|Approximate current range of the Eurasian beaver|
The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia. It was hunted to near-extinction for both its fur and castoreum; and by 1900, only 1200 beavers survived in eight relict populations in Europe and Asia. Reintroduced through much of its former range, it now occurs from Great Britain to China and Mongolia, although it is absent from Italy, Portugal, the southern Balkans, and the Middle East.
- 1 Physiology
- 2 Differences from North American beaver
- 3 Subspecies of Eurasian beaver
- 4 Reproduction
- 5 Range
- 6 Ecology
- 7 Conservation
- 8 Images
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The fur colour of Eurasian beavers varies geographically. Light, chestnut-rust is the dominant colour in Belarus. In Russia, the beavers of the Sozh River basin are predominantly blackish brown, while beavers in the Voronezh Reserve are equally distributed between brown and blackish-brown.
Eurasian beavers are one of the largest living species of rodents and are the largest rodent native to Eurasia. They weigh around 11–30 kg (24–66 lb). In Norway, adult males average 21.5 kg (47 lb) while females average 23.1 kg (51 lb), while another study found adults from the same country to average 18.4 kg (41 lb). By the average weights known, the Eurasian beaver appears to be the world's second heaviest rodent behind the capybara, but averaging slightly larger and heavier than the North American beaver. While the largest specimen confirmed on record weighed 31.7 kg (70 lb), the Smithsonian has reported that this species can exceptionally exceed 40 kg (88 lb). Typically, the head-and-body length is 80–100 cm (31–39 in) and the tail length is 25–50 cm (9.8–19.7 in).
Differences from North American beaver
Although the Eurasian beaver appears superficially similar to the North American beaver, there are several important differences: the Eurasian beaver has a larger, less rounded head; a longer, narrower muzzle; a narrower, less oval-shaped tail; and shorter shin bones, making it less capable of bipedal locomotion than the North American species. The Eurasian beaver also has longer nasal bones, with the widest point being at the end of the snout; in the case of the North American beaver, the widest point is at the middle of the snout. The Eurasian beaver has a triangular nasal opening, unlike those of the North American beavers, which are square. Furthermore, the foramen magnum is rounded in the Eurasian beaver, but triangular in the North American beaver. The anal glands of the Eurasian beaver are larger, and thin-walled, with a large internal volume, relative to that of the North American beaver. The guard hairs of the Eurasian beaver have longer hollow medullae at their tips. Also, a difference in fur colour exists: overall, 66% of Eurasian beavers have beige or pale brown fur, 20% have reddish brown, nearly 8% are brown, and only 4% have blackish coats; in North American beavers, 50% have pale brown fur, 25% are reddish brown, 20% are brown, and 6% are blackish.
The two species are not genetically compatible. The North American beaver has 40 chromosomes, while the Eurasian beaver has 48. After more than 27 attempts in Russia to hybridize the two species, the result was one stillborn kit that was bred from the pairing of a male North American beaver and a female Eurasian beaver. The aforementioned factor makes interspecific breeding unlikely in areas where the two species' ranges overlap.
Subspecies of Eurasian beaver
Historically, eight subspecies of Castor fiber were described, one for each of the eight 19th– to 20th-century refugia where the species never became extinct. The basis of the differentiation was morphological, largely based on very small differences in cranial morphology, but has been recently refuted based on genetic studies. In 2005, Durka et al. showed that only two evolutionarily significant units exist based on mitochondrial DNA studies, a western phylogroup (C. f. gallicus, C. f. albicus, and C. f. fiber) and an eastern phylogroup (C. f. ssp., C. f. tuvinicus, C. f. pohlei, and C. f. birulai). In addition, Ducroz et al. found that even in the more genetically diverse eastern phylogroup, the degree of genetic divergence was below thresholds considered sufficient for subspecies differentiation.
Eurasian beavers have one litter per year, coming into estrus for only 12 to 24 hours, between late December and May, but peaking in January. Unlike most other rodents, beaver pairs are monogamous, staying together for multiple breeding seasons. Gestation averages 107 days and they average three kits per litter with a range of two to six kits. Most beavers do not reproduce until they are three years of age, but about 20% of two-year-old females reproduce.
The Eurasian beaver is recovering from near extinction, after depredation by humans for its fur and for castoreum, a secretion of its scent gland believed to have medicinal properties. The estimated population was only 1,200 by the early 20th century. In many European nations, the beaver became extinct, but reintroduction and protection has led to gradual recovery to about 639,000 individuals by 2003. Milishnikov found in genetic studies that beaver likely survived east of the Urals from a 19th-century population as low as 300 animals, and that factors contributing to their survival include their ability to maintain sufficient genetic diversity to recover from a population as low as three individuals, and that beavers are monogamous and select mates that are genetically different from themselves. About 83% of Eurasian beavers live in the former Soviet Union due to reintroductions, but the result is that beavers in Mongolia or Siberia do not appear significantly genetically different from samples from the European part of Russia, despite the great geographical distance.
In China, a few hundred beavers are known to live in the basin of the Ulungur River, near the Mongolian border. The Bulgan Beaver Nature Reserve (Chinese: 布尔根河河狸自然保护区; ) was established in 1980 to protect the creatures.
In France, the Eurasian beaver was almost wiped out, but a small population survived on the Rhône, near Lyon, from where it has been reintroduced to other parts of the country. The French population of beavers was estimated to be 10,000-12,000 individuals in 2009.
In Germany, beavers had become close to extinct in the 19th century. Smaller populations survived along the Elbe and spread into Brandenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, and Saxony after being protected. Beavers in Germany number up to 25,000 all across the country, even appearing in many urban areas. The largest beaver populations are found in eastern Germany (6,000, descendants of the Elbe beavers), and in Bavaria along the Danube and its tributaries. After a resettlement programme started in 1966, their number in Bavaria is estimated to be around 14,000.
In Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Turkey, subfossil evidence of beavers extends down to the floodplains of the Tigris-Euphrates basin, and a carved stone stela dating between 1,000 and 800 BC in the Tell Halaf archaeological site along the Khabur River (a Euphrates tributary) in northeastern Syria depicts a beaver. Although accounts of 19th-century European visitors to the Middle East appear to confuse beavers with otters, a 20th-century report of beavers by Hans Kummerlöwe in the Ceyhan River drainage of southern Turkey includes the diagnostic red incisor teeth, flat, scaly tail, and presence of gnawed willow stems. According to the Encyclopaedia Iranica, early Iranian Avestan and Pahlavi, and later Islamic literature, all reveal different words for otter and beaver, and castoreum was highly valued. Johannes Ludwijk Schlimmer, a noted Dutch physician in 19th-century Iran reported beavers below the confluence of the Tigris and the Euphrates in small numbers, along the bank of the Shatt al-Arab in the provinces of Shushtar and Dezful."
Beavers were reintroduced in the Netherlands in 1988 after being completely exterminated in the 19th century. After its reintroduction in the Biesbosch, the Dutch population has spread considerably (supported by additional reintroductions), and can now be found in the Biesbosch and surrounding areas, along the Meuse in Limburg, and in the Gelderse Poort and Oostvaardersplassen. In 2012, the population was estimated to be about 600 animals and could easily grow to 7000 in 20 years' time. According to the Mammal Society and the Dutch Water Board, this will cause a threat to the river dikes. The main problem is that beavers excavate corridors and caves in dikes, thereby undermining the stability of the dike, just as the muskrat and the coypu do. If problems become unmanageable, as local administrators in Limburg fear, the beaver will be captured again.
As of 2014 population of beaver in Poland reached 100.000 animals and was still growing. After major flooding in Poland in May and June 2010, the local authorities of Konin in central Poland held beavers responsible for causing the flooding and demanded the culling of 150 beavers.
In Romania, beavers became extinct in 1824, but were reintroduced in 1998 along the Olt River, spreading to other rivers in Covasna County. In 2014, the animals were confirmed to have reached the Danube Delta.
In the former Soviet Union, almost 17,000 beavers were translocated from 1927 to 2004, of which 12,000 were to Russia, and the remainder to the Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic States, and Kazakhstan. They are now common in Estonia and Latvia.
In Spain, nongovernment sanctioned reintroduction around 2003 has resulted in tell-tale beaver signs documented on a 60-km stretch on the lower course of the Aragon River and the area adjoining the Ebro River in Aragon, Spain.
The recently resurgent beaver population in Eurasia has resulted in increases in human-beaver encounters. Indeed, in May 2013, a Belarusian fisherman died after being bitten several times by a beaver, severing an artery in his leg and causing him to bleed to death.
In Sweden, the beaver had been hunted to extinction by around 1870. Between 1922 and 1939, about 80 individuals were imported from Norway and introduced to 19 separate sites within the country. Beavers reintroduced to central Norway's Ingdalselva River watershed on the Agdenes peninsula, Sør-Trøndelag County in 1968-1969, were recently studied. The area is hilly to mountainous with many small watersheds. Rivers are usually too steep along most of their length for beaver colonisation, so that suitable habitat is scattered, with rarely room for more than one territory in a habitat patch. While widespread signs of vagrant beavers were found, spread as a breeding animal was slowed by watershed divides in the hilly terrain. Colonisation of all suitable sites within a watershed once the species was established was rapid. Some spread could only be plausibly explained by assuming travel though sheltered sea water in fjords
In Denmark, the beaver was reintroduced to the wild in western Jutland in 1999 and in Arresø, northern Zealand, in 2009 after it was hunted to extinction around 1000 CE. The reintroduced beavers were caught in the river Elbe in Germany. As of 2013[update], the Danish population of beavers was estimated to beroughly 185 individuals.
Some Eurasian beavers are present in Finland, but most of the Finnish population is a released population of C. canadensis, the North American species. (These animals were imported to Finland in 1937, when it was not yet known that C. canadensis was a different species from the Eurasian beaver.)
The beaver became extinct in Great Britain in the 16th century: Giraldus Cambrensis reported in 1188 (Itinerarium ii.iii) that it was to be found only in the Teifi in Wales and in one river in Scotland, though his observations are clearly secondhand. The last reference to beavers in England dates to 1526. About the same time, Hector Boece wrote that they were still common in parts of Scotland, especially around Loch Ness.
As a former British species, interest in reintroducing beavers to the wild across Britain has been shown. It has been suggested that beaver dams could retain water in upland areas, reducing flood volumes and creating new habitats for wildlife. Currently, beaver populations are found in a number of large enclosures in wildlife parks, as well as free-living populations around the River Tay and Knapdale areas in Scotland and the River Otter in Devon, in south-west England. The Knapdale population was deliberately released, while the other populations are of unknown origin.
In 2001, the Kent Wildlife Trust with the Wildwood Trust and Natural England imported two families of Eurasian beavers from Norway to manage a wetland nature reserve. This project pioneered the use of beavers as a wildlife conservation tool in the UK. The success of this project has provided the inspiration behind other projects in Gloucestershire and Argyll. The Kent beaver colony lives in a 130-acre (0.53 km2) fenced enclosure at the wetland of Ham Fen. Subsequently, the population has been supplemented in 2005 and 2008. The beavers continue to help restore the wetland by rehydrating the soils. Six Eurasian beavers were released in 2005 into a fenced lakeside area in Gloucestershire. In 2007, a specially selected group of four Bavarian beavers was released into a fenced enclosure in the Martin Mere nature reserve in Lancashire. The beavers hopefully will form a permanent colony, and the younger pair will be transferred to another location when the adults begin breeding again. The progress of the group will be followed as part of the BBC's Autumnwatch television series. On November 19, 2011, a pair of beaver sisters was released into a 2.5-acre (1 ha) enclosure at Blaeneinion, Furnace, Mid Wales. A colony of beavers is also established in a large enclosure at Bamff, Perthshire.
The first sustained and significant population of wild-living beavers in the United Kingdom became established on the river Tay catchment in Scotland as early as 2001, and has spread widely in the catchment, numbering from 20 to 100 individuals. Because these are likely escapees from any of several nearby sites with captive beavers, or were illegally released, they were targeted for removal by Scottish Natural Heritage in late 2010. Proponents of the beavers argue that no reason exists to believe that they are of "wrong" genetic stock. One of the wild Tayside beavers was trapped by Scottish Natural Heritage on the River Ericht in Blairgowrie, Perthshire, in early December 2010, and is being held in captivity in the Edinburgh Zoo. More recently, a beaver has taken up residence on the Loch of the Lowes, possibly coming from the Tayside population.
In 2005, the Scottish government turned down a licence application for unfenced reintroduction. However, in late 2007, a further application was made for a release project in Knapdale, Argyll. This application was accepted, and the first beavers were released on 29 May 2009. This initial release into the wild of 11 animals received a setback during the first year with the disappearance of two animals and the alleged illegal shooting of a third. This allegation was later refuted by Simon Jones of the Scottish Beaver Trial, as no evidence supported the allegation and all three missing beavers were sighted after they had left the release loch. However, the remaining population was increased by further releases in 2010. In August 2010, at least two kits, estimated to be eight weeks old and belonging to different family groups, were seen in Knapdale Forest in Argyll. Based on these results, the Scottish charity Trees for Life has proposed reintroducing beavers in the Scottish Highlands.
A group of three beavers was spotted on the River Otter in Devon in 2013, apparently successfully bearing three kits the next year. Following concern from local landowners and anglers, as well as farmers worrying that the beavers could carry disease, the government announced that it would capture the beavers and place them in a zoo or wildlife park. A sport-fishing industry lobbyist group, the Angling Trust, said, "it would be irresponsible even to consider re-introducing this species into the wild without first restoring our rivers to good health." These actions were protested by local residents and campaign groups, with environmental journalist George Monbiot describing the government and anglers as 'control freaks': "I'm an angler, and the Angling Trust does not represent me on this issue...most anglers, in my experience, have a powerful connection with nature. The chance of seeing remarkable wild animals while waiting quietly on the riverbank is a major part of why we do it." On 28 January 2015, Natural England declared that the beavers would be allowed to remain on condition that they were free of disease and of Eurasian descent. These conditions were found to be met on 23 March 2015, following the capture and testing of five of the beavers. DNA testing showed that the animals were the once-native Eurasian beaver, and none of the beavers was found to be infected with Echinococcus multilocularis, tularaemia, or bovine TB. On 24 June 2015, video footage from local filmmaker Tom Buckley was featured on the BBC news website showing one of the wild Devon females with two live young.
A study has been undertaken on the feasibility and desirability of a reintroduction of beavers to Wales by a partnership including the Wildlife Trusts, Countryside Council for Wales, Peoples Trust for Endangered Species, Environment Agency Wales, Wild Europe, and Forestry Commission Wales, with additional funding from Welsh Power Ltd. The resulting reports were published in 2012 with the launch of the Welsh Beaver Project, which is a partnership led by the Wildlife in Wales, and are downloadable from www.welshbeaverproject.org.[needs update] A 2009 report by Natural England, the government’s conservation body, and the People's Trust for Endangered Species recommended that beavers be reintroduced to the wild in England. This goal was realised in November 2016, when beavers were recognised as a British native species.
Beaver are a keystone species helping support the ecosystem of which they are a part. They create wetlands, which increase biodiversity and provide habitat for many rare species such as water voles, otters, and water shrews. They coppice waterside trees and shrubs so that they regrow as dense shrubs which provide cover for birds and other animals. Beaver dams trap sediment and improve water quality, and recharge groundwater tables and increase cover and forage for trout and salmon. A recent study in Poland found that beavers increased the abundance and diversity of bats, apparently because they create gaps in forest cover, making it easier for bats to navigate.
Effects on fish
Beaver ponds have been shown to have a beneficial effect on trout and salmon populations; in fact, many authors believe that the decline of salmonid fishes is related to the decline in beaver populations. A study of small streams in Sweden found that brown trout in beaver ponds were larger than those in riffle sections, and that beaver ponds provide habitat for larger trout in small streams during periods of drought. These findings are similar to several studies of beaver effects on fish in North America. Brook trout, coho, and sockeye salmon were significantly larger in beaver ponds than those in unimpounded stream sections in Colorado and Alaska. In addition, research in the Stillaguamish River basin in Washington found that extensive loss of beaver ponds resulted in an 89% reduction in coho salmon smolt summer production and an almost equally detrimental 86% reduction in critical winter habitat carrying capacity. Migration of adult Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) may be limited by beaver dams during periods of low stream flows, but the presence of juveniles upstream from the dams suggests that the dams are penetrated by parr. Downstream migration of Atlantic salmon smolts was similarly unaffected by beaver dams, even in periods of low flows. Two-year-old Atlantic salmon parr in beaver ponds in eastern Canada showed faster summer growth in length and mass and were in better condition than parr upstream or downstream from the pond. The importance of winter habitat to salmonids afforded by beaver ponds may be especially important (and underappreciated) in streams without deep pools or where ice cover makes contact with the bottom of shallow streams. A 2003 study showed that Atlantic salmon and sea trout (S. trutta morpha trutta) spawning in the Numedalslågen River and 51 of its tributaries in southeastern Norway were unhindered by beaver. In Norway, beaver dams are considered beneficial for brown and sea trout populations (these are potamodromous and anadromous forms of the same species). There, beaver ponds produce increased food for young fish and provide refuges for large adults heading upstream to spawn.
Effect on water quality
The misnomer ‘beaver fever’ was invented by the American press in the 1970s after an outbreak of Giardia lamblia, which causes giardiasis, was blamed on beavers. However, the outbreak area was also frequented by humans, who are generally the primary source of contamination of waters. In addition, many animals and birds carry this parasite. Giardiasis affects humans in southeastern Norway, but a recent study found no Giardia in the beavers there. Recent concerns point to domestic animals as a significant vector of Giardia, with young calves in dairy herds testing as high as 100% positive for Giardia. New Zealand has Giardia but no beavers. In a 1995 paper recommending reintroduction of beaver to Great Britain, MacDonald stated that the only new diseases that beaver might convey to that country's birds and mammals, are rabies and tularaemia - both diseases that should be preventable by statutory quarantine procedures and prophylactic treatment for tularaemia.
In addition, fecal coliform and streptococci bacteria excreted into streams by grazing cattle have been shown to be reduced by beaver ponds, where the bacteria are trapped in bottom sediments.
The Eurasian beaver Castor fiber was once widespread in Europe and Asia but by the beginning of the 20th century both the numbers and range of the species had been drastically diminished, mainly due to hunting. At this time, the global population was estimated to be around 1,200 individuals, living in eight separate sub-populations. In 2008, however, the ICUN granted the Eurasian Beaver a status of least concern, with the justification that the species had recovered sufficiently with the help of global conservation programmes. Currently the largest numbers can be found across Europe, where reintroductions have been successful in 25 countries and conservation efforts are ongoing, however populations in Asia remain small and fragmented, and are under considerable threat.
The Scottish Beaver Trial
In 2009 beavers were reintroduced in Scotland after a 400-year absence. The Royal Zoological Society of Scotland, Scottish Wildlife Trust and Forestry Commission Scotland applied to the Scottish Government for permission to release three families in Knapdale Forest, Argyll and this was approved in May 2008.
- Kryštufek, B.; Meinig, H.; Zima, J.; Henttonen, H. & Balciauskas, L. (2007). "Castor fiber". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- Kitchener, Andrew (2001). Beavers. p. 144. ISBN 1-873580-55-X.
- "Genetic Divergence and Similarity of Introduced Populations of European Beaver (Castor fiber L., 1758) from Kirov and Novosibirsk Oblasts of Russia" (PDF). Russian Journal of Genetics. MAIK Nauka/Interperiodica distributed exclusively by Springer Science+Business Media LLC. ISSN: 1022–7954 (Print) 1608–3369 (Online), Issue. January 2001. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
- Duncan Halley; Frank Rosell; Alexander Saveljev (2012). "Population and Distribution of Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber)". Baltic Forestry. 18: 168–175. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- Helgen, K.M. (2005). "Family Castoridae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 842–843. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Rosell, F., & Thomsen, L. R. (2006). Sexual dimorphism in territorial scent marking by adult Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber). Journal of chemical ecology, 32(6), 1301-1315.
- Graf, P. M., Wilson, R. P., Qasem, L., Hackländer, K., & Rosell, F. (2015). The use of acceleration to code for animal behaviours; a case study in free-ranging Eurasian beavers Castor fiber. PloS one, 10(8), e0136751.
- Rosell, F., & Steifetten, Ø. (2004). Subspecies discrimination in the Scandinavian beaver (Castor fiber): combining behavioral and chemical evidence. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 82(6), 902-909.
- Burnie D and Wilson DE (Eds.), Animal: The Definitive Visual Guide to the World's Wildlife. DK Adult (2005), ISBN 0789477645
- "Eurasian beaver videos, photos and facts - Castor fiber". ARKive. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Duncan J. Halley (2010). "Sourcing Eurasian beaver Castor fiber stock for reintroductions in Great Britain and Western Europe". Mammal Review. 41: 1–14. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2010.00167.x.
- Durka W, Babik W, DuCroz J-F, Stubbe M, Heidecke D, Samjaa R, Saveljev AP, Stubbe A, Ulevicius A, Stubbe M (2005). "Mitochondrial phylogeography of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber L.". Molecular Ecology. 14: 3843–3856. PMID 16202100. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02704.x.
- J-F. DuCroz; M. Stubbe; A. P. Saveljev; D. Heidecke; R. Samjaa; A. Ulevicius; A. Stubbe; W. Durka (2005). "Genetic variation and population structure of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber in Eastern Europe and Asia". Journal of Mammalogy. 86: 1059–1067. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[1059:GVAPSO]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2012-01-01.
- Dietland Müller-Schwarze; Lixing Sun (2003). The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetlands Engineer. Cornell University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8014-4098-4. Retrieved 2011-06-25.
- Sigvald Salvesen (May 1928). "The Beaver in Norway". Journal of Mammalogy. 9: 99–104. JSTOR 1373424. doi:10.2307/1373424.
- Nolet, B.A.; Rosell, F. (1998). "Come back of the beaver Castor fiber: an overview of old and new conservation problems". Biological Conservation. 83: 165–173. doi:10.1016/s0006-3207(97)00066-9.
- Halley, D.; Rosell, F. (2003). "Population and distribution of European beavers (Castor fiber)". Lutra: 91–101. Retrieved Feb 28, 2010.
- Sergey Komarov. "Why Beavers Survived in the 19th Century". Innovations Report. Retrieved 2010-09-08.
- A. N. Milishnikov (2004). "Population-Genetic Structure of Beaver (Castor fiber L., 1758) Communities and Estimation of Effective Reproductive Size Ne of an Elementary Population". Russian Journal of Genetics. 40: 772–781. doi:10.1023/B:RUGE.0000036527.85290.90. Retrieved 2010-09-08.
- Jean-Francois Ducroza; Michael Stubbeb; Alexander P. Saveljevc; Dietrich Heideckeb; Rivčan Samjaad; Alius Ulevičiuse; Annegret Stubbeb; Walter Durka (2005). "Genetic Variation and Population Structure of the Eurasian Beaver Castor Fiber in Eastern Europe and Asia". Journal of Mammalogy. 86 (6): 1059–1067. ISSN 1545-1542. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[1059:GVAPSO]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2010-09-08.
- Hongjun Chua and Zhigang Jianga, Distribution and conservation of the Sino-Mongolian beaver Castor fiber birulai in China. Oryx / Volume 43 / Issue 02 / April 2009, pp 197-202
- 布尔根河狸自然保护区 (Bulgan Beaver Nature Reserve)
- "Oncfs - Le Castor d'Europe".
- Spörrle, Mark (26 February 2016). "Biber in Deutschland: Die Rache der Biber". Retrieved 18 January 2017 – via Die Zeit.
- Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg. "Artenvielfalt: Deutschland wird wieder Biberland - SPIEGEL ONLINE - Wissenschaft". spiegel.de. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- (in French) Doris Lucini (translated from Italian by Nicole della Pietra), "Le retour des animaux disparus", Swissinfo, 18 September 2005 (page visited on 2 August 2016).
- (in French) "Le castor en Suisse", Centre suisse de cartographie de la faune (Swiss Center of Cartography of the Fauna)
- A. J. Legge; P. A. Rowley-Conwy (1986). "The Beaver (Castor fiber L.) in the Tigris-Euphrates Basin". Journal of Archaeological Science. 13: 469–476. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(86)90016-6. Retrieved 2015-08-07.
- Hans Kumerloeve (1967). "Zur Verbreitung kleinasiatischer Raub- und Huftiere sowie einiger Grossnager". Saugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. 15 (4): 337–409.
- Husang A'Lam. Encyclopaedia Iranica. IV(1). New York, New York: Columbia University. pp. 71–74. Retrieved 2015-08-07.
- Johannes L. Schlimmer (1874). Terminologie médico-pharmaceutique et anthropologique Française-Persane. Tehran, Iran: Lithographie d'Ali Gouli Khan. p. 115. ISBN 9781275998582. Retrieved 2015-08-07.
- "Het gaat te goed met de bevers - Binnenland - Voor nieuws, achtergronden en columns". volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Steeds meer overlast door bevers - Binnenland - Voor nieuws, achtergronden en columns". volkskrant.nl. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Powódź - bobry do odstrzału". radiomerkury.pl. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- "Dispăruți de la 1824: Castorii repopulează apele din Covasna". Evenimentul Zilei. Archived from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved February 3, 2008.
- "Castorul a revenit în Delta Dunării, după 200 de ani de la dispariție". România Liberă. Retrieved June 5, 2014.
- Juan Carlos Cena; et al. "Castor Europeo en Navarra y la Rioja" (PDF). Galemys. 2: 91–98. Retrieved 2012-09-03.
- "Beaver Kills Man in Belarus". The Guardian. Associated Press. 2013-05-29. Retrieved 2013-05-31.
- Duncan J. Halley; Ivonne Teurlings; Hannah Welsh & Claire Taylor (2013). "Distribution and patterns of spread of recolonising Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber Linnaeus 1758) in fragmented habitat, Agdenes peninsula, Norway". Fauna norvegica. 32: 1–12. doi:10.5324/fn.v32i0.1438. Retrieved 2013-02-25.
- "Bæverne i Klosterheden - Bævere i Danmark - Skov- og Naturstyrelsen". Skovognatur.dk. 2008-12-19. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Udsætning af bævere i Arresø og søens opland - Skov- og Naturstyrelsen". Skovognatur.dk. 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "Dansk bæverbestand er tidoblet". Naturstyrelsen. 2013-04-17. Retrieved 2014-02-03.
- Martin, Horace T. (1892). Castorologia: Or The History and Traditions of the Canadian Beaver. W. Drysdale. p. 26. ISBN 0-665-07939-7.
- "Born to be Wild! Beavers breed at Kent reserve". Retrieved Feb 28, 2010.
- "Beavers in 'wild' after centuries". BBC News. 2005-10-28.
- "Beavers are back after 500 years". BBC News. July 2007.
- "Meet the Beavers". Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust. Archived from the original on 28 January 2008. Retrieved November 8, 2007.
- "Beavers". Blaeneinion. 2011-11-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Rachael Garside (2012-02-10). "Blogs - Wales - Beavers return to Ceredigion". BBC. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Vines, Gail, "The beaver: destructive pest or climate saviour?", 22 August 2007, ''New Scientist'' '''2618''': 42-45. Article on beaver reintroduction". Newscientist.com. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- Duncan J. Halley (January 2011). "Sourcing Eurasian beaver Castor fiber stock for reintroductions in Great Britain and Western Europe". Mammal Review. 41: 40–53. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2010.00167.x.
- "Feral beavers in Tayside 'will be trapped'". BBC News. 2010-11-26. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
- Watson, Jeremy (2007-09-30). "Beavers dip a toe in the water for Scots return". The Scotsman. Edinburgh. Retrieved 2007-12-11.
- "UK | Scotland | Glasgow, Lanarkshire and West | Beavers to return after 400 years". BBC News. 2008-05-25. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "UK | Scotland | Glasgow, Lanarkshire and West | Beavers return after 400-year gap". BBC News. 2009-05-29. Retrieved 2010-03-15.
- "New breeding beaver pair released in Scotland". BBC News. 10 May 2010. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- "'First' newborn beavers spotted in the Argyll Forest". BBC News. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
- "Forest restoration project begins". BBC News. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- "Viva la beaver: Britain's population is beginning to thrive again". The Independent. London. 10 July 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
- "Beaver spotted in Devon's River Otter by dog walker". BBC News. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Aldred, Jessica. "Wild beaver kits born in Devon". Guardian. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- Lloyd, Mark. "Angling Trust welcomes action to remove beavers from Devon River". Angling Trust. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Monbiot, George. "Stop the control freaks who want to capture England's wild beavers". Guardian. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Devon's Wild Beavers". Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "England's wild beaver colony has kits". Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- J. Gurnell; et al. REINTRODUCING BEAVERS TO ENGLAND Digest of a report The feasibility and acceptability of reintroducing the European beaver to England (Report). Retrieved Feb 28, 2010.
- editor, Severin Carrell Scotland (24 November 2016). "Beavers given native species status after reintroduction to Scotland". Retrieved 18 January 2017 – via The Guardian.
- Ella Davies (2011-01-17). "European beavers construct ideal habitats for bats". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 2011-01-17.
- Hägglund, Å.; Sjöberg, G. (1999). "Effects of beaver dams on the fish fauna of forest streams". Forest Ecology and Management. 115: 259–266. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00404-6.
- Rutherford, W.H. (1955). "Wildlife and environmental relationships of beavers in Colorado forests". Journal of Forestry: 803–806. Retrieved Feb 28, 2010.
- Murphy, M.L.; Heifetz, J.; Thedinga, J.F.; Johnson, S.W. & Koski, K.V. (1989). "Habitat utilisation by juvenile Pacific salmon (Onchorynchus) in the glacial Taku River, southeast Alaska". Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science: 1677–1685.
- M. M. Pollock; G. R. Pess; T. J. Beechie (2004). "The Importance of Beaver Ponds to Coho Salmon Production in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, USA" (PDF). North American Journal of Fisheries Management: 749–760. Retrieved Feb 28, 2010.
- Collen P, Gibson RJ (2001). "The general ecology of beavers (Castor spp.), as related to their influence on stream ecosystems and riparian habitats, and the subsequent effects on fish – a review" (PDF). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries: 439–461. Retrieved Mar 2, 2010.
- D. B. Sigourney; B. H. Letcher; R. A. Cunjak (2006). "Influence of Beaver Activity on Summer Growth and Condition of Age-2 Atlantic Salmon Parr". Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 135 (4): 1068–1075. doi:10.1577/T05-159.1. Retrieved Mar 1, 2010.
- Howard Park; Ostein Cock Ronning (July 2007). "Low Potential for Restraint of Anadromous Salmonid Reproduction by Beaver Castor Fiber in the Numedalslågen River Catchment, Norway". River Research and Applications. 23 (7): 752–762. doi:10.1002/rra.1008.
- D. W. MacDonald; F.H. Tattersall; E. D. Brown; D. Balharry (1995). "Reintroducing the European Beaver to Britain: nostalgic meddling or restoring biodiversity?". Mammal Review. 25: 161–200. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.1995.tb00443.x.
- Martin Gaywood; Dave Batty; Colin Galbraith (2008). "Reintroducing the European Beaver in Britain" (PDF). British Wildlife. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
- Erlandsen, S. L.; W. J. Bemrick (1988). "Waterborne giardiasis: sources of Giardia cysts and evidence pertaining to their implication in human infection". In P. M. Wallis; B. R. Hammond. Advances in Giardia research. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: University of Calgary Press. pp. 227–236.
- Erlandsen SL, Sherlock LA, Bemrick WJ, Ghobrial H, Jakubowski W (January 1990). "Prevalence of Giardia spp. in Beaver and Muskrat Populations in Northeastern States and Minnesota: Detection of Intestinal Trophozoites at Necropsy Provides Greater Sensitivity than Detection of Cysts in Fecal Samples". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 56: 31–36. PMC . PMID 2178552. Retrieved 2011-03-05.
- F. Rosell; O. Rosef; H. Parker (2001). "Investigations of Waterborne Pathogens in Eurasian Beaver (Castor fiber) from Telemark County, Southeast Norway". Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica. 42 (4): 479–482. PMC . PMID 11957376.
- R. C. A. Thompson (November 2000). "Giardiasis as a re-emerging infectious disease and its zoonotic potential". International Journal of Parasitology. 30 (12–13): 1259–1267. PMID 11113253. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(00)00127-2.
- Quentin D. Skinner; John E. Speck; Michael Smith; John C. Adams (March 1984). "Stream Water Quality as Influenced by Beaver within Grazing Systems in Wyoming". Journal of Range Management. 37 (2): 142–146. JSTOR 3898902. doi:10.2307/3898902.
- "Castor fiber (Eurasian Beaver)". www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- "Scottish Beaver Frequently Asked Questions". www.scottishbeavers.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
- "About the trial". www.scottishbeavers.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-04-14.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Castor fiber.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Castor fiber|