EU Battlegroup

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from European Union Battlegroups)

EU Battlegroup
Country European Union
TypeFramework for creating deployable forces
Part ofCouncil of the European Union

An EU Battlegroup (EU BG)[1] is a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU). Often based on contributions from a coalition of member states, each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force reinforced with combat support elements (1,500 troops).[2][3] Two of the battlegroups were declared to be capable of being assembled for operational deployment at any one time.

EUBG 2014 II training in Germany

The Battlegroup initiative reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, but, as of October 2022, they had yet to see operational service.[4][5] They were developed from existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) had undertaken.[3] The troops and equipment are drawn from the Member States of the European Union under the direction of a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots.[6]


Background (1999–2005)[edit]

The initial idea to create EU multinational roughly battalion-sized combined arms units was first publicly raised at the European Council summit on 10–11 December 1999 in Helsinki. The Council produced the Headline Goal 2003 and specified the need for a rapid response capability that members should provide in small forces at high readiness. The idea was reiterated at a Franco-British summit on 4 February 2003 in Le Touquet which highlighted as a priority the need to improve rapid response capabilities, "including initial deployment of land, sea and air forces within 5–10 days."[7] This was again described as essential in the "Headline Goal 2010".

Operation Artemis in 2003 showed an EU rapid reaction and deployment of forces in a short time scale – with the EU going from Crisis Management Concept to operation launch in just three weeks, then taking a further 20 days for substantial deployment. Its success provided a template for the future rapid response deployments allowing the idea to be considered more practically. The following Franco-British summit in November of that year stated that, building on the experience of the operation, the EU should be able and willing to deploy forces within 15 days in response to a UN request. It called specifically for "Battlegroup sized forces of around 1500 land forces, personnel, offered by a single nation or through a multinational or framework nation force package".

On 10 February 2004, France, Germany and the United Kingdom released a paper outlining the "Battlegroup concept". The document proposed a number of groups based on Artemis that would be autonomous, consisting of about 1500 personnel and deployable within 15 days. These would be principally in response to UN requests at short notice and can be rapidly tailored to specific missions. They would concentrate on bridging operations, preparing the group before a larger force relieved them, for example UN or regional peacekeepers under UN mandate. The plan was approved by all groups in 2004 and in November that year the first thirteen Battlegroups were pledged with associated niche capabilities.[8]

Early development (2005–2015)[edit]

Irish Mowag Piranha during an exercise in 2010

From 1 January 2005 the Battlegroups reached initial operational capacity; full operational capacity was reached on 1 January 2007. Although EU member states were initially highly motivated to volunteer to fill up the roster, the fact that participating member states have to cover their own costs, which especially burdened the smaller states, has made them more reluctant. Besides, many EU member states had simultaneous obligations to fulfill for ISAF and the NATO Response Force, amongst others. This combined with the fact that EU Battlegroups have never been deployed (due to slow political decision-making), despite several occasions in which they according to various experts could or should have been (most notably DR Congo in 2006 and 2008 and Libya in 2011), has led to increasing gaps in the standby roster. Joint funding and actual usage may resolve these issues.[9][10]

MPCC, EDF and PESCO (2016–2020)[edit]

On 23 June 2016, the Brexit Referendum resulted in a vote in favour of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union. Since the UK and France were the largest military powers within the EU, this would mean a serious reduction in forces available for common European defence. On 28 June, High Representative Federica Mogherini presented a new plan, the Global EU Strategy on Security and Foreign Policy, for rigorous further European military integration between the EU member states. These included more cooperation when planning missions, training and exercising soldiers, and the development of a European defence industry. For the EU Battlegroups specifically, the plan aims to remove the obstacles preventing their rapid deployment, such as the lack of a European military headquarters. Although stressing that NATO will remain the most important defence organisation for many EU countries, Mogherini stated that the Union should be able to operate 'autonomously if necessary' on security matters. Referring to the EU's diplomacy and development record, she said that 'Soft power is not enough', and that in a less secure world, especially after Brexit, common action was needed more than ever.[11]

On 14 November 2016, the 56 European Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Defence agreed to the Global EU Strategy on Security and Foreign Policy. This included new possibilities for the rapid deployment of EU Battlegroups with aerial support for civil and military operations in conflict zones outside Europe, for example, before a UN peacekeeping force can arrive. Although Mogherini said the Strategy was 'not a European army' or a 'NATO duplicate', the recent U.S. presidential election of Donald Trump, who had previously implicitly threatened to abandon NATO if its European member states continued to fail in meeting their funding obligations,[12] influenced the European Ministers' decision as well.[13] Besides Brexit and the election of Trump, Russia's military expansionism and the European migrant crisis motivated them as well, making them agree relatively easily, which analysts regarded as a breakthrough.[14]

On 6 March 2017, the foreign and defence ministers agreed to establish a small European command centre in Brussels for military training missions abroad, which could grow out to become a European military 'headquarters' in the future.[15] This Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC) was confirmed and established by the Council of the European Union on 8 June 2017.[16] This came one day after the European Commission launched the European Defence Fund (EDF), comprising €5.5 billion per year, to 'coordinate, supplement and amplify national investments in defence research, in the development of prototypes and in the acquisition of defence equipment and technology'.[17] Until then, the lack of a common military fund had been the main obstacle to the effective operational deployment of the EU Battlegroups.[18][19] An agreement on Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence (PESCO) was reached at 22–23 June EU summit in Brussels.[18][19] A June 2017 Eurobarometer opinion poll showed that 75% of Europeans supported a common European security and defence policy, and 55% even favoured a European army.[18] Political leaders such as Dutch PM Mark Rutte commented that a 'European army' was not in the making, however.[19]

Strategic Compass and the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine (2020–present)[edit]

During the German EU presidency in the second half of 2020, the EU Common Security and Defence Policy began development of the Strategic Compass for Security and Defence,[20] as of November 2021 envisioning 'substantially modified EU battlegroups' of 5,000 soldiers by 2025.[21] While EU foreign chief Josep Borrell emphasised the EU intervention force should not be in competition with NATO, it was important to reduce operational dependency on the United States to allow EU military formations to function more autonomously, as had become more apparent during the August 2021 Kabul airlift.[21][22] There continued to be problems in gathering enough troops together, and at the time only one EU Battlegroup of the standard two was available on stand-by.[21]

The Strategic Compass was eventually adopted in March 2022.[23][24] Although it had already been in development since late 2020, 24 February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine accelerated the development and adoption of the Strategic Compass on 21 March 2022 in Brussels at the meeting of EU foreign and defence ministers, who jointly strongly condemned Russia's actions, made a strong commitment to the complementary cooperation between the EU and NATO, and discussed plans to increase the EU's defensive capabilities.[5][22] As part of the Strategic Compass, it was decided to create the EU Rapid Deployment Capacity (EU RDC) by further developing the EU Battlegroups (EUBG) 'to be able to act quickly and appropriately, in both civilian and military missions, in the event of a crisis.'[23][5] As leader of the EU Battlegroup 2025 (to be operational in 2025), Germany would provide a core of the new EU RDC, supported by contributions of other EU member states.[23] At the late May 2022 planning conference for the EU Battlegroup 2025 in Vienna involving 10 EU states, it was decided that the RDC concept was to be finalised by the end of 2022, the advanced battlegroup would include up to 5,000 soldiers from Germany and the Netherlands (lead), Austria (logistics), Hungary, Croatia, and other member states, joint exercises and training would commence in 2023, the force was to be fully operational by 2025, and would be deployed for 12 months in areas up to 6,000 kilometres measured from Brussels.[24][5] Aside from ground troops, the new force was to include space and cyber capabilities, special forces and strategic airlift capacities, and, depending on requirements, air and naval forces.[5] Another EUBG 2025 planning conference was held in September 2022 at the Multinational Joint Headquarters Ulm, which would likely also serve as the future headquarters at the military-strategic level.[5][25]


A Belgian soldier on exercise with the EU Battlegroup in Germany, 2014

The groups are intended to be deployed on the ground within 5–10 days of approval from the council. It must be sustainable for at least 30 days, which could be extended to 120 days, if resupplied.[26]

The Battlegroups are designed to deal with those tasks faced by the Common Security and Defence Policy, namely the Petersberg tasks (military tasks of a humanitarian, peacekeeping and peacemaking nature).[27]

Planners claim the Battlegroups have enough range to deal with all those tasks, although such tasks ought to be limited in "size and intensity" due to the small nature of the groups. Such missions may include conflict prevention, evacuation, aid deliverance or initial stabilisation. In general these would fall into three categories; brief support of existing troops, rapid deployment preparing the ground for larger forces or small-scale rapid response missions.[28]


A Battlegroup is considered to be the smallest self-sufficient military unit that can be deployed and sustained in a theatre of operation. EU Battlegroups are composed of approximately 1,500 troops; plus command and support services.[5] The initial thirteen Battlegroups were proposed on 22 November 2004;[26] further battlegroups have joined them since then. Since March 2022, the EU has been planning to increase their size to up to 5,000 troops per battlegroup by 2025.[5]

There is no fixed structure, a 'standard' group would include a headquarters company, three infantry companies and corresponding support personnel. Specific units might include mechanised infantry, support groups (e.g. fire or medical support), the combination of which allows independent action by the group on a variety of tasks. The main forces, extra support and "force headquarters" (front line command) are contained within the Battlegroup "package", in addition there is the operation headquarters, located in Europe.[29]


Larger member states will generally contribute their own Battlegroups, while smaller members are expected to create common groups. Each group will have a 'lead nation' or 'framework nation' which will take operational command, based on the model set up during the EU's peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Operation Artemis). Each group will also be associated with a headquarters. Three non-EU NATO countries, Norway, Turkey, and North Macedonia,[30] participate in a group each, as well as one non-EU non-NATO country, Ukraine.[31][32] From 1992 to 2022, Denmark had an opt-out clause in the Treaty of Maastricht and was not obliged to participate in the Common Security and Defence Policy, but following a 1 June 2022 referendum in favour of abolishing the opt-out, Denmark joined the CSDP a month later on 1 July 2022.[33] Malta currently does not participate in any Battlegroup.

Participating EU NATO member states
Participating EU non-NATO member states
Participating non-EU NATO member states
Participating non-EU non-NATO member states
Non-participating EU member states

Standby roster[edit]

From 1 January 2005 the Battlegroups reached initial operational capacity: at least one Battlegroup was on standby every 6 months. The United Kingdom[34] and France each had an operational Battlegroup for the first half of 2005, and Italy for the second half. In the first half of 2006, a Franco-German Battlegroup operated, and the Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup. In the second half of that year just one Battlegroup operated composed of France, Germany and Belgium.[citation needed]

Full operational capacity was reached on 1 January 2007, meaning the Union could undertake two Battlegroup sized operations concurrently, or deploy them simultaneously into the same field. The Battlegroups rotate every 6 months, the roster from 2007 onwards is as follows;[35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]

Standby roster, in which biannual periods I and II are January to June and June to December, respectively
Period Battle Group Framework nation Other participants* Force HQ (FHQ) Size
2005 I French Battlegroup France Paris
British Battlegroup[34] United Kingdom London
II Italian Battlegroup Italy Rome
2006 I French–German Battlegroup France Germany Paris
Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup Italy Spain, Greece and Portugal Rome 1500
II French–German–Belgian Battlegroup France Germany and Belgium Paris
2007 I French–Belgian Battlegroup France Belgium Paris
Battlegroup 107[37] Germany The Netherlands and Finland Potsdam 1720[43]
II Multinational Land Force[44] Italy Hungary and Slovenia Udine 1500
Balkan Battlegroup[45] Greece Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus Larissa 1500
2008 I Nordic Battlegroup (NBG08) Sweden Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Ireland and Norway[46][47] Enköping 1500
Spanish-led Battlegroup Spain Germany, France and Portugal Un­known Un­known
II French–German Battlegroup France Germany Paris Un­known
British Battlegroup United Kingdom London
2009 I Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup Italy Spain, Greece and Portugal Rome 1500
Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus Un­known 1500
II Czech–Slovak Battlegroup Czech Republic Slovakia[48] 2500
Belgian-led Battlegroup Belgium Luxembourg and France[37] Un­known ???
2010 I Battlegroup I-2010[49] Poland Germany, Slovakia, Latvia and Lithuania Międzyrzecz
UK–Dutch Battlegroup United Kingdom The Netherlands London 1500
II Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup Italy Romania and Turkey Rome
Spain, France, Portugal Un­known Un­known
2011 I Battlegroup 107 (EUBG 2011/1) Netherlands Germany, Finland, Austria and Lithuania Un­known c. 2350[50]
Nordic Battlegroup (NBG11) Sweden Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Norway[51] and Croatia[52] Enköping 1500
II Eurofor (Eurofor EUBG 2011–2)[53] Portugal Spain, Italy, France Florence
Balkan Battlegroup[53] Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine[54] Larissa 1500
2012 I French–Belgian–Luxembourgish Battlegroup France Belgium and Luxembourg Mont-Valérien
II Multinational Land Force Italy Hungary and Slovenia. Udine
German–Czech–Austrian Battlegroup Germany Austria, Czech Republic, Croatia, North Macedonia, Ireland[37] Ulm
2013 I Weimar Battlegroup (EU BG I/2013) Poland Germany and France Międzyrzecz
Belgium, Luxembourg, France (unconfirmed)[55] Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
II Battlegroup 42[38][56] United Kingdom Lithuania, Latvia, Sweden and the Netherlands London
Belgium (unconfirmed)[37] Belgium
2014 I Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine[57]
Sweden, Finland (unconfirmed)[39] Sweden
II EUBG 2014 II[30] Belgium Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, the Netherlands and North Macedonia 2500–3700
Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup[39] Spain[39] Italy[39]
2015 I Nordic Battlegroup (NBG15) Sweden Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ireland[58] France[59]
II French–Belgian Battlegroup France[39] Belgium
2016 I Visegrád Battlegroup[60] Poland Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Ukraine[31][32] Kraków 3700
Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine
II German–Czech–Austrian Battlegroup[61][62] Germany Austria, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands 1500–2500
British-led Battlegroup United Kingdom Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden and Ukraine
2017 I Multinational Land Force Italy Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia
French–Belgian Battlegroup France Belgium
II Spanish-led Battlegroup[63] Spain Italy, Portugal Bétera 2500
Multinational Land Force Italy Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia
2018 I Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine
Benelux Battlegroup Netherlands Austria, Belgium, and Luxembourg
II Benelux Battlegroup Netherlands Austria, Belgium, Germany and Luxembourg 2500–3700
2019 I Spanish-led Battlegroup Spain Italy, Portugal
French–Belgian Battlegroup[64] France Belgium Mont Valérien
II Visegrád Battlegroup[31][65] Poland Hungary, Czechia, Slovakia and Croatia Kraków 2250
French-led Battlegroup[64] France Mont Valérien
2020 I Balkan Battlegroup Greece Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Ukraine and Serbia
II German-Czech-Austrian Battlegroup (EU Battlegroup 2020–2)[5] Germany Austria, Czechia, Croatia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands and Sweden Ulm[5] 4100
Italian-led Battlegroup Italy Greece, Spain
2021 I German-Czech-Austrian Battlegroup (EU Battlegroup 2020–2)[5] Germany Austria, Czechia, Croatia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands and Sweden Ulm[5] 4100
Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
II vacant[21]
Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
2022 I Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
II Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
2023 I Visegrád Battlegroup[66] ? Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland[66] ? ?
Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
II Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
Battlegroup Name Framework nation Other participants HQ Size
2025 12 months[24] EU Battlegroup 2025[24] (EU RDC[24]) Germany, Netherlands[24] Austria, Hungary, Croatia, others[24] Ulm[5] 5,000[24]

There are plans to extend the concept to air and naval forces, although not to the extent of having a single standing force on standby, but scattered forces which could be rapidly assembled.[67][citation needed]

Recurring formations[edit]

Niche capabilities[edit]

The following Member States have also offered niche capabilities in support of the EU Battlegroups:[68]

  • Cyprus (medical group)
  • Lithuania (a water purification unit)
  • Greece (the Athens Sealift Co-ordination Centre)
  • France (structure of a multinational and deployable Force Headquarters)

Further details on specific contributions[edit]

Nordic Battlegroup sniper training at Kilworth, Ireland
  • Sweden and Finland announced the creation of a joint Nordic Battlegroup. To make up the required 1500 number, they also urged Norway to contribute to the Battlegroup despite that country not being part of the EU. Recently, the number has been raised to 2400 troops with Sweden providing 2000 of these. According to Swedish newspapers the price for the 6 months in 2008 was 1.2 billion Swedish kronor (app. 150,000,000 euros) and the Battlegroup was not used.[69]
  • Finland is expected to commit troops trained to combat chemical and biological weapons, among other units such as a mortar company.
  • Lithuania is expected to offer experts in water purification.
  • Greece is pledging troops with maritime transport skills.
  • Ireland has offered bomb disposal experts among its contribution.

The Battlegroups project is not to be confused[citation needed] with the projected Helsinki Headline Goal force, which concerns up to 60,000 soldiers, deployable for at least a year, and take one to two months to deploy. The Battlegroups are instead meant for more rapid and shorter deployment in international crises, probably preparing the ground for a larger and more traditional force to replace them in due time.

Western Balkans Battlegroup proposal[edit]

In 2010, a group of experts from the Belgrade Centre for Security Policy proposed the establishment of a Western Balkans Battlegroup by 2020. In a policy vision titled "Towards a Western Balkans Battlegroup: A vision of Serbia's Defence Integration into the EU 2010-2020",[70] they argued that the creation of such a Battlegroup would not only be an accelerating factor in the accession of the former Yugoslav republics into the EU, but also a strong symbolic message of reconciliation and security community reconstruction after the devastating wars of the 1990s. Furthermore, the authors of the study argued that such a Western Balkan Battlegroup, notwithstanding all the political challenges, would have a very high linguistic, cultural and military interoperability. Although decision makers initially showed a weak interest in the Western Balkans Battlegroup, the idea has recently reappeared in the parliamentary discussions in Serbia.[71]


Dutch artillery exercise in Grafenwoehr, Germany, 2014

In 2008, the EU Battlegroup conducted wargames to protect the first-ever free elections in the imaginary country of Vontinalys.[72] In June 2014, EUBG 2014 II with 3,000 troops from Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, the Netherlands and Spain conducted a training exercise in the Ardennes, codenamed 'Quick Lion', to prevent ethnic violence between the "Greys" and the "Whites" in the imaginary country of "Blueland".[73][74]

See also[edit]



  1. ^ Landstrom 2007, p. 7.
  2. ^ "The EU Battlegroups and the EU civilian and military cell" (PDF). European Union Factsheet. European Council. February 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  3. ^ a b Paul Reynolds (15 March 2007). "New force behind EU foreign policy". BBC News. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  4. ^ "Charlemagne" (columnist) (13 January 2013). "Europe in a foreign field". The Economist. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "EU-Battlegroup 2025: Planungskonferenz in Ulm – bundeswehr-journal". bundeswehr-journal (in German). 3 October 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  6. ^ Deaglan De Breadun (15 October 2004). "Value of EU 'battlegroup' plan stressed by Annan". The Irish Times. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  7. ^ Landstrom 2007, p. 9.
  8. ^ Landstrom 2007, pp. 9–12.
  9. ^ Anna Barcikowska (November 2013). "EU Battlegroups – ready to go?" (PDF). Brief ISS. EUISS. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  10. ^ Homan, Kees (August 2011). "EU-Battle groups: Use them, or lose them" (PDF). Armex (in Dutch). Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael. 95 (4): 18–19. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  11. ^ Arie Elshout (29 June 2016). "Plan voor militaire macht Europa komt op pikant moment". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  12. ^ Krishnadev Calamur (21 July 2016). "Donald Trump's NATO Remarks Stuns U.S. Allies". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  13. ^ Rik Winkel (14 November 2016). "EU gaat actiever worden op defensiegebied". Het Financieele Dagblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  14. ^ Stephane Alonso (14 November 2016). "Europa wordt wakker dankzij Trump". NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  15. ^ Robin Emmott (6 March 2017). "EU approves military training command after reluctant British retreat". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
  16. ^ "EU defence cooperation: Council establishes a Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC)". Council of the European Union. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  17. ^ "A European Defence Fund: €5.5 billion per year to boost Europe's defence capabilities". European Commission Press Release Database. European Commission. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  18. ^ a b c Anna Kellner (6 July 2017). "Assessing the CSDP after the June 2017 EU Summit". ELN Publications & Commentary. European Leadership Network. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
  19. ^ a b c Arie Elshout (22 June 2017). "EU gaat serieus werk maken van een Europese defensie, maar er komt géén leger". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 November 2017.
  20. ^ Claudia Rodel (16 November 2020). "Krisenmanagement, Resilienz und Fähigkeiten Europas unter der Lupe". Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  21. ^ a b c d kle/bru (dpa, afp) (10 November 2021). "EU-Außenbeauftragter präsentiert Konzept für EU-Eingreiftruppe" (in German). Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  22. ^ a b ar/rt (AFP, dpa, Reuters) (21 March 2022). "EU approves security policy for rapid reaction force". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 October 2022. {{cite news}}: |author= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  23. ^ a b c Annik Hartman (5 May 2022). "Strategischer Kompass am Ziel: EU wird bei Verteidigung handlungsfähiger". (in German). Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h "Planning Conference for EU Battlegroup 2025 in Vienna: Strengthening the EU's Common Security and Defense Policy". | Vienna International News. 27 May 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  25. ^ "Ulmer Kommando richtet Kräfteplanungskonferenz aus". Schwäbische. 4 October 2022. Retrieved 15 October 2022.
  26. ^ a b "Factsheet on EU Battlegroups" (PDF). Council of the European Union. April 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  27. ^ "The European Security and Defence Policy: from the Helsinki Headline Goal to the EU Battlegroups" (PDF). European Parliament. 12 September 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2015. (p. 9)
  28. ^ Landstrom 2007, pp. 17–19.
  29. ^ Landstrom 2007, pp. 15–16.
  30. ^ a b "Infographic EU-Battlegroup en Nederlandse deelname". Ministry of Defence of the Netherlands. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  31. ^ a b c "Bratislava Declaration of the Visegrad Group Heads of Government on the Deepening V4 Defence Cooperation". Visegrád Group. 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  32. ^ a b "V4 invites Ukraine to set up joint military unit". Ukrinform. Ukrainian Government. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
  33. ^ "Danes vote yes to abolish EU defence opt-out – here are the next steps". Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Denmark). 2 June 2022. Archived from the original on 2 June 2022. Retrieved 5 June 2022.
  34. ^ a b John Reid (27 January 2006). "Lessons Identified from Battlegroups Initial Operational Capability". Hansard. House of Commons of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  35. ^ Bonaiuti, Chiara; Lodovisi, Achille (2010). Sicurezza, controllo e finanza. Le nuove dimensioni del mercato degli armamenti (in Italian). Milan: Editoriale Jaca Book. p. 273. ISBN 978-8816409279. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  36. ^ Landstrom 2007, p. 88.
  37. ^ a b c d e Volpi, Valerio (2011). Why Europe Will Not Run the 21st Century: Reflections on the Need for a New European Federation. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 978-1443830522. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  38. ^ a b "Hoofdstuk 4: Naar een Europees Defensiebeleid". (in Dutch). Netherlands Atlantic Association. 2008. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "European Defence Capabilities: lessons from the past, signposts for the future. Chapter 3: the state of play". European Union Committee – Thirty-First Report. House of Lords. 24 April 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
  40. ^ "EUMC Report to PSC on the Outcome of BGCC 2/18 -Enclosures". European External Action Service. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  41. ^ "EUMC Report to PSC on the Outcome of BGCC 2/15". Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  42. ^ "EUMC Report to PSC on the Outcome of BGCC 2/17". Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  43. ^ Wilmer Heck (30 November 2006). "EU wil wereldwijd vlammen doven". NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  44. ^ Also known as the Italian–Hungarian–Slovenian Battlegroup.
  45. ^ "Greece prepares military exercise with Bulgaria, Cyprus, Romania". EUbusiness. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
  46. ^ Erik Magnusson; Mats Amnell (13 December 2007). "Norra Europa på väg mot en försvarsallians". Sydsvenskan (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 17 September 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  47. ^ "Nordic Battlegroup – svenskledd styrka till EU:s snabbinsatsförmåga" (in Swedish). Försvarsmakten. Archived from the original on 23 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  48. ^ "Czechs, Slovaks start preparing joint military unit". Czech Republic: The Official Website of the Czech Republic. 20 July 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  49. ^ Also known as the Polish-led Battlegroup.
  50. ^ "Einde oefening vormt start EU-Battlegroup (video)". (in Dutch). Ministry of Defence of the Netherlands. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
  51. ^ Tom Brady (19 November 2010). "Irish troops on exercises in Sweden". Irish Independent. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  52. ^ "New agreement on the time of Croatian helicopters" (in Swedish). Swedish Armed Forces. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  53. ^ a b Machado, Miguel (19 October 2010). "Eurofor European Union Battle Group 2011-2". Operacional (in Portuguese and English). Retrieved 20 October 2010.
  54. ^ Leigh Turner (11 July 2011). "Ukraine joins EU battle group". Foreign Office blogs. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  55. ^ "EU Battlegroup". Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  56. ^ "Royal Marines train on Salisbury Plain". Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)/Defence Infrastructure Organisation. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  57. ^ Nestoras, Antonios (19 May 2015). The Common Security and Defence Policy: National Perspectives. Academia Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-9038225241. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  58. ^ "Nordic Battlegroup NBG15". Swedish Armed Forces. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  59. ^ "Lithuanian rotation actively preparing for standby for EU Battlegroup next year". DELFI. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  60. ^ "Nowa Wyszehradzka Grupa Bojowa: Polska na czele" (in Polish). 7 March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  61. ^ "Klug bei Battlegroup-Übung in Allentsteig". Österreich Journal (in German). 2 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  62. ^ "Österreich soll an EU-Battlegroup 2016 teilnehmen". Kurier (in German). 18 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
  63. ^ "Spain is leading the EU Battle Group". Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  64. ^ a b "La prise d'astreinte française au battlegroup 2019 se prépare". B2 Bruexelles2. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  65. ^ "V4 EU Battlegroup to be on standby again from 1 July 2019". Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
  66. ^ a b "Ministři obrany V4 se dohodli na vytvoření další společné evropské bojové skupiny". (in Czech). 15 November 2018. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
  67. ^ EU To Include Air, Naval Forces in Battle Group Concept 19 March 2007[dead link]
  68. ^ "EU Battlegroups – Annex A: Battlegroup Concept". United Kingdom Parliament. 19 February 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  69. ^ along with 80 bomb disposal and communication specialists from Ireland and 45 from Estonia. Ulf K. Rask (29 May 2006). "Inauguration of the Nordic Battle Group Headquarters". Försvarsmakten. Archived from the original on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
  70. ^ Filip Ejdus; Marko Savković; Nataša Dragojlović (May 2010). "Towards a Western Balkans Battlegroup" (PDF). Belgrade Centre for Security Policy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
  71. ^ "Otvoreni parlament – Strana 19". Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  72. ^ Enter In defence of Europe BBC News 5 June 2008
  73. ^ Roland Duong; Teun van de Keuken (15 September 2014). "De Slag om Europa: Een Europees leger". De slag om Europa. NPO. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
  74. ^ "3.000 Europese militairen oefenen in Wallonië". Het Laatste Nieuws. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]