European Union statistics

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Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat (European statistics body).

Area and population[edit]

EU and UK population cartogram

As of 1 January 2006, the population of the EU was about 493 million people, although in 2020 the EU lost over 10% of its population as a result of the UK leaving the bloc.[1] Many countries are expected to experience a decline in population over the coming decades,[2] though this could be offset with new countries planning to join the EU within the next 20 years. The most populous member state is Germany, with an estimated 80.4 million people. France and Ireland have the highest birth-rates.[3] The most densely populated country is the island of Malta, which is also the smallest, while the largest in area is France. The least densely populated country is Finland.

Population figures in the table below are from 2006 or 2007 estimates. The highest and lowest figures in each column have been marked in bold.

Member State Population
in millions
Population
 % of EU
Area
km2
Area
% of EU
Pop. density
People/km2
 European Union 494.8 100% 4,422,773 100% 112
 Austria 8.3 1.7% 83,858 1.9% 99
 Belgium 10.5 2.1% 30,510 0.7% 344
 Bulgaria 7.7 1.6% 110,912 2.5% 70
 Croatia 4.3 0.9% 56,594 1.3% 75.8
 Cyprus 0.8 0.2% 9,250 0.2% 84
 Czech Republic 10.3 2.1% 78,866 1.8% 131
 Denmark 5.4 1.1% 43,094 1.0% 126
 Estonia 1.3 0.3% 45,226 1.0% 29
 Finland 5.3 1.1% 337,030 7.6% 16
 France[4] 65.03 13.% 643,548 14.6% 111
 Germany 80.4 16.6% 357,021 8.1% 225
 Greece 11.1 2.2% 131,940 3.0% 84
 Hungary 10.1 2.0% 93,030 2.1% 108
 Ireland 4.6 0.9% 70,280 1.6% 60
 Italy 58.8 11.9% 301,320 6.8% 195
 Latvia 2.3 0.5% 64,589 1.5% 35
 Lithuania 3.4 0.7% 65,200 1.5% 45
 Luxembourg 0.5 0.1% 2,586 0.1% 181
 Malta 0.4 0.1% 316 0.0007% 1,261
 Netherlands 17 3.3% 41,526 0.9% 394
 Poland 38.1 7.7% 312,685 7.1% 122
 Portugal 10.6 2.1% 92,931 2.1% 114
 Romania 21.6 4.4% 238,391 5.4% 91
 Spain 44.7 9.0% 504,782 11.4% 87
 Slovakia 5.4 1.1% 48,845 1.1% 111
 Slovenia 2.0 0.4% 20,253 0.5% 99
 Sweden 10 1.8% 449,964 10.2% 20

Economy[edit]

For statistics relating to economy, please see Economy of the European Union.

EU budget[edit]

The primary resource for funding the European Union is the contributions sought from member states. Each member state contributes to the EU budget, and receives funding back from the EU, depending on the relative wealth of the states, i.e. their ability to pay.

The table below shows the contributions as a percentage of the total budget. This takes into account the special considerations given to the United Kingdom to reduce its contribution through a rebate. Expenditure in Luxembourg, Belgium and France include items for the EU administrative centres in each of those countries.

Member State Total contribution
in Euro
Total contribution
as % of total EU budget
Total expenditure
year 2006 in Euro
Total expenditure
as % of total EU budget
Net contribution
in Euro
Net contribution
in Euro per capita
Total contribution
in Euro per capita
 European Union 105,259,468,772 100.00% 106,575,500,000 100.00% -1,316,031,228 -3 213
 Germany 22,218,438,941 21.11% 12,242,400,000 11.49% 9,976,038,941 124 276
 France 17,303,107,859 16.44% 13,496,200,000 12.66% 3,806,907,859 59 266
 Italy 14,359,479,157 13.64% 10,922,300,000 10.25% 3,437,179,157 58 244
 United Kingdom 13,739,900,046 13.05% 8,294,200,000 7.78% 5,445,700,046 90 226
 Spain 8,957,286,488 8.51% 12,883,000,000 12.09% -3,925,713,512 -88 200
 Netherlands 5,552,933,781 5.28% 2,190,400,000 2.06% 3,362,533,781 198 327
 Belgium 4,035,286,807 3.83% 5,625,100,000 5.28% -1,589,813,193 -151 384
 Sweden 2,832,862,800 2.69% 1,573,400,000 1.48% 1,259,462,800 126 283
 Austria 2,308,432,030 2.19% 1,830,100,000 1.72% 478,332,030 58 278
 Denmark 2,130,860,212 2.02% 1,501,900,000 1.41% 628,960,212 116 395
 Poland 2,099,087,114 1.99% 5,305,600,000 4.98% -3,206,512,886 -84 55
 Greece 1,882,611,879 1.79% 6,833,700,000 6.41% -4,951,088,121 -446 170
 Finland 1,544,832,284 1.47% 1,280,400,000 1.20% 264,432,284 50 291
 Portugal 1,443,049,602 1.37% 3,634,800,000 3.41% -2,191,750,398 -207 136
 Ireland 1,341,281,313 1.27% 2,461,800,000 2.31% -1,120,518,687 -244 292
 Hungary 1,003,119,411 0.95% 1,842,200,000 1.73% -839,080,589 -83 99
 Czech Republic 932,392,859 0.89% 1,330,000,000 1.25% -397,607,141 -39 91
 Slovakia 393,148,777 0.37% 696,200,000 0.65% -303,051,223 -56 73
 Slovenia 299,993,572 0.29% 406,000,000 0.38% -106,006,428 -53 150
 Luxembourg 241,439,011 0.23% 1,194,800,000 1.12% -953,360,989 -1,907 483
 Lithuania 221,997,405 0.21% 799,800,000 0.75% -577,802,595 -170 65
 Cyprus 144,556,416 0.14% 239,600,000 0.22% -95,043,584 -119 181
 Latvia 115,205,431 0.11% 402,600,000 0.24% -287,394,569 -125 50
 Estonia 100,756,308 0.10% 300,000,000 0.28% -199,243,692 -142 72
 Malta 57,409,269 0.05% 157,000,000 0.14% -99,590,731 -249 144
 Bulgaria 360,600,000 0.34% -360,600,000 -47
 Romania 693,100,000 0.65% -693,100,000 -32

Freedom and governance-related rankings[edit]

There are many indices available on issues such as corruption, development, and freedom.

Freedom of the press[edit]

EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
1  Finland 2
2  Denmark 3
3  Sweden 5
4  Netherlands 6
5  Portugal 10
6  Germany 11
7  Belgium 12
8  Ireland 13
9  Estonia 14
10  Luxembourg 17
11  Austria 18
12  Latvia 22
13  Cyprus 27
14  Lithuania 28
EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
15  Spain 29
16  Slovenia 32
17  Slovakia 33
18  France 34
19  Czech Republic 40
20  Italy 41
21  Romania 48
22  Croatia 59
23  Poland 62
24  Greece 65
25  Malta 81
26  Hungary 89
27  Bulgaria 111

Reporters sans frontières (Reporters Without Borders) conducts an annual survey on the freedom of the press and produces scores (not shown here) for each country, resulting in the Press Freedom Index. In 2019 and 2020, Finland was proclaimed as having the freest press in the European Union, and the second in the world behind Norway. Bulgaria was ranked as having the least free press in the European Union in 2019 and 2020.[5]

Economic freedom[edit]

EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
1  Denmark 9
2  Ireland 11
3  Estonia 13
4  Luxembourg 15
5  Finland 16
6  Netherlands 17
7  Sweden 18
8  Germany 19
9  Lithuania 22
10  Austria 25
11  Czech Republic 29
12  Belgium 40
13  Cyprus 41
EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
14  Slovakia 42
15  Spain 46
16  Hungary 47
17  Malta 48
18  Latvia 55
19  Poland 57
20  Romania 59
21  Bulgaria 60
22  France 62
23  Portugal 67
24  Slovenia 76
25  Italy 83
26  Greece 117

An index of Economic Freedom is produced by the Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation. It uses 50 different variables to compile the survey, in areas such as trade policy and government intervention.

A similar index produced by the World Economic Forum is its Global Competitiveness Index.

Source: 2013 Index of Economic Freedom.

Colour Codes
Free
Mostly Free
Moderately Free
Mostly Unfree

Perception of corruption[edit]

EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
1  Denmark =1
2  Finland 3
3  Sweden 4
4  Netherlands 8
5  Luxembourg 10
6  Germany 11
7  Austria 14
8  Belgium 17
9  Ireland =18
=  Estonia =18
11  France 21
12  Portugal 30
13  Poland =36
=  Slovenia =36
EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
15  Lithuania =38
=  Cyprus =38
=  Czech Republic =38
18  Spain =41
=  Latvia =41
20  Malta 51
21  Italy 53
22  Slovakia 57
23  Croatia 60
=  Romania 61
25  Hungary 64
26  Greece 67
27  Bulgaria 77

Transparency International is an international NGO publishing an annual Global Corruption Report indicating the perception of corruption around the world. The rankings of the table refer to the Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 [1]. A high ranking means low corruption.

Human development[edit]

EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
1  Ireland 4
2  Germany 5
3  Sweden 7
4  Netherlands 10
5  Denmark 11
6  Finland 15
7  Belgium 17
8  Austria 20
9  Luxembourg 21
10  France 24
11  Slovenia 25
12  Spain 26
13  Czech Republic 27
14  Italy 28
EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
15  Malta 29
16  Estonia 30
17  Greece 31
18  Cyprus 32
19  Poland 33
20  Lithuania 35
21  Slovakia 38
22  Portugal =41
=  Latvia =41
24  Hungary 45
25  Croatia 46
26  Bulgaria 51
27  Romania 52

The Human Development Index is a measure produced by the United Nations which covers three aspects of human development:

The rankings of the table refer to the UNDP Human Development Report 2018 (2017 data). The UN lists all EU member states as countries with very high human development.

Income equality[edit]

EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
1  Denmark 2
2  Sweden 4
3  Czech Republic 5
4  Slovakia 6
5  Hungary 10
=  Finland 10
7  Germany 14
8  Slovenia 15
9  Austria 18
10  Bulgaria 19
11  Netherlands 25
12  Romania 26
EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
13  France 32
14  Belgium 33
15  Ireland 40
=  Greece 40
17  Poland 44
18  Spain 47
19  Estonia 50
20  Lithuania 51
21  Italy 51
22  Latvia 57
23  Portugal 59

Income inequality, measured by the gini coefficient is how evenly incomes are distributed through the population. Denmark has the least income inequality with a gini coefficient score of 24.4, whilst Portugal has the most income inequality with a score of 38.5. Malta, Luxembourg, and Cyprus have no statistics available, and so are not included in this table. These statistics have been compiled by the United Nations (see [2])

Ease of doing business[edit]

EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
1  Denmark 3
2  Sweden 9
3  Estonia 12
4  Finland 13
5  Latvia 14
6  Germany 17
7  Ireland 18
8  Austria 19
9  Lithuania 21
10  Poland 24
11  Portugal 25
12  Czech Republic 27
13  Netherlands 28
14  France 29
EU
Rank
Member State Global
Rank
15  Slovenia 30
16  Spain 32
17  Slovakia 33
18  Romania 36
19  Bulgaria 39
20  Hungary 41
21  Belgium 42
22  Croatia 43
23  Cyprus 45
24  Italy 50
25  Luxembourg 59
26  Greece 61
27  Malta 76

The Ease of Doing Business Index is created by the World Bank and based on the study of laws and regulations, with the input and verification by more than 3,500 government officials, lawyers, business consultants, accountants and other professionals who routinely advise on or administer legal and regulatory requirements.

The data in the table are from the 2017 report.[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Total Population as of 01.01.06 Archived 6 July 2007 at the Wayback Machine", EUROSTAT. Retrieved 12 November 2006.
  2. ^ "The EU's baby blues", BBC News, 27 March 2006. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  3. ^ "France claims EU fertility crown ", BBC News, 16 January 2007. Retrieved 10 February 2007.
  4. ^ Figures for France include the four overseas departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Réunion) which are integral parts of the European Union, but do not include the overseas collectivities and territories, which are not part of the European Union. Figures for Metropolitan France proper are: population 63.6 million, area 551 695 km², and population density 113/km².
  5. ^ World Press Freedom Index 2019 and World Press Freedom Index 2020, Reporters Without Borders
  6. ^ http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings/

External links[edit]