ "Wahl zum Europäischen Parlament - Prognose Stand 20.05.2019". election.de. 20 May 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  62. ^ "Projektion". eu19.eu. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 13 May 2019.
  63. ^ "Wahl zum Europäischen Parlament - Prognose Stand 05.05.2019". election.de. 5 May 2019. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  64. ^ "European Parliament 2019 - Seat Projection (with and without the UK)". EuropeanElectionsStats.eu. 1 May 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  65. ^ "European Parliament Projection – April 2019". europeelects. 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  66. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 23 April 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2019.
  67. ^ a b "European Parliament 2019 - Seat Projection (with and without the UK)". EuropeanElectionsStats.eu. 16 April 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  68. ^ "Osservatorio sull'Europa – Elezioni Europee, i seggi al 12/4: No-Brexit, scenario rivoluzionato! ENF diventa AEPN? Destre nel caos". Bidimedia. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 14 April 2019.
  69. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 13 April 2019.
  70. ^ "EU election polls: Two biggest Parliament groups are recovering — but will still take big hits". euronews. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  71. ^ "European Alliance of Peoples and Nations: What we know so far". europeelects.eu. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  72. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 5 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  73. ^ "European Elections 2019" (PDF). europarl.europa.eu. 29 March 2019.
  74. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  75. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 27 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  76. ^ "EU27: @EuropeElects seat projection for the European Parliament:". europeelects.eu. 25 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
  77. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
  78. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 18 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  79. ^ "European Parliament 2019 seat projection". European Elections Stats. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  80. ^ "Wahl zum Europäischen Parlament - Prognose Stand 12.03.2019". election.de. 13 March 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2019.
  81. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  82. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 6 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  83. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  84. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 1 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  85. ^ a b c d "EU-Wahl-Prognose: EVP mit 188 und SPE mit 142 Sitzen ohne Mehrheit". derstandard.de. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  86. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  87. ^ "European Parliament 2019 seat projection". European Elections Stats. 24 February 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  88. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 21 February 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  89. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 20 February 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  90. ^ "Europäische Volkspartei weiter stärkste Kraft". FAZ. 18 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  91. ^ "Projektion Europäisches Parlament". eu19.eu. 16 February 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  92. ^ "European Parliament 2019 seat projection". European Elections Stats. 3 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  93. ^ a b "Four Scenarios for the European election". Europe Elects. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  94. ^ "European Election Projection". Europe Elects. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  95. ^ Manuel Müller (13 January 2019). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (January 2019): Sozialdemokraten fallen auf neuen Tiefststand, Rechte legen zu, „Grüne Welle" hält an". foederalist.eu. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  96. ^ a b "European Election Forecast". Europe Elects. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  97. ^ "European Parliament 2019 seat projection". European Elections Stats. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 29 November 2018.
  98. ^ "European Election Forecast". Europe Elects. 11 November 2018. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  99. ^ "European Parliament 2019 seat projection". European Elections Stats. 28 October 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  100. ^ "Seconda simulazione sulla ripartizione dei seggi" (PDF). cattaneo. 26 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  101. ^ "EU27, EuropeElects seat projection". Europe Elects. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  102. ^ "Projected Composition of the next European Parliament". Politico Europe. 9 October 2018. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  103. ^ "European Parliament 2019 seat projection". European Elections Stats. 22 September 2018. Retrieved 22 September 2018.
  104. ^ "EU27, EuropeElects seat projection". Europe Elects. 20 September 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  105. ^ Manuel Müller (25 July 2018). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (September 2018): Hat die S&D noch eine Chance?". foederalist.eu. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  106. ^ "European Parliament 2019 seat projection". EuropeanElectionsStats. 12 September 2018. Retrieved 12 September 2018.
  107. ^ "EU27, EuropeElects seat projection". Europe Elects. 10 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  108. ^ "EU parliament elections". Thomson Reuters. 28 July 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  109. ^ a b Manuel Müller (25 July 2018). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Juli 2018): Sozialdemokraten machen Boden gut, EVP in neuem Rekordtief, Rechte legen zu". foederalist.eu. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  110. ^ "treffpunkteuropa: Changes in European party affiliations look set to shake up the European Parliament". thenewfederalist.eu. 6 July 2018. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  111. ^ a b Manuel Müller (29 May 2018). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Mai 2018): Grüne im Aufwind, GroKo weiter im Tief". foederalist.eu. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  112. ^ "treffpunkteuropa: SOZIALDEMOKRATEN NACH BREXIT OHNE CHANCE AUF KOMMISSIONSPRÄSIDENTSCHAFT". treffpunkteuropa.de. 18 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.
  113. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke (17 April 2018). "EUROPAWAHL-PROJEKTION: CHRISTDEMOKRATEN EUROPAWEIT VORNE". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 17 April 2018.
  114. ^ Manuel Müller (3 April 2018). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre". Der (europäische) Föderalist. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  115. ^ Manuel Müller (5 February 2018). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Februar 2018): EVP verliert deutlich, kleine Parteien legen zu". Der (europäische) Föderalist. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  116. ^ Manuel Müller (15 December 2017). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Dezember 2017): Sozialdemokraten stürzen ab, Rekord-Vorsprung der EVP". Der (europäische) Föderalist. Retrieved 6 February 2018.
  117. ^ Manuel Müller (16 October 2017). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Oktober 2017): EVP verliert, Grüne und Rechte gewinnen". Der (europäische) Föderalist. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  118. ^ Manuel Müller (22 August 2017). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (August 2017): Schlechte Zeiten für Europas Sozialdemokraten". Der (europäische) Föderalist. Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  119. ^ Manuel Müller (28 June 2017). "Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Juni 2017): Liberale dank Macron im Rekordhoch". Der (europäische) Föderalist. Retrieved 2 July 2017.
  120. ^ a b c d e f g Manuel Müller (30 September 2016). "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre". Der (europäische) Föderalist. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  121. ^ "treffpunkteuropa: TRUMP-EFFEKT? – ZUSTIMMUNG FÜR RECHTE IN EUROPA SINKT RASANT". treffpunkteuropa.de. 1 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  122. ^ "treffpunkteuropa: Umfragen: Europas Rechte im Sinkflug". treffpunkteuropa.de. 1 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  123. ^ a b "treffpunkteuropa: Umfragen: Der Trump-Effekt". treffpunkteuropa.de. 1 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2016.
  124. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Muskelschwund der Volksparteien in der EU – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  125. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: 20% der Europäer würden rechts wählen – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  126. ^ a b c Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Terror verändert Wahlabsicht der Europäer kaum – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  127. ^ Manuel Müller. "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Juli 2016): Wer profitiert vom Brexit?". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  128. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Brexit beflügelt EU-Befürworter – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  129. ^ treffpunkteuropa.de. "Live-Ticker: Brexit-Referendum +++ Junge Wähler blieben zuhause – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  130. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Europäische Sozialdemokratie stürzt weiter ab – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  131. ^ Manuel Müller (25 May 2016). "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Mai 2016): EVP und S&D in freiem Fall". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  132. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Nach Brüsseler Anschlägen: Rechtspopulismus in Europa erreicht Umfragehoch – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  133. ^ a b Manuel Müller (7 February 2016). "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Februar 2016): Rechte weiter im Höhenflug, Sozialdemokraten auf neuem Tiefststand". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  134. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Europäische Sozialdemokratie in der Krise – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  135. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Pro-europäische Verhofstadt-Allianz auf Rekordjagd – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  136. ^ "Le Taurillon, magazine eurocitoyen". Treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  137. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Liberaler Frühling in Europa – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  138. ^ Manuel Müller (14 December 2015). "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Dezember 2015): Große Koalition verliert, ALDE gewinnt". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  139. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Kein Zuwachs für Rechte durch Paris-Attentate – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  140. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke (18 November 2015). "Gains for Cameron and ECR allies all over Europe – The New Federalist, webzine of the Young European Federalist". Thenewfederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  141. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "AfD-Partner europaweit im Höhenflug – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  142. ^ Manuel Müller. "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (Oktober 2015): Rechtes Rekordhoch in der Flüchtlingskrise". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  143. ^ Manuel Müller. "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre (August 2015): Umfragen in der Sommerpause". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  144. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "europeanmeter: Tsipras-Politik stoppt Aufstieg der europäischen Linken – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  145. ^ "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre: Prognose für das Europäische Parlament (Juni 2015)". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  146. ^ a b Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Linke in Europa weiter stark – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  147. ^ Manuel Müller. "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre: Prognose für das Europäische Parlament (Mai 2015)". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  148. ^ Manuel Müller. "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre: Prognose für das Europäische Parlament (März 2015)". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  149. ^ Manuel Müller. "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre: Prognose für das Europäische Parlament (Januar 2015)". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  150. ^ Manuel Müller (18 November 2014). "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre: Prognose für das Europäische Parlament (November 2014)". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  151. ^ Manuel Müller (23 September 2014). "Der (europäische) Föderalist: Wenn am nächsten Sonntag Europawahl wäre: Prognose für das Europäische Parlament (September 2014)". Foederalist.eu. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  152. ^ "EU28, preliminary election result". Twitter. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  153. ^ "EUROPEAN ELECTION PROJECTION". Europe Elects. Retrieved 10 April 2019.
  154. ^ "SPD droht Debakel bei Eurowahl - Union obenauf". Wahlkreisprognose. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  155. ^ a b c "Europe Elects on Twitter".
  156. ^ "Europe Elects on Twitter".
  157. ^ a b "Europe Elects on Twitter".
  158. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Europa: Implosion der Rechten – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  159. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: TRUMP-EFFEKT? – ZUSTIMMUNG FÜR RECHTE IN EUROPA SINKT RASANT – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
  160. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Europas Rechte im Sinkflug – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  161. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Umfragen: Das Ende der europäischen Sozialdemokratie? – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  162. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfragen: Le-Pen-Allianz ENF startet stark ins Superwahljahr – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  163. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Der Anti-Trump-Effekt – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  164. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Umfrage: Rechtspopulisten in EU-Gründerstaaten stark – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  165. ^ treffpunkteuropa.de. "Live-Ticker: Brexit-Referendum +++ Junge Wähler blieben zuhause – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  166. ^ "Wahlen in Österreich: van der Bellen gewinnt – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  167. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Nach Brüsseler Anschlägen: Rechtspopulismus in Europa erreicht Umfragehoch – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  168. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Nach Köln-Übergriffen: Le-Pen-Allianz erstmals bei 7 Prozent – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  169. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Flüchtlingskrise erschüttert politische Stimmung in Europa – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  170. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Flüchtlingskrise: Rechte in Europa profitieren vorerst nicht – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  171. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Trotz Griechenland-Einigung: Etablierte Parteien in Europa schwächeln in Umfragen – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  172. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Instabile Rechtsfraktion im EU-Parlament – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  173. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Cameron-Alliierte europaweit im Höhenflug – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  174. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Europeanmeter: rechts gewinnt, links verliert – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  175. ^ Tobias Gerhard Schminke. "Europeanmeter: Rekordzustimmung für Linke – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.
  176. ^ a b c d e f g h Tobias Gerhard Schminke (25 May 2014). "Nach Charlie Hebdo-Attentat: Rechtsruck in Europa bleibt aus – treffpunkteuropa.de | europäisch, politisch, kritisch". treffpunkteuropa.de. Retrieved 29 November 2016.

External links[edit]