Cinema of Europe
Europeans were the pioneers of the motion picture industry, with several innovative engineers and artists making an impact especially at the end of the 19th century. Louis Le Prince became famous for his 1888 Roundhay Garden Scene, the first known celluloid film recorded. The Skladanowsky brothers from Berlin used their "Bioscop" to amaze the Wintergarten theatre audience with the first film show ever, from November 1 through 31, 1895. The Lumière Brothers established the Cinematograph; which initiated the silent film era, a period where European cinema was a major commercial success. It remained so until the art-hostile environment of World War II.
Notable European early film movements include German Expressionism (1920s), French Impressionist Cinema (1920s), Poetic realism (1930s), and Italian neorealism (1940s); it was a period now seen in retrospect as "The Other Hollywood". The first large-scale film studio was also established in Europe, with the Babelsberg Studio near Berlin in 1912.
Post World War II movements include Free Cinema (1950s), French New Wave (1950s–60s), Polish Film School (1950s–60s), Czechoslovak New Wave (1960s), New German Cinema (1960s–80s), British New Wave (1950s–60s), Spaghetti Western (1960s) and Novo Cinema (1960s–70s). The turn of the 21st century has seen movements such as Dogme 95, New French Extremity, Romanian New Wave and Berlin School.
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Antoine Lumière realized, on 28 December 1895, the first projection, with the Cinematograph, in Paris. In 1897, Georges Méliès established the first cinema studio on a rooftop property in Montreuil, near Paris.
Europa Cinemas was founded in 1992, funded by the European Union's MEDIA Programme, Euromed Audiovisual, the Council of Europe Eurimages fund, as well as support from France's Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs and National Center of Cinematography and the moving image.
Europa Cinemas is a network of over 1000 cinemas in 588 cities and 60 countries, providing support to cinemas that commit to the screening of European films; it is an effort increase the circulation of European cinema and facilitate international projects and co-operation between cinemas.
European film festivals
European film awards
- List of European films
- Cinema of the world
- World cinema
- European Film Academy
- European Audiovisual Observatory
- European Film Industry Statistics
- LUMIERE European Cinema Database
- European Film Promotion
- Media Plus
- "Cinema Europe: The Other Hollywood". Rovi. The New York Times. Retrieved 2013-07-18.
- December 28, 1895.
- Georges Sadoul, Histoire du cinéma mondial, des origines à nos jours, Flammarion, Paris, 1968, p. 19
- Institut Lumière.
- Cahiers du cinéma, n°hors-série, Paris, April 2000, p. 32 (cf. also Histoire des communications, 2011, p. 10.).
- Cf. Binant, " Au cœur de la projection numérique ", Actions, 29, Kodak, Paris, 2007, p. 12.
- Claude Forest, « De la pellicule aux pixels : l'anomie des exploitants de salles de cinéma », in Laurent Creton, Kira Kitsopanidou (sous la direction de), Les salles de cinéma : enjeux, défis et perspectives, Armand Colin / Recherche, Paris, 2013, p. 116.
- "About us". Europa Cinemas. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
- Europa Cinemas
- Top 10 movies from Spain according to IMDB.com
- European Cinema Research Forum
- European Film Promotion
- French Trade-Union article about cinema in Europe, may 2009
- 7 Surprising European Films A look at European game changers from 2000 to 2011