530,000,000 + |
6.5% of the total world population
(world population of 7.4 billion).
(not counting partial European descent)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Mexico||16,000,000 - 56,000,000|
|Languages of Europe (mostly English, Spanish, minoritily Portuguese and French)|
(mostly Catholic and Protestant, some Orthodox)
Irreligion · Other Religions
|Related ethnic groups|
European emigration can be defined as subsequent emigration waves from the European continent to other continents. The origins of the various European diasporas can be traced to the people, who left the European nation states or stateless ethnic communities on the European continent. It must be noted that the use of the term "diaspora" in reference to people of European national or ethnic origins is controversial, because the concept itself is contested and debated.
From 1815 to 1932, 60 million people left Europe (with many returning home), primarily to "areas of European settlement" in the Americas (especially to the United States, Canada, Brazil, the Southern Cone such as Argentina, and Uruguay), Australia, New Zealand and Siberia. These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War I, 38% of the world's total population was of European ancestry.
More contemporary, European emigration can also refer to emigration from one European country to another, especially in the context of the internal mobility in the European Union (intra-EU mobility) or mobility within the Eurasian Union.
- 1 History
- 2 By region
- 3 Populations of European descent
- 4 Emigration from the European Union
- 5 See also
- 6 References
Scale of Emigration 1500-1800
European continent has been a central part of the complex migration system, which included swaths of North Africa, Middle East and Asia Minor well before the Modern Era. Yet, only the population growth of late Middle Ages allowed for more population movements, inside and outside of the continent. The discovery of the Americas in 1492 stimulated a steady stream of voluntary migration from Europe. About 200,000 Spaniards settled in their American colonies prior to 1600, a small settlement compared to the 3 to 4 million Amerindians who lived in Spanish territory in the Americas.
Roughly one and a half million Europeans settled in the New World between 1500 and 1800 (see table). However, it was very small compared to emigration in the nineteenth and twentieth century, nevertheless the size movement in early modern populations is substantial.
During the 1500s Spain and Portugal sent a steady flow of government and church officials, members of the lesser nobility, people from the working classes and their families averaging roughly three-thousand people per year from a population of around eight million. A total of around 437,000 left Spain in the 150-year period from 1500 to 1650 to Central, South America and the Caribbean Islands, while only 100,000 Portuguese settled mainly in Brazil, the emigration remained very small in the first two centuries between 1500 and 1700.
Between one-half and two-thirds of European immigrants to the Thirteen Colonies between the 1630s and the American Revolution came under indentures. The practice was sufficiently common that the Habeas Corpus Act 1679, in part, prevented imprisonments overseas; it also made provisions for those with existing transportation contracts and those "praying to be transported" in lieu of remaining in prison upon conviction. In any case, while half the European immigrants to the Thirteen Colonies had been indentured servants, at any one time they were outnumbered by workers who had never been indentured, or whose indenture had expired. Free wage labour was more common for Europeans in the colonies. Indentured persons were numerically important mostly in the region from Virginia north to New Jersey. Other colonies saw far fewer of them. The total number of European immigrants to all 13 colonies before 1775 was about 500,000-550,000; of these 55,000 were involuntary prisoners. Of the 450,000 or so European arrivals who came voluntarily, Tomlins estimates that 48% were indentured. About 75% were under the age of 25. The age of legal adulthood for men was 24 years; those over 24 generally came on contracts lasting about 3 years. Regarding the children who came, Gary Nash reports that, "many of the servants were actually nephews, nieces, cousins and children of friends of emigrating Englishmen, who paid their passage in return for their labour once in America."
|Number of European Emigrants 1500 - 1783|
|Country of Origin||Number||Dates|
|Great Britain (Totals)||322,000||1700-1780|
|Germany (Southwestern, Totals)||100,000||1683-1783|
|Switzerland, Alsace Lorraine|
Source: "To Make America"
However, the development of the mining economy in the 18th century raised the wages and employment opportunities in the Portuguese colony and the emigration grew: in the 18th century alone, about 600,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, a mass emigration given that Portugal had a population of only 2 million people. In North America the immigration was dominated by British, Irish, French and other Northern Europeans. From 1650 to 1800 almost 800,000 million Spaniards emigrated to the New World especially by the Bourbon Dynasty in the 18th century. Emigration to New France laid at the origins of modern Canada with important early emigration of colonists from Northern France.
Mass European emigration to the Americas and Australia took place in the 19th and 20th centuries. That was the effect of dramatic demographic transition in 19th century Europe, subsequent wars and political changes on the continent. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars until 1920 some 60 million Europeans emigrated. Of these, 71% went to North America, 21% to Latin America (mainly Argentina and Brazil) and 7% to Australia. About 11 million of these people went to Latin America, of whom 38% were Italians, 28% were Spaniards and 11% were Portuguese.
Between 1821 and 1890 9.55 million Europeans settled in the United States, mainly Germans, Irish, English, Scandinavians and Scots. 18 million more arrived from 1890 to 1914 including 2.5 million from Canada. Despite the large number of immigrants arriving, people born outside of the United States formed a relatively small number of U.S. population: in 1910, foreigners were 14.7% of the country's population or 13.5 million. Not all stayed and many of the immigrants in the previous decades died. The huge number of immigrants to Argentina which had a much smaller population had a much greater impact on the ethnic composition. By 1914, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, with 12% of its population born in Italy, the largest immigrant group. Next was Canada: by 1881, 14% of Canada's population was foreign-born, and the proportion increased to 22% in 1921. In Brazil the proportion of immigrants in the national population was much smaller, and immigrants tended to be concentrated in the central and Southern parts of the country. The proportion of foreigners in Brazil peaked in 1920, with just 7%, mostly Italians, Portuguese, and Spaniards at 2 million foreign born; however, the influx of 4 million European immigrants from 1880-1920 altered the racial composition of the country. In 1901–1920 immigration was responsible for only 7 percent of Brazilian population growth but in the years of high immigration, 1891–1900, the share was as high as 30 percent (higher than Argentina's 26% in the 1880s).
The countries in the Americas that received a major wave of European immigrants from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s were: the United States (32.6 million), Argentina (6.5 million), Canada (5.1 million), Brazil (5.0 million), Cuba (1.4 million), Uruguay (713,000). Other countries received a more modest immigration flow (accounting for less than 10% of total European emigration to Latin America) were: Mexico (270,000), Colombia (126,000), Chile (90,000), Puerto Rico (62,000), Peru (30,000), and Paraguay (21,000).
Immigration arrivals in the 19th and the 20th centuries
|European Emigrants 1800–1960|
|Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa||9.0%|
Source: "World Civilizations: Volume II: Since 1500"
Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry: It is important to note, however, that these statistics rely on identification with a European ethnic group in censuses, and as such are subjective (especially in the case of mixed origins).
The Middle East Small communities of European, white American and white Australian expatriates in the Persian Gulf countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE; and in Aramco compounds in Saudi Arabia. Historically before 1970, small ethnic European (esp. Greek and Italian) enclaves were found in Egypt (Greeks in Egypt, Italian Egyptians) and Syria (Greeks in Syria).
Total European population in the Americas—approximately 446,394,000
Europeans in Northern America
Total European population—approximately 249,300,000
European American – 72.4% of the population, or 223,800,000
Europeans in South America and the Caribbean
Total European population—approximate estimate of ~200,000,000
Argentina: 79% of the population or 38,900,000, may include an unknown percentage of mestizos and mulattos. Other sources put 86.4% of the population. Falkland Islanders mainly European of British descent—total population 3,140.
Populations of European descent
- Albanian diaspora
- Azerbaijani diaspora
- Basque diaspora
- Bosnian diaspora
- British diaspora
- Bulgarian diaspora
- Circassian diaspora
- Croatian diaspora
- Czech diaspora
- Dutch diaspora
- French diaspora
- German diaspora
- Georgian diaspora
- Greek diaspora
- Hungarian diaspora
- Icelandic diaspora
- Irish diaspora
- Italian diaspora
- Kosovan diaspora
- Lithuanian diaspora
- Macedonian diaspora
- Maltese diaspora
- Norwegian diaspora
- Polish diaspora
- Portuguese diaspora
- Romanian diaspora
- Russian diaspora
- Serbian diaspora
- Spanish diaspora
- Swedish diaspora
- Swiss diaspora
- Swiss diaspora
- Turkish diaspora
- Ukrainian diaspora
Emigration from the European Union
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- Emigration from Africa
- History of colonialism
- Immigration to Europe
- Indigenous people
- Western world
- Western culture
- White people
- Current World Population 2016 worldometers
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