EPR (nuclear reactor)
The EPR is a third generation pressurized water reactor (PWR) design. It has been designed and developed mainly by Framatome (now Areva NP) and Électricité de France (EDF) in France, and Siemens in Germany. In Europe this reactor design was called European Pressurized Reactor, and the internationalized name was Evolutionary Power Reactor, but it is now simply named EPR.
Four EPR units are under construction. The first two, in Finland and France, are both facing costly construction delays (to at least 2018). Construction commenced on two Chinese units in 2009 and 2010. The Chinese units were to start operation in 2014 and 2015, but are now expected to come online in 2017 and 2018. Two units at Hinkley Point in the United Kingdom received final approval in September 2016 and are expected to be completed by 2025.
EDF has acknowledged severe difficulties in building the EPR design. In September 2015 EDF stated that the design of a "New Model" EPR was being worked on, which will be easier and cheaper to build.
- 1 Design
- 2 Olkiluoto 3 (Finland)
- 3 Flamanville 3 (France)
- 4 Taishan 1 & 2 (China)
- 5 Hinkley Point C (United Kingdom)
- 6 Possible future power stations
- 7 Unsuccessful proposals
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The main design objectives of the third generation EPR design are increased safety while providing enhanced economic competitiveness through improvements to previous PWR designs scaled up to an electrical power output of around 1650 MW (net) with thermal power 4500 MW. The reactor can use 5% enriched uranium oxide fuel, reprocessed uranium fuel and 100% mixed uranium plutonium oxide fuel. The EPR is the evolutionary descendant of the Framatome N4 and Siemens Power Generation Division "Konvoi" reactors. Siemens ceased its nuclear activities in 2011.
The EPR design has several active and passive protection measures against accidents:
- Four independent emergency cooling systems, each providing the required cooling of the decay heat that continues for 1 to 3 years after the reactor's initial shutdown (i.e., 300% redundancy)
- Leaktight containment around the reactor
- An extra container and cooling area if a molten core manages to escape the reactor (see containment building)
- Two-layer concrete wall with total thickness 2.6 m, designed to withstand impact by aeroplanes and internal overpressure
The EPR was designed to use uranium more efficiently than older Generation II reactors, using approximately 17% less uranium per unit of electricity generated than these older reactor technologies.
The Union of Concerned Scientists referred to the EPR in Dec 2007 as the only new reactor design under consideration in the United States that "...appears to have the potential to be significantly safer and more secure against attack than today's reactors."
On 4 November 2009, the nuclear power regulatory authorities in France, Finland and the United Kingdom issued a joint letter to Areva, citing serious problems with the EPR's digital Instrumentation and Control systems (I&C). The letter stated:
"The issue is primarily around ensuring the adequacy of the safety systems (those used to maintain control of the station if it goes outside normal conditions), and their independence from the control systems (those used to operate the station under normal conditions).
Independence is important because, if a safety system provides protection against the failure of a control system, then they should not fail together. The EPR design, as originally proposed by the licensees and the manufacturer, AREVA, doesn’t comply with the independence principle, as there is a very high degree of complex interconnectivity between the control and safety systems."
In 2013[update] EDF acknowledged the difficulties it was having building the EPR design, with its head of production and engineering, Hervé Machenaud, saying EDF had lost its dominant international position in design and construction of nuclear power stations. Machenaud indicated EDF was considering designing two new lower powered reactors, one with output of 1,500 MWe and the other 1,000 MWe. Machenaud stated there would be a period of reflection on the best way to improve the EPR design to lower its price and incorporate post-Fukushima safety improvements.
In September 2015 EDF's chief executive Jean-Bernard Lévy stated that the design of a "New Model" EPR was being worked on, which will be easier to build, to be ready for orders from about 2020, describing it in 2016 as "a reactor offering the same characteristics as today’s EPR but it will be cheaper to build with optimised construction times and costs."
Olkiluoto 3 (Finland)
The construction of the Olkiluoto 3 power station in Finland commenced in August 2005. It was initially scheduled to go online in 2009, but the project has suffered many delays, and according to Areva operations are expected to start in 2018. The station will have an electrical power output of 1600 MWe (net). The construction was a joint effort of French Areva and German Siemens AG through their common subsidiary Areva NP, for Finnish operator TVO. Siemens ceased nuclear activities in 2011. Initial cost estimates were about €3.7 billion, but the project has since seen several severe cost increments and delays.
In May 2006, construction delays of about one year were announced, following quality control problems across the construction. In part the delays were due to the lack of oversight of subcontractors inexperienced in nuclear construction. The delays led to disappointing financial results for the Areva NP. It blamed delays on the Finnish approach to approving technical documentation and designs.
In December 2006, TVO announced construction was about 18 months behind schedule so completion was now expected 2010–11, and there were reports that Areva was preparing to take a €500 million charge on its accounts for the delay.
At the end of June 2007, it was reported that Säteilyturvakeskus, the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, had found a number of safety-related design and manufacturing 'deficiencies'. In August 2007, a further construction delay of up to a year was reported associated with construction problems in reinforcing the reactor building to withstand an airplane crash, and the timely supply of adequate documentation to the Finnish authorities.
A further delay was announced in October 2008, making the total delay three years, giving an expected online date of 2012. The parties are in arbitration to resolve a dispute over responsibility for the delays and final cost overruns.
As of May 2009[update], the station was at least three and a half years behind schedule and more than 50 percent over-budget. Areva and the utility involved "are in bitter dispute over who will bear the cost overruns and there is a real risk now that the utility will default". In August 2009, Areva announced €550 million additional provisions for the build, taking station costs to €5.3 billion, and wiped out interim operating profits for the first half-year of 2009.
In June 2010, Areva announced €400 million of further provisions, taking the cost overrun to €2.7 billion. The timescale slipped to the end of 2012 from June 2012, Areva’s Overruns at Finnish Nuclear Station Approach Initial Cost with operation set to start in 2013. In December 2011, TVO announced a further delay to August 2014. As of July 2012, the station was scheduled to start electricity production no earlier than 2015, a schedule slippage of at least six years. In December 2012 Areva's Chief Executive estimated costs to €8 billion.
In September 2014 Areva announced that operations would start in 2018.
Flamanville 3 (France)
First concrete was poured for the demonstration EPR reactor at the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant on 6 December 2007. As the name implies this will be the third nuclear reactor on the Flamanville site and the second instance of an EPR being built. Electrical output will be 1630 MWe (net) and the project was planned to involve around €3.3 billion of capital expenditure from EDF.
From 19 October 2005 to 18 February 2006 the project was submitted to a national public debate.
On 4 May 2006 the decision was made by EDF's Board of Directors to continue with the construction.
Between 15 June and 31 July 2006 the unit underwent a public enquiry, which rendered a "favorable opinion" on the project. That summer site preparation works began.
On March 17, 2007 simultaneous protests, organised by Sortir du nucléaire, were staged in five French towns to protest construction of EPR stations; Rennes, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, and Strasbourg. In December 2007 construction of the unit itself began. This was expected to last 54 months.
In April 2008 the French nuclear safety agency (Autorité de sûreté nucléaire, ASN) reported that a quarter of the welds inspected in the secondary containment steel liner are not in accordance with norms, and that cracks have been found in the concrete base. EDF stated that progress was being made on these issues raised very early in construction; however, on 21 May ASN ordered a suspension of concrete pouring on the site. A month later concreting work resumed after ASN accepted EDF's corrective action plan which included external oversight checks.
In May 2009 professor Stephen Thomas reported that after 18 months of construction and after a series of quality control problems, the project is "more than 20 percent over budget and EDF is struggling to keep it on schedule".
In August 2010 the regulator, ASN, reported further welding problems on the secondary containment steel liner. The same month EDF announced that costs had increased 50% to €5 billion, and commissioning was delayed by about two years to 2014.
In July 2011 EDF announced that the estimated costs had escalated to €6 billion and that completion of construction was delayed to 2016
On 3 December 2012 EDF announced that the estimated costs had escalated to €8.5 billion
In December 2012 the Italian power company Enel announced it was relinquishing its 12.5% stake in the project, and 5 future EPRs, so would be reimbursed its project stake of €613 million plus interest.
In November 2014 EDF announced that completion of construction was delayed to 2017 due to delays in component delivery by Areva.
In April 2015 Areva informed the French nuclear regulator ASN that anomalies had been detected in the reactor vessel steel, causing "lower than expected mechanical toughness values". Further tests are underway. In July 2015 The Daily Telegraph reported that Areva had been aware of this problem since 2006. In June 2015 multiple faults in cooling system safety valves were discovered by ASN.
In September 2015 EDF announced that the estimated costs had escalated to €10.5 billion, and the start-up of the reactor was delayed to the fourth quarter of 2018.
In April 2016 ASN announced that additional weak spots had been found in the reactor steel, and Areva and EDF responded that new tests would be conducted, though construction work would continue.
In February 2017 the Financial Times stated the project was six years late and €7.2 billion over budget while renewed delays in the construction of the EPR-reactors at Taishan Nuclear Power Plant prompted EDF to state that Flamanville 3 remains on schedule to start operations by the end of 2018, assuming it receives regulator approval. In June 2017 the French regulator issued a provisional ruling that Flamanville 3 is safe to start.
Taishan 1 & 2 (China)
In 2006, Areva took part in the first bidding process for the construction of four new nuclear reactors in China, together with Toshiba-owned Westinghouse and Russian Atomstroyexport. However Areva lost this bid in favor of Westinghouse's AP1000 reactors, in part because of Areva's refusal to transfer the expertise and knowledge to China.
Following this Areva managed to win a deal in February 2007, worth about €8 billion ($10.5 billion) for two EPRs located in Taishan, Guangdong Province in southern China, in spite of sticking to its previous conditions. The General Contractor and Operator is the China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN).
The construction of the first reactor at Taishan started officially on 18 November 2009, and the second on 15 April 2010. Construction of each unit was then planned to take 46 months, significantly faster and cheaper than the first two EPRs in Finland and France.
The reactor pressure vessel of the first reactor was installed in June 2012, and the second in November 2014. The first pressure vessel had been imported from Mitsubishi Heavy Industries in Japan, and steam generators from Areva in France. The second pressure vessel and associated steam generators had been made in China, by Dongfang Electric and Shanghai Electric.
In 2014 the build was reported to be running over two years late, mainly due to key component delays and project management issues.
In February 2016 cold function tests were performed on Taishan 1, with start up expected in the first half of 2017. Taishan 2 was scheduled to start up later that year.
In February 2017 commissioning dates were put back six months, with commercial operation now expected in the second half of 2017 and the first half of 2018.
Hinkley Point C (United Kingdom)
The EPR underwent Generic Design Assessment by the Office for Nuclear Regulation, along with the Westinghouse AP1000. Interim Design Acceptance Confirmations were postponed until lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster had been taken into account. EDF bought British Energy in 2009. EDF planned to build 4 new EPRs, subject to electricity pricing agreement with the government. Areva has signed a strategic partnership with Rolls-Royce to support the build of EPRs. On 19 March 2013 planning consent for Hinkley Point C nuclear power station was given, but difficult negotiations with the UK government about electricity pricing, and project financing with private investors, still needed to be concluded.
On 21 October 2013, EDF Energy announced that an agreement had been reached regarding the nuclear stations to be built on the site of Hinkley Point C. EDF Group and the UK Government agreed on the key commercial terms of the investment contract. The final investment decision was conditional on completion of the remaining key steps, including the agreement of the European Commission.
On 8 October 2014 the European Commission announced their agreement, with 16 out of 28 commissioners agreeing with the go ahead of the construction. On 21 September 2015 the British government announced it would provide a £2 billion support package for Hinkley Point C as Britain's first nuclear power station in 20 years.
On 21 October 2015, during Chinese president Xi Jinping's state visit to the United Kingdom, EDF and CGN signed an investment agreement for the £18 billion (€21.5 billion) project to build two reactors at Hinkley Point. However, legally binding contracts had not been agreed yet.
In June 2016, EDF managers told Members of Parliament that the Hinkley Point C proposal should be postponed, until it has "solved a litany of problems", including EDFs "soaring debts".
On 28 July 2016, after the resignation of a board member, the EDF board approved the project. However Greg Clark, the new Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in the new government of Theresa May, then announced that the government would not sign the contract over the next few days as expected, but delay the contract to autumn to "consider carefully all the component parts of this project". Final government approval was given in September 2016.
In December 2016 The Economist reported that the British loan guarantees require the EPR reactor Flamanville 3 to be operational by 2020, that the regulator will rule on the future of the Flamanville reactor mid-2017 and that one possible outcome of this ruling can delay its opening far beyond 2018, thus jeopardizing the British loan guarantees thereby preventing EDF from building the EPRs at Hinkley Point. Other than that, the units are expected to enter service in 2025.
Possible future power stations
In February 2009, the Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) signed a memorandum of understanding with Areva to set up two 1650 MWe reactors at Jaitapur in Maharashtra. This was followed by a framework agreement in December 2010.
In January 2016, during French president François Hollande's state visit to India a joint statement with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi was issued. According to the statement the two leaders "have agreed on a roadmap of cooperation to speed up discussions on the Jaitapur project in 2016. Their shared aim is to start the implementation of the project in early 2017."
NPCIL has ambitions to build up to 9900 MW at the Jaitapur site, equating to 6 EPRs.
In March 2008, French president Nicolas Sarkozy reached an agreement with the UAE cabinet that "outlines a cooperation framework for the assessment and possible use of nuclear energy for peaceful ends." This agreement was not a contract for EPR construction by any of the French nuclear companies, Total S.A., Suez or Areva.
In May 2009, US President Barack Obama signed a similar agreement with the UAE. The deal, which has not yet been ratified by the US Congress, pledges US aid in the development of a civilian nuclear energy program in the UAE. Contracts for reactors were not given, nor was there any guarantee made that US companies would receive them.
In December 2009 the United Arab Emirates declined both the American and French bids and awarded a contract for construction of four non-EPR stations (APR-1400) to a South Korean group including Korea Electric Power Corporation, Hyundai Engineering and Construction, Samsung and Doosan Heavy Industries.
After losing this order, Areva is considering whether it should reintroduce the marketing of a smaller and simpler second-generation reactor design alongside the EPR, for countries that are new to nuclear power. As of 2011 Areva and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries offer a smaller 1100 MWe ATMEA1 Generation III PWR.
EPR was considered for the two (possible expansion to four) reactor addition to the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station in Ontario, Canada. However, the official bids had to include all contingencies, and Areva failed to enter a final bid meeting these requirements. The project was ultimately abandoned when the only bid, made by Canada's AECL, came in at well over $10/Wp.
EPR was briefly considered for an installation in New Brunswick, Canada, replacing or supplanting that province's single CANDU6. These plans lasted only from June 2010 until an election two months later, when the plan immediately disappeared from further study.
In July 2008 the French President announced a second EPR would be built in France due to high oil and gas prices. Penly was chosen as the site in 2009, with construction planned to start in 2012. However, in 2011, following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, EDF postponed public consultations. In February 2013, the Minister of Industrial Renewal Arnaud Montebourg stated that the plans for a new EPR reactor at Penly had been canceled, citing the capacity for electricity production and massive investments in renewable energy along with his confidence in the EPR as a competitive project in foreign countries.
On 24 February 2009, Italy and France agreed to study the feasibility of building 4 new nuclear power stations in Italy. Following this, on 3 August 2009, EDF and Enel established a joint venture, Sviluppo Nucleare Italia, to study the feasibility of building at least four EPRs.
However, in the 2011 referendum, soon after the Fukushima nuclear disaster, Italians voted to repeal the new regulations permitting nuclear power in Italy. Abrogation of laws is put in effect when at least 50%+1 electors make a valid vote and a majority of these voters are in favour of abrogation. In this referendum there was a 55% valid voter turnout and 94% voted to abrogate the new regulations.
The US-EPR, the version of the EPR submitted to the U.S. regulator, is one of the competitors for the next generation of nuclear stations in the United States, along with the AP1000 and the ESBWR. In February 2015 Areva asked to suspend the Design Certification Application Review process at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). It had been under review there with expectation to submit an application for final design approval and standard design certification since 14 December 2007. UniStar, Amarillo Power, PPL Corp and AmerenUE announced plans to file a Combined Construction and Operating License application in 2008 for the US-EPR at its Callaway station. UniStar filed a partial application in July 2007 for a proposed third unit at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant in Maryland. However, both proposals were subsequently cancelled.
In April 2009, Missouri legislators balked at preconstruction rate increases, prompting AmerenUE to suspend plans for its reactor. In July 2010, Constellation Energy Group cut spending on UniStar for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Station because of uncertainties for a loan guarantee from the U.S. Department of Energy, and subsequently pulled out of the project. In October 2008, Areva announced that it will partner with US defense firm Northrop Grumman to establish a US$380 million facility to construct modules and assemblies for the EPR and US-EPR reactors at Northrop Grumman's Newport News Shipyard in Virginia. The project was suspended indefinitely in May 2011.
In 2010 the Finnish parliament decided to allow two new reactors. Both TVO and Fennovoima were considering the EPR. In December 2013 Fennovoima confirmed it had selected a Russian AES-2006 VVER pressurized water reactor in preference to the EPR.
The Czech Republic
In October 2012 CEZ announced that Areva was eliminated from the tender for the construction of 2 reactors for Temelin nuclear plant. Areva failed to comply with legal requirements of the tender. In April 2014 CEZ cancelled a tender, because of low power prices and the government's refusal to support a minimum guaranteed energy price.
- Geert De Clercq (31 July 2014). "EDF hopes French EPR will launch before Chinese reactors". Reuters. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- Symbolic milestone for Finnish EPR, World Nuclear News, 24 October 2013.
- "China revises commissioning dates of EPRs". World Nuclear News. 22 February 2017. Retrieved 25 February 2017.
- Rowena Mason; Simon Goodley (15 September 2016). "Hinkley Point C nuclear power station gets government green light". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
- Geert De Clercq (23 September 2015). "Only China wants to invest in Britain's new £2bn Hinkley Point nuclear station because no one else thinks it will work, EDF admits". The Independent. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- "New Build Field Report" (PDF). Areva. 6 October 2010. p. 4. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Andrew Teller (2 February 2010). "The EPR Reactor: Evolution to Gen III+ based on proven technology" (PDF). Areva. Retrieved 19 July 2010.
- "EPR – Areva brochure" (PDF). Areva NP. May 2005. Retrieved 2 January 2008.
- Borrud, Gabriel. "Siemens to quit nuclear industry". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- A. Shirzadi; S. Jackson (30 July 2014). Structural Alloys for Power Plants: Operational Challenges and High-Temperature Materials. Elsevier Science. pp. 94–. ISBN 978-0-85709-755-2.
- EPR Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. Author: UK EPR.
- https://books.google.com/books?id=LZ7zBwWLyLEC&pg=PA121 page 126. 3 Rs of Nuclear Power: Reading, Recycling, and Reprocessing Making a Better ... By Jan Forsythe
- "Nuclear Power in a Warming World" (PDF). Union of Concerned Scientists.
- "Joint Regulatory Position Statement on the EPR Pressurised Water Reactor" (PDF). UK Health and Safety Executive. Dec 2007.
- "EDF eyes development of new, smaller reactors - papers". Reuters. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- "Interview Jean-Bernard Lévy, CEO EDF: "Our Future Lies in Combination Nuclear and Renewables"". the energycollective. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- OLKILUOTO 3 PROJECT by AREVA
- CHRONOLOGY OF OLKILUOTO 3 PROJECT by AREVA Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Olkiluoto 3 startup pushed back to 2018". World Nuclear News. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
- EPR IN FINLAND: FOUNDATION STONE-LAYING DAY AT OLKILUOTO 3 by AREVA Archived 18 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- Regulator reports as OL3 delays reach one year, 19 July 2006, by Nuclear Engineering International.
- Concrete composition delays Finland's Olkiluoto 3, Nuclear Engineering International, 9 May 2006.
- Areva’s first half results hit by Olkiluoto 3 delays, 2 October 2006, by Nuclear Engineering International.
- European Pressurised Reactor at Olkiluoto 3, Finland – Brief & Interim Review of the Porosity and Durability Properties of the In Situ Cast Concrete at the Olkiluoto EPR Construction Site, June 2006, Large & Associates.
- Finland nuclear reactor delayed again, Associated Press, 4 December 2006.
- Areva to take 500 mln eur charge for Finnish reactor delay, Forbes, 5 December 2006.
- Nuclear industry revival hits roadblocks, New Scientist, 29 June 2007. Retrieved 5 July 2007.
- Dates revised again for Olkiluoto 3, World Nuclear News, 10 August 2007.
- Nuclear industry's flagship plant delayed again, Huliq, 11 August 2007.
- Areva delay threatens China contract, MSNBC, 10 August 2007.
- Alan Katz (5 September 2007). "Nuclear Bid to Rival Coal Chilled by Flaws, Delay in Finland". Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 June 2008.
- Areva-Siemens sees Olkiluoto 3 reactor operational in summer 2011, CNN, 31 December 2007.
- "3-year delay expected at Finnish nuclear plant". International Herald Tribune. 17 October 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Peggy Hollinger (16 October 2008). "Areva in talks with TVO over EPR delays". Financial Times. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
- Suoninen, Sakari (31 December 2008). "Finland nuclear reactor costs headed to arbitration – TVO". Reuters. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- U.K. Expert: U.S. is Not Losing International 'Race' on Nuclear Power With France and Other Nations
- Peggy Hollinger (31 August 2009). "Finnish reactor provisions hit Areva profits". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 September 2009.
- "Olkiluoto 3: EPR dome installed". AREVA NC. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- "AREVA – Olkiluoto 3 : EPR dome installed". YouTube. 10 August 2008. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Dorothy Kosich (29 June 2010). "S&P downgrades French nuclear-uranium giant AREVA on weakened profitability". Mineweb. Archived from the original on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 6 July 2010.
- François de Beaupuy. Areva’s Overruns at Finnish Nuclear Plant Approach Initial Cost Archived 7 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Bloomberg Businessweek, 24 June 2010.
- "Start-up of Finnish EPR pushed back to 2013". World Nuclear News. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
- Ando, Ritsuko (21 December 2011). "Finland's Olkiluoto 3 reactor delayed to August 2014". Reuters. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
- "Olkiluoto 3 delayed beyond 2014". World Nuclear News. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- "Costs of Finland's Olkiluoto nuclear reactor go up yet again". Nuclear-news. 14 December 2012. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Nuclear Engineering International. Flamanville 3 concrete poured.
- "EDF Official Site – Flamanville 3". Edf.fr. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Public inquiry commission favors plan to build Flamanville-3 EPR". Nucleonics Week. 5 October 2006. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 17 June 2008. (Subscription required (. ))
- "French protests over EPR". Nuclear Engineering International. 3 April 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.
- "France hit by anti-nuclear protests". Evening Echo. 3 April 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
- Geoffrey Lean; Jonathan Owen (13 April 2008). "Defects found in nuclear reactor the French want to build in Britain". The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 April 2004.
- "French nuke body partly halts work on new reactor". Reuters. 27 May 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2008.
- "EdF allowed to continue concreting". World Nuclear News. 20 June 2008. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- Tara Patel (30 August 2010). "French Nuclear Watchdog Says EDF Has Problems With Flamanville EPR Liner". Bloomberg. Retrieved 31 August 2010.
- "EDF delays Flamanville 3 EPR project". Nuclear Engineering International. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
- "Le coût de l'EPR de Flamanville encore revu à la hausse". Le Monde. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
- "Enel Drops Participation in Flamanville EPR as Project Costs Soar by $2.6B". POWER. 6 December 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- "Enel and Edf Terminate their cooperation on EPR in France". Enel. 4 December 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Michael Stothard (18 November 2014). "EDF in fresh delay for flagship nuclear plant". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "Flamanville EPR vessel anomalies under scrutiny". World Nuclear News. 7 April 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Henry Samuel (9 July 2015). "Areva aware 'as early as 2006' of serious fault in nuclear reactor destined for UK". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Henry Samuel (9 June 2015). "Faulty valves in new-generation EPR nuclear reactor pose meltdown risk, inspectors warn". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- "EPRs to face more tests". Nuclear Engineering International. 12 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "Downfall of Toshiba, a nuclear industry titan". Financial Times. 14 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
- "EDF confirms Flamanville timetable after Taishan EPR delay". Times of India. 2017-02-22. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "French regulator says Flamanville 3 is safe to start". world-nuclear-news.org. 2017-06-28. Retrieved 2017-07-03.
- email@example.com (12 September 2004). "Foreign energy giants bid for China's nuclear contracts, 12 September 2004, ''People's Daily''". People's Daily. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Areva lands world's biggest ever nuclear power order". World Nuclear News. 26 November 2007. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
- "Signing of Areva EPR order in China delayed – French source". Forbes. 30 July 2007. Archived from the original on 15 December 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2007.
- "China, People's Republic of: Nuclear Power Reactors". PRIS database. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- Patel, Tara; François de Beaupuy (24 November 2010). "China Builds Nuclear Reactor for 40% Less Than Cost in France, Areva Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- "China: The Construction of the EPR reactor Unit 1 at Taishan Takes a Major Step Forward with the Installation of the Vessel". AREVA. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 5 June 2012.
- "Construction milestone at Taishan 2 EPR". World Nuclear News. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- Steve Kidd (23 February 2015). "How serious are the delays in China's nuclear programme?". Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 8 March 2015.
- "First Taishan EPR completes cold tests". World Nuclear News. 1 February 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "New Nuclear Power Stations – Progress so far". Health and Safety Executive. Retrieved 15 September 2009.
- "News – Taking GDA work forward in the light of the unprecedented events in Japan". Hse.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- This website was built by the EDF Energy WCM. "Nuclear Generation". Edfenergy.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Declan Lynch (18 April 2013). "EdF still undecided about Hinkley Point C go-ahead". New Civil Engineer. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Andrew Trotman (18 April 2013). "EDF prepared to let UK nuclear talks fail". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- "Areva signs up Rolls-Royce for EPR". Nuclear Engineering International. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "New nuclear power plant at Hinkley Point C is approved". BBC. 20 March 2013. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Dave Harvey (19 March 2013). "What price nuclear power? The final hurdle for Hinkley". BBC. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Terry Macalister (9 March 2016). "No legally binding contract in £18bn Hinkley Point nuclear project". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 March 2016.
- Terry Macalister, "Hinkley Point should be postponed", The Guardian, 18 June 2016.
- Graham Ruddick (28 July 2016). "Hinkley Point C in doubt after British government delays approval". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- Emily Gosden (28 July 2016). "Government delays Hinkley nuclear decision despite EDF approval for £18bn project". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "France’s nuclear-energy champion is in turmoil". The Economist. 2016-12-03. Retrieved 2016-12-04.
- "EDF warns Hinkley Point could cost extra £1.5bn". Financial Times. 2017-07-03. Retrieved 2017-07-05.
- "Hinkley nuclear plant already £1.5bn over budget, EDF admits". Global Construction Review. 2017-07-03. Retrieved 2017-07-05.
- India, France ink pact for Areva reactors, fuel npcil.nic.in
- "Jaitapur agreement due by year-end". World Nuclear News. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- "Areva signs Jaitapur agreements". World Nuclear News. 13 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
- UAE endorses France nuclear deal – Joel Bowman – BBC News 10 March 2008.
- Despite Torture Video, U.S. and Emirates Sign Key Pact – Mark Landler – The New York Times – 21 May 2009.
- Andrew England; Peggy Hollinger; Song Jung-a. "S. Koreans win $20B UAE nuclear power contract". Financial Times. CNN. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010.
- Peggy Hollinger (15 January 2010). "Areva considers producing cheaper reactors". Financial Times. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Tara Patel (19 January 2011). "French Atmea Would Make Reactor ‘Credible’ Export, GDF Suez Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- "CANDU at Darlington: Securing Jobs and Energy for the new Economy" (PDF). February 2012.
- "New Brunswick deals with Areva". www.world-nuclear-news.org. 2010-07-09. Retrieved 2016-08-23.
- "Second new reactor for France". World Nuclear News. 3 July 2008. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
- AREVA's announcement on two new EPRs in France.
- "France says Penly reactor on course despite delays". Reuters. 4 October 2011. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- "Pas d'EPR à la centrale de Penly" [No EPR at the Penly power plant]. BFM TV (in French). 2013-04-25. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "Montebourg enterre l'EPR de Penly" [Montebourg buries the Penly EPR]. normandie.canalblog.com (in French). 2013-03-03. Retrieved 2017-03-09.
- "Italy and France pen nuclear deal". BBC. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 24 February 2009.
- Selina Williams; Liam Moloney (4 August 2009). "Enel, EDF to Build Nuclear Plants in Italy". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 August 2009.
- "US EPR plans suspended". World Nuclear News. 6 March 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Design Certification Application Review – U.S. EPR". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved 3 July 2008.
- "Nuke plant is, well, nuked. Not gonna happen". Primebuzz.kcstar.com. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- Terry Ganey. AmerenUE pulls plug on project Columbia Daily Tribune, 23 April 2009.
- Peter Behr (30 July 2010). "A Late Scramble to Fund 'Nuclear Renaissance' Kick-Start". New York Times. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- "Constellation Energy cuts spending on Areva reactor venture". McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. TradingMarkets. 29 July 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010.
- Peggy Hollinger (19 October 2010). "Energy: Cooling ambitions". Financial Times. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- "Dedicated nuclear component factory". World Nuclear News. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- Sonal Patel (1 December 2008). "AREVA inches closer to U.S. EPR construction". POWER. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
- "Areva Halts Construction of Virginia Reactor Component Plant – Nuclear Power Industry News – Nuclear Power Industry News – Nuclear Street – Nuclear Power Portal". Nuclear Street. 11 May 2011. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "TVO Plant type alternatives". Tvo.fi. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Current | Fennovoima signed technical development agreements with Areva and Toshiba | Current | Fennovoima Oy". Fennovoima.com. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "Finland's Fennovoima signs reactor deal with Rosatom". Reuters. 21 December 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- CEZ excludes Areva from Temelin expansion tender
- UPDATE 4-CEZ scraps tender to expand Temelin nuclear power plant