|Type||Framework for creating deployable forces|
|Part of||Council of the European Union|
An EU Battlegroup (EU BG) is a military unit adhering to the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) of the European Union (EU). Often based on contributions from a coalition of member states, each of the eighteen Battlegroups consists of a battalion-sized force reinforced with combat support elements (1,500 troops). Two of the battlegroups were declared to be capable of being assembled for operational deployment at any one time.
The Battlegroup initiative reached full operational capacity on 1 January 2007, but, as of August 2019[update], they had yet to see operational service. They were developed from existing ad hoc missions that the European Union (EU) had undertaken. The troops and equipment are drawn from the Member States of the European Union under the direction of a "lead nation". In 2004, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan welcomed the plans and emphasised the value and importance of the Battlegroups in helping the UN deal with troublespots. By 19 March 2022 Bulgaria could announce a multi-national battlegroup, under the auspices of NATO to which the US has agreed to contribute a Stryker unit; the battlegroup commander would be Bulgarian, announced Lloyd Austin, Secretary of the US Department of Defense, and Bulgarian Prime Minister Kiril Petkov.[a]
In light of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Alexander Vershbow, former U.S. ambassador to Russia and former deputy secretary-general of NATO now recommends that the EU Battlegroups (which are currently battalion-sized 1500-troop formations) become larger, heavier, and more permanent formations. The current battlegroup is comparable to the battalion tactical group (BTG) in use in the Russian Army, but which is not as capable[b] of combined arms action, resupply, or maneuver as the 4500-soldier brigade combat team (BCT) of the American army. A BCT is capable of flexible combined arms operation (each 4500-troop BCT fighting as a division in miniature). The American army's security force assistance brigade (SFAB) is another possible formation which could be used as a template for a battlegroup should the need arise, as it was originally conceptualized as a 500-troop senior cadre, to which 4000 junior soldiers could be added in the time of need.
- It may become possible to update #Further development (2016–present) after NATO Enhanced Forward Presence is updated. See #Alexander Vershbow's recommendation
The initial idea to create EU multinational roughly battalion-sized combined arms units was first publicly raised at the European Council summit on 10–11 December 1999 in Helsinki. The Council produced the Headline Goal 2003 and specified the need for a rapid response capability that members should provide in small forces at high readiness. The idea was reiterated at a Franco-British summit on 4 February 2003 in Le Touquet which highlighted as a priority the need to improve rapid response capabilities, "including initial deployment of land, sea and air forces within 5–10 days." This was again described as essential in the "Headline Goal 2010".
Operation Artemis in 2003 showed an EU rapid reaction and deployment of forces in a short time scale – with the EU going from Crisis Management Concept to operation launch in just three weeks, then taking a further 20 days for substantial deployment. Its success provided a template for the future rapid response deployments allowing the idea to be considered more practically. The following Franco-British summit in November of that year stated that, building on the experience of the operation, the EU should be able and willing to deploy forces within 15 days in response to a UN request. It called specifically for "Battlegroup sized forces of around 1500 land forces, personnel, offered by a single nation or through a multinational or framework nation force package".
On 10 February 2004, France, Germany and the United Kingdom released a paper outlining the "Battlegroup concept". The document proposed a number of groups based on Artemis that would be autonomous, consisting of about 1500 personnel and deployable within 15 days. These would be principally in response to UN requests at short notice and can be rapidly tailored to specific missions. They would concentrate on bridging operations, preparing the group before a larger force relieved them, for example UN or regional peacekeepers under UN mandate. The plan was approved by all groups in 2004 and in November that year the first thirteen Battlegroups were pledged with associated niche capabilities.
Early development (2005–2015)
From 1 January 2005 the Battlegroups reached initial operational capacity; full operational capacity was reached on 1 January 2007. Although EU member states were initially highly motivated to volunteer to fill up the roster, the fact that participating member states have to cover their own costs, which especially burdened the smaller states, has made them more reluctant. Besides, many EU member states had simultaneous obligations to fulfill for ISAF and the NATO Response Force, amongst others. This combined with the fact that EU Battlegroups have never been deployed (due to slow political decision-making), despite several occasions in which they according to various experts could or should have been (most notably DR Congo in 2006 and 2008 and Libya in 2011), has led to increasing gaps in the standby roster. Joint funding and actual usage may resolve these issues.
Further development (2016–present)
On 23 June 2016, the Brexit Referendum resulted in a vote in favour of the United Kingdom leaving the European Union. Since the UK and France were the largest military powers within the EU, this would mean a serious reduction in forces available for common European defence. On 28 June, High Representative Federica Mogherini presented a new plan, the Global EU Strategy on Security and Foreign Policy, for rigorous further European military integration between the EU member states. These included more cooperation when planning missions, training and exercising soldiers, and the development of a European defence industry. For the EU Battlegroups specifically, the plan aims to remove the obstacles preventing their rapid deployment, such as the lack of a European military headquarters. Although stressing that NATO will remain the most important defence organisation for many EU countries, Mogherini stated that the Union should be able to operate 'autonomously if necessary' on security matters. Referring to the EU's diplomacy and development record, she said that 'Soft power is not enough', and that in a less secure world, especially after Brexit, common action was needed more than ever.
On 14 November 2016, the 56 European Ministers of Foreign Affairs and Defence agreed to the Global EU Strategy on Security and Foreign Policy. This included new possibilities for the rapid deployment of EU Battlegroups with aerial support for civil and military operations in conflict zones outside Europe, for example, before a UN peacekeeping force can arrive. Although Mogherini said the Strategy was 'not a European army' or a 'NATO duplicate', the recent U.S. presidential election of Donald Trump, who had previously implicitly threatened to abandon NATO if its European member states continued to fail in meeting their funding obligations, influenced the European Ministers' decision as well. Besides Brexit and the election of Trump, Russia's military expansionism and the European migrant crisis motivated them as well, making them agree relatively easily, which analysts regarded as a breakthrough.
On 6 March 2017, the foreign and defence ministers agreed to establish a small European command centre in Brussels for military training missions abroad, which could grow out to become a European military 'headquarters' in the future. This Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC) was confirmed and established by the Council of the European Union on 8 June 2017. This came one day after the European Commission launched the European Defence Fund (EDF), comprising €5.5 billion per year, to 'coordinate, supplement and amplify national investments in defence research, in the development of prototypes and in the acquisition of defence equipment and technology'. Until then, the lack of a common military fund had been the main obstacle to the effective operational deployment of the EU Battlegroups. An agreement on Permanent Structured Cooperation in Defence (PESCO) was reached at the 22–23 June EU summit in Brussels. A June 2017 Eurobarometer opinion poll showed that 75% of Europeans supported a common European security and defence policy, and 55% even favoured a European army. Political leaders such as Dutch PM Mark Rutte commented that a 'European army' was not in the making, however.
The groups are intended to be deployed on the ground within 5–10 days of approval from the Council. It must be sustainable for at least 30 days, which could be extended to 120 days, if resupplied.
The Battlegroups are designed to deal with those tasks faced by the Common Security and Defence Policy, namely the Petersberg tasks (military tasks of a humanitarian, peacekeeping and peacemaking nature).
Planners claim the Battlegroups have enough range to deal with all those tasks, although such tasks ought to be limited in "size and intensity" due to the small nature of the groups. Such missions may include conflict prevention, evacuation, aid deliverance or initial stabilisation. In general these would fall into three categories; brief support of existing troops, rapid deployment preparing the ground for larger forces or small-scale rapid response missions.
A Battlegroup is considered to be the smallest self-sufficient military unit that can be deployed and sustained in a theatre of operation. EU Battlegroups are composed of approximately 1500 troops; plus command and support services. See #Alexander Vershbow's recommendation
There is no fixed structure, a 'standard' group would include a headquarters company, three infantry companies and corresponding support personnel. Specific units might include mechanised infantry, support groups (e.g. fire or medical support), the combination of which allows independent action by the group on a variety of tasks. The main forces, extra support and "force headquarters" (front line command) are contained within the Battlegroup "package", in addition there is the operation headquarters, located in Europe.
The initial thirteen Battlegroups were proposed on 22 November 2004. Further battlegroups have joined them since then.
On 23 March 2022, four new battlegroups were expected, for deployment to Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. Eight battlegroups are to staff the eastern flank of NATO in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, and Bulgaria.
Larger member states will generally contribute their own Battlegroups, while smaller members are expected to create common groups. Each group will have a 'lead nation' or 'framework nation' which will take operational command, based on the model set up during the EU's peacekeeping mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Operation Artemis). Each group will also be associated with a headquarters. Three non-EU NATO countries, Norway, Turkey, and North Macedonia, participate in a group each, as well as one non-EU non-NATO country, Ukraine. Denmark has an opt-out clause in the Treaty of Maastricht and is not obliged to participate in the Common Security and Defence Policy. Also Malta currently does not participate in any Battlegroup.
- Participating EU NATO member states
- Participating EU non-NATO member states
- Participating non-EU NATO member states
- Participating non-EU non-NATO member states
- Non-participating EU member states
This section needs to be updated.(September 2021)
- It may become possible to update #Standby roster after NATO Enhanced Forward Presence is updated. See #Alexander Vershbow's recommendation
From 1 January 2005 the Battlegroups reached initial operational capacity: at least one Battlegroup was on standby every 6 months. The United Kingdom and France each had an operational Battlegroup for the first half of 2005, and Italy for the second half. In the first half of 2006, a Franco-German Battlegroup operated, and the Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup. In the second half of that year just one Battlegroup operated composed of France, Germany and Belgium.
Full operational capacity was reached on 1 January 2007, meaning the Union could undertake two Battlegroup sized operations concurrently, or deploy them simultaneously into the same field. The Battlegroups rotate every 6 months, the roster from 2007 onwards is as follows;
|Period||Battlegroup||Framework Nation||Other participants*||Force HQ (FHQ)||Size|
|British Battlegroup||United Kingdom||–||London|
|Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup||Italy||Spain, Greece and Portugal||Rome||1500|
|II||French–German–Belgian Battlegroup||France||Germany and Belgium||Paris|
|Battlegroup 107||Germany||The Netherlands and Finland||Potsdam||1720|
|II||Multinational Land Force||Italy||Hungary and Slovenia||Udine||1500|
|Balkan Battlegroup||Greece||Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus||Larissa||1500|
|2008||I||Nordic Battlegroup (NBG08)||Sweden||Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland, Ireland and Norway||Enköping||1500|
|Spanish-led Battlegroup||Spain||Germany, France and Portugal||Unknown||Unknown|
|British Battlegroup||United Kingdom||–||London|
|2009||I||Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup||Italy||Spain, Greece and Portugal||Rome||1500|
|Balkan Battlegroup||Greece||Bulgaria, Romania and Cyprus||Unknown||1500|
|II||Czech–Slovak Battlegroup||Czech Republic||Slovakia||2500|
|Belgian-led Battlegroup||Belgium||Luxembourg and France||Unknown||???|
|2010||I||Battlegroup I-2010||Poland||Germany, Slovakia, Latvia and Lithuania||Międzyrzecz|
|UK–Dutch Battlegroup||United Kingdom||The Netherlands||London||1500|
|II||Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup||Italy||Romania and Turkey||Rome|
|Spain, France, Portugal||Unknown||Unknown|
|2011||I||Battlegroup 107 (EUBG 2011/1)||Netherlands||Germany, Finland, Austria and Lithuania||Unknown||c. 2350|
|Nordic Battlegroup (NBG11)||Sweden||Estonia, Finland, Ireland, Norway and Croatia||Enköping||1500|
|II||Eurofor (Eurofor EUBG 2011-2)||Portugal||Spain, Italy, France||Florence|
|Balkan Battlegroup||Greece||Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine||Larissa||1500|
|2012||I||French–Belgian–Luxembourgish Battlegroup||France||Belgium and Luxembourg||Mont-Valérien|
|II||Multinational Land Force||Italy||Hungary and Slovenia.||Udine|
|German–Czech–Austrian Battlegroup||Germany||Austria, Czech Republic, Croatia, North Macedonia, Ireland||Ulm|
|2013||I||Weimar Battlegroup (EU BG I/2013)||Poland||Germany and France||Międzyrzecz|
|Belgium, Luxembourg, France (unconfirmed)||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown||Unknown|
|II||Battlegroup 42||United Kingdom||Lithuania, Latvia, Sweden and the Netherlands||London|
|2014||I||Balkan Battlegroup||Greece||Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine|
|Sweden, Finland (unconfirmed)||Sweden|
|II||EUBG 2014 II||Belgium||Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, the Netherlands and North Macedonia||2500–3700|
|Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup||Spain||Italy|
|2015||I||Nordic Battlegroup (NBG15)||Sweden||Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Ireland||France|
|2016||I||Visegrád Battlegroup||Poland||Hungary, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Ukraine||Kraków||3700|
|Balkan Battlegroup||Greece||Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine|
|II||German–Czech–Austrian Battlegroup||Germany||Austria, the Czech Republic, Croatia, Ireland, Luxembourg and the Netherlands||1500–2500|
|British-led Battlegroup||United Kingdom||Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden and Ukraine|
|2017||I||Multinational Land Force||Italy||Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia|
|II||Spanish-led Battlegroup||Spain||Italy, Portugal||Bétera||2500|
|Multinational Land Force||Italy||Austria, Croatia, Hungary and Slovenia|
|2018||I||Balkan Battlegroup||Greece||Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus and Ukraine|
|Benelux Battlegroup||Netherlands||Austria, Belgium, and Luxembourg|
|II||Benelux Battlegroup||Netherlands||Austria, Belgium, Germany and Luxembourg||2500–3700|
|2019||I||Spanish-led Battlegroup||Spain||Italy, Portugal|
|French–Belgian Battlegroup||France||Belgium||Mont Valérien|
|II||Visegrád Battlegroup||Poland||Hungary, Czechia, Slovakia and Croatia||Kraków||2250|
|French-led Battlegroup||France||Mont Valérien|
|2020||I||Balkan Battlegroup||Greece||Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Ukraine and Serbia|
|II||German-Czech-Austrian Battlegroup||Germany||Austria, Czechia, Croatia, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, Netherlands and Sweden||Ulm||4100|
|Italian-led Battlegroup||Italy||Greece, Spain|
There are plans to extend the concept to air and naval forces, although not to the extent of having a single standing force on standby, but scattered forces which could be rapidly assembled.
- Nordic Battlegroup
- Balkan Battlegroup
- Visegrád Battlegroup
- Multinational Land Force
- Spanish–Italian Amphibious Battlegroup
The following Member States have also offered niche capabilities in support of the EU Battlegroups:
- Cyprus (medical group)
- Lithuania (a water purification unit)
- Greece (the Athens Sealift Co-ordination Centre)
- France (structure of a multinational and deployable Force Headquarters)
Further details on specific contributions
- Sweden and Finland announced the creation of a joint Nordic Battlegroup. To make up the required 1500 number, they also urged Norway to contribute to the Battlegroup despite that country not being part of the EU. Recently, the number has been raised to 2400 troops with Sweden providing 2000 of these. According to Swedish newspapers the price for the 6 months in 2008 was 1.2 billion Swedish kronor (app. 150,000,000 euros) and the Battlegroup was not used.
- Finland is expected to commit troops trained to combat chemical and biological weapons, among other units such as a mortar company.
- Lithuania is expected to offer experts in water purification.
- Greece is pledging troops with maritime transport skills.
- Ireland has offered bomb disposal experts among its contribution.
The Battlegroups project is not to be confused with the projected Helsinki Headline Goal force, which concerns up to 60,000 soldiers, deployable for at least a year, and take one to two months to deploy. The Battlegroups are instead meant for more rapid and shorter deployment in international crises, probably preparing the ground for a larger and more traditional force to replace them in due time.
Western Balkans Battlegroup proposal
In 2010, a group of experts from the Belgrade Centre for Security Policy proposed the establishment of a Western Balkans Battlegroup by 2020. In a policy vision titled "Towards a Western Balkans Battlegroup: A vision of Serbia's Defence Integration into the EU 2010-2020", they argued that the creation of such a Battlegroup would not only be an accelerating factor in the accession of the former Yugoslav republics into the EU, but also a strong symbolic message of reconciliation and security community reconstruction after the devastating wars of the 1990s. Furthermore, the authors of the study argued that such a Western Balkan Battlegroup, notwithstanding all the political challenges, would have a very high linguistic, cultural and military interoperability. Although decision makers initially showed a weak interest in the Western Balkans Battlegroup, the idea has recently reappeared in the parliamentary discussions in Serbia.
In 2008, the EU Battlegroup conducted wargames to protect the first-ever free elections in the imaginary country of Vontinalys. In June 2014, EUBG 2014 II with 3,000 troops from Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, North Macedonia, the Netherlands and Spain conducted a training exercise in the Ardennes, codenamed 'Quick Lion', to prevent ethnic violence between the "Greys" and the "Whites" in the imaginary country of "Blueland".
- "No one can defend themselves alone. Our security lies with the collective security with our allies within NATO," Lloyd Austin said. 
- On 2-3 March 2022 a Russian battalion tactical group (BTG) was routed by Ukrainian troops and volunteers; the local residents of Voznesensk constructed defenses to funnel BTG vehicles into locations where they could be destroyed in structured ambushes; Russian troops abandoned nearly two-thirds of their tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, multiple-rocket launchers and trucks in Voznesensk.
- Landstrom 2007, p. 7.
- "The EU Battlegroups and the EU civilian and military cell" (PDF). European Union Factsheet. European Council. February 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Paul Reynolds (15 March 2007). "New force behind EU foreign policy". BBC News. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Charlemagne" (columnist) (13 January 2013). "Europe in a foreign field". The Economist. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- Deaglan De Breadun (15 October 2004). "Value of EU 'battlegroup' plan stressed by Annan". The Irish Times. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- David Vergun (19 March 2022) Bulgaria Stands Up Multinational Battle Group
- Robert Burns, The Associated Press (15 Mar 2022) Ukraine war may lead to rethinking of US defense of Europe
- Sravasti Dasgupta (17 Mar 2022) Ukrainian soldiers and volunteers defeated larger Russian force in strategically important town, report claims
- Journal, Yaroslav Trofimov / Photographs by Manu Brabo for The Wall Street (16 March 2022). "A Ukrainian Town Deals Russia One of the War's Most Decisive Routs". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
- Landstrom 2007, p. 9.
- Landstrom 2007, pp. 9–12.
- Anna Barcikowska (November 2013). "EU Battlegroups – ready to go?" (PDF). Brief ISS. EUISS. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Homan, Kees (August 2011). "EU-Battle groups: Use them, or lose them" (PDF). Armex (in Dutch). Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael. 95 (4): 18–19. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- Arie Elshout (29 June 2016). "Plan voor militaire macht Europa komt op pikant moment". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Krishnadev Calamur (21 July 2016). "Donald Trump's NATO Remarks Stuns U.S. Allies". The Atlantic. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Rik Winkel (14 November 2016). "EU gaat actiever worden op defensiegebied". Het Financieele Dagblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Stephane Alonso (14 November 2016). "Europa wordt wakker dankzij Trump". NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Robin Emmott (6 March 2017). "EU approves military training command after reluctant British retreat". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- "EU defence cooperation: Council establishes a Military Planning and Conduct Capability (MPCC)". Council of the European Union. 8 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "A European Defence Fund: €5.5 billion per year to boost Europe's defence capabilities". European Commission Press Release Database. European Commission. 7 June 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Anna Kellner (6 July 2017). "Assessing the CSDP after the June 2017 EU Summit". ELN Publications & Commentary. European Leadership Network. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Arie Elshout (22 June 2017). "EU gaat serieus werk maken van een Europese defensie, maar er komt géén leger". de Volkskrant (in Dutch). Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Factsheet on EU Battlegroups" (PDF). Consilium.europa.eu. Council of the European Union. April 2013. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "The European Security and Defence Policy: from the Helsinki Headline Goal to the EU Battlegroups" (PDF). European Parliament. 12 September 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2015. (p. 9)
- Landstrom 2007, pp. 17–19.
- Landstrom 2007, pp. 15–16.
- OLAFIMIHAN OSHIN (23 March 2022} NATO chief expects new battle groups in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia
- Ellie Kaufman and Barbara Starr, CNN (23 March 2022) NATO alliance is "absolutely at risk" because of Putin’s war in Ukraine, officials say
- "Infographic EU-Battlegroup en Nederlandse deelname". Defensie.nl. Ministry of Defence of the Netherlands. 27 June 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- "Bratislava Declaration of the Visegrad Group Heads of Government on the Deepening V4 Defence Cooperation". Visegradgroup.eu. Visegrád Group. 2014. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "V4 invites Ukraine to set up joint military unit". Ukrinform. Ukrainian Government. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- John Reid (27 January 2006). "Lessons Identified from Battlegroups Initial Operational Capability". Hansard. House of Commons of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- Bonaiuti, Chiara; Lodovisi, Achille (2010). Sicurezza, controllo e finanza. Le nuove dimensioni del mercato degli armamenti (in Italian). Milan: Editoriale Jaca Book. p. 273. ISBN 978-8816409279. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Landstrom 2007, p. 88.
- Volpi, Valerio (2011). Why Europe Will Not Run the 21st Century: Reflections on the Need for a New European Federation. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 155. ISBN 978-1443830522. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "Hoofdstuk 4: Naar een Europees Defensiebeleid". Atlcom.nl (in Dutch). Netherlands Atlantic Association. 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "European Defence Capabilities: lessons from the past, signposts for the future. Chapter 3: the state of play". European Union Committee - Thirty-First Report. House of Lords. 24 April 2012. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- "EUMC Report to PSC on the Outcome of BGCC 2/18 -Enclosures". European External Action Service. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "EUMC Report to PSC on the Outcome of BGCC 2/15". Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "EUMC Report to PSC on the Outcome of BGCC 2/17". Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- Wilmer Heck (30 November 2006). "EU wil wereldwijd vlammen doven". NRC Handelsblad (in Dutch). Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Also known as the Italian–Hungarian–Slovenian Battlegroup.
- "Greece prepares military exercise with Bulgaria, Cyprus, Romania". EUbusiness. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 1 July 2007.
- Erik Magnusson; Mats Amnell (13 December 2007). "Norra Europa på väg mot en försvarsallians". Sydsvenskan (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 17 September 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Nordic Battlegroup - svenskledd styrka till EU:s snabbinsatsförmåga" (in Swedish). Försvarsmakten. Archived from the original on 23 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- "Czechs, Slovaks start preparing joint military unit". Czech Republic: The Official Website of the Czech Republic. 20 July 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- Also known as the Polish-led Battlegroup.
- "Einde oefening vormt start EU-Battlegroup (video)". Defensie.nl (in Dutch). Ministry of Defence of the Netherlands. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
- Tom Brady (19 November 2010). "Irish troops on exercises in Sweden". Irish Independent. Independent News & Media. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "New agreement on the time of Croatian helicopters" (in Swedish). Swedish Armed Forces. 17 November 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- Machado, Miguel (19 October 2010). "Eurofor European Union Battle Group 2011-2". Operacional (in Portuguese and English). Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Leigh Turner (11 July 2011). "Ukraine joins EU battle group". Foreign Office blogs. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "EU Battlegroup". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Royal Marines train on Salisbury Plain". Gov.uk. Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)/Defence Infrastructure Organisation. 21 May 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Nestoras, Antonios (19 May 2015). The Common Security and Defence Policy: National Perspectives. Academia Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-9038225241. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
- "Nordic Battlegroup NBG15". Swedish Armed Forces. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Lithuanian rotation actively preparing for standby for EU Battlegroup next year". DELFI. 19 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Nowa Wyszehradzka Grupa Bojowa: Polska na czele" (in Polish). 7 March 2013. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
- "Klug bei Battlegroup-Übung in Allentsteig". Österreich Journal (in German). 2 July 2015. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Österreich soll an EU-Battlegroup 2016 teilnehmen". Kurier (in German). 18 February 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2015.
- "Spain is leading the EU Battle Group". www.ejercito.mde.es. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
- "La prise d'astreinte française au battlegroup 2019 se prépare". B2 Bruexelles2. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
- "V4 EU Battlegroup to be on standby again from 1 July 2019". Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved 18 September 2019.
- EU To Include Air, Naval Forces in Battle Group Concept defensenews.com 19 March 2007[dead link]
- "EU Battlegroups – Annex A: Battlegroup Concept". United Kingdom Parliament. 19 February 2005. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- along with 80 bomb disposal and communication specialists from Ireland and 45 from Estonia. Ulf K. Rask (29 May 2006). "Inauguration of the Nordic Battle Group Headquarters". Försvarsmakten. Archived from the original on 24 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2006.
- Filip Ejdus; Marko Savković; Nataša Dragojlović (May 2010). "Towards a Western Balkans Battlegroup" (PDF). Belgrade Centre for Security Policy. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- "Otvoreni parlament - Strana 19". otvoreniparlament.rs. Archived from the original on 18 October 2014. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- Enter In defence of Europe BBC News 5 June 2008
- Roland Duong; Teun van de Keuken (15 September 2014). "De Slag om Europa: Een Europees leger". De slag om Europa. NPO. Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- "3.000 Europese militairen oefenen in Wallonië". Het Laatste Nieuws. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- Landstrom, Gustav (February 2007). "Enter the EU Battlegroups". Chaillot Paper. European Union Institute for Security Studies (97). Retrieved 7 July 2015.
- Balossi-Restelli, L.M., 2011. Fit for what? Explaining Battlegroup inaction. European security, 20 (2), 155–184. doi: 10.1080/09662839.2011.564767
- Gowan, R., 2009. The case of the missing Battlegroups: Is EU-UN military cooperation in decline? Studia diplomatica, LXII (3), 53–61.
- Yf Reykers, "No supply without demand: explaining the absence of the EU Battlegroups in Libya, Mali and the Central African Republic," European Security Volume 25, 2016 - Issue 3.
- Reykers, Y., 2016. Hurry up and wait: EU Battlegroups and a UN rapid reaction force [online]. Global Peace Operations Review. (http://peaceoperationsreview.org/thematic-essays/hurry-up-and-wait-eu-battlegroups-and-a-un-rapid-reaction-force/)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Battlegroups of the European Union.|
- Official website
- Factsheet (2013), Council of the European Union
- Factsheet (2006), European Parliament
- "Has the EU army's time come?". europarltv.eu. European Parliament. 24 June 2015. Retrieved 8 July 2015.
- A proposed evolution in the Eurocorps and ESDI in NATO