European multilateral defence procurement
European multilateral defence procurement refers to the collective armaments purchasing policies of European nations.
Traditionally European countries have either developed their own weapon systems or bought 'off the shelf' systems usually NATO-sponsored from the United States or from the Soviet Union, now from Russia. In the modern era, reduced military budgets and increasing complexity make it difficult for most countries to develop their own weapon systems. Furthermore, identical projects in differing countries were recognised as a waste of resources. However the same countries often do not wish to purchase American systems because of the perception of a loss of sovereignty and the profits (and jobs) going to American companies.
Therefore, some European nations are attempting to pool their resources to create multinational programmes to create a more independent and competitive capability. The European Defence Agency was established in 2004 to create such a stronger European market for military equipment.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is the latest in a line of joint aircraft projects between the Western European powers. Previously the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy had cooperated in producing the Panavia Tornado in the 1970s, and the UK and France had cooperated in producing the SEPECAT Jaguar. The Eurocopter Tiger is developed by France and Germany and was also bought by Spain. Franco-Italian naval projects include the Horizon class frigates and FREMM multipurpose frigates.
European countries also purchase a great deal of hardware from the US, and many former Eastern bloc countries have a great deal of legacy equipment produced by the USSR and other Warsaw Pact regimes.
While European military budgets remain fragmented and massive duplication in research and development exists, the European military industry has made some moves towards consolidation. British Aerospace was widely expected to merge with Germany’s DASA to form the first major European military-industrial giant. Instead in 1999 BAe merged with another British company, GEC's military-industrial businesses (GEC-Marconi), to form BAE Systems which has tended to focus on the Anglo-American market. As a result, in 2000, DASA merged with Aerospatiale-Matra to form EADS. Further consolidation of the smaller military-industrial firms cannot be ruled out.
In 2002 the formation of MBDA brought together the product portfolios of Aerospatiale Matra Missiles (of EADS), Alenia Marconi Systems missiles, and Matra BAe Dynamics to form Europe's No. 1 missile manufacturer and No. 2 globally after Raytheon.
Other major players include
- AgustaWestland (merged into Leonardo-Finmeccanica since 2016)
- Dassault Aviation
- Diehl BGT Defence
- Eurofighter GmbH
- IDV (Iveco Defense Vehicles)
- Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace
- Patria (company)
- Saab Group
- Thales Group
- ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems
Below are some examples of European products and the previously used weapons they may replace.
- Aircraft and missiles:
- A400M – replacing C-130 and Franco/German Transall
- Eurofighter Typhoon – replacing F-4 Phantom II, F-16s, Mirage F-1, Tornado F.3
- Eurocopter Tiger – for France, Germany and Spain
- EH101 and NH90 – largely replacing European helicopters
- Meteor – replacing AMRAAM as long-range AAM
- ASRAAM and IRIS-T – replacing AIM-9 Sidewinder as short-range AAM
- Land vehicles:
- Naval vessels:
- F-100 Class Frigates replacing US designed Knox frigates in Spain, Oliver Hazard Perry frigates in Australia and Dealey class frigates in Norway.
- Type 212 submarine, equipping the German, Italian navies, Type 214 submarine equipping the Greek and Portuguese navies, S-80 class submarine equipping the Spanish Navy
- Horizon class frigate and FREMM multipurpose frigate both for the French and Italian navies
- Rotterdam and Galicia class LPD, replacing Newport class tank landing ships in the Netherlands and Spanish Navies.
There are several examples where one country continues to pursue purely national programmes because collaboration would be unacceptable or undesirable. For example, both the UK and France continue to develop and operate independent nuclear deterrent. Likewise France's desire for military and industrial independence has motivated its continued pursuit of high-technology projects, e.g. Dassault Rafale.
Multinational programmes can fail because of disagreements about price or capability. For example, while the UK terminated its collaboration with France and Italy on the next generation frigate (Horizon CNGF) and started a national Type 45 programme. However the warships will share some systems, primarily the MBDA Aster missile.
Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair came under pressure from President Bill Clinton to select Raytheon's future missile to arm the Eurofighter, however the UK government selected the European Meteor air-to-air missile. The Meteor could be deemed riskier, however the Meteor armed Typhoon will not be subject to U.S. export controls and MBDA now has a missile product with no real competition from American manufacturers.
Likewise European governments were actively dissuaded by the US Department of Defence from continuing the A400M project, the Pentagon argued that the Lockheed C-130J and Boeing C-17 provided all the capability European governments needed and were already flying. The DOD also argued that to spend limited budgetary resources on such duplication was foolish. The previous generation American fighter plane (F-16) was widely sold throughout Europe.
Airbus Group CEO Tom Enders has called the difficulties in coordinating European investment in the A400M program a "horror", and said "I am determined, at least for my company, not to ever again walk into such a program".
Code of Conduct on Defence Procurement
The European Union has adopted a code of conduct with the objective to inject transparency and competition into the military procurement. It is administered by the EDA and under its scope are contracts under Article 346 of TFEU, of at least €1 million and with the exclusions of weapons of mass destruction, cryptographic equipment and other procurements.
- Baumgardner, Neil (1999-09-16). "Raytheon Offers Joint Development of New Missile with UK". Defense Daily. Phillips Business Information, Inc.
- Bruno, Michael (2 May 2014). "A400M: The Horror, The Horror". aviationweek.com. Penton. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
- The Code of Conduct on Defence Procurement
- Key Facts About the Code of Conduct on Defence Procurement
- The British Library - finding information on the defence industry (PDF file)
- Towards a European Defence Market, Edited by Daniel Keohane, Chaillot Paper No. 113, November 2008, European Union Institute for Security Studies