European diaspora

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European diaspora
Total population
(480,000,000 +
6.5% of the total world population
(world population of 7.4 billion).[1]
(not counting partial European descent))
Regions with significant populations
White people ancestry worldwide
 United States 223,553,265[2]
 Brazil 91,051,646[3]
 Argentina 38,900,000[4]
 Canada 25,186,890[5]
 Australia 20,982,665[citation needed]
 Mexico 20,100,000+[6][7]
 Colombia 18,519,500[8][9]
 Venezuela

13,169,949[10][11]

[12]
 Cuba 10,160,399[13]
 South Africa 7,472,100[14]
 Chile 3,5M-5,128,000[15][16]
 Costa Rica 3,500,000[6]
 New Zealand 3,381,076[17]
 Uruguay 3,151,095[18]
 Puerto Rico 3,064,862[19]
 Guatemala 2,490,000[20]
 Dominican Republic 2,000,000+[12]
 Bolivia 2,000,000+[12]
 Peru 1,4M-4,4M+[12][21]
 Ecuador 1,400,000+[22]
 Paraguay 1,300,000+[6]
 Nicaragua 1,000,000+[12]
Languages
Languages of Europe
(mostly English and Spanish
minoritily Portuguese and French)
Religion

P christianity.svg Majority Christianity
(mostly Catholic and Protestant)
Atheism  · Other Religions

Non-European Ethnocultural Affiliations:
Star of David.svg Jewish · Star and Crescent.svg Muslim · Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhist · Om.svg Hinduism
Related ethnic groups
Europeans

The European diaspora consists of European people and their descendants who emigrated from Europe.

Emigration from Europe began on a large scale during the European colonial empires of the 18th to 19th centuries. This concerns especially the Spanish Empire in the 16th to 17th centuries (expansion of the Hispanosphere), the British Empire in the 17th to 19th centuries (expansion of the Anglosphere), the Portuguese Empire and the Russian Empire in the 19th century (expansion to Central Asia and the Russian Far East).

From 1815 to 1932, 60 million people left Europe (with many returning home), primarily to "areas of European settlement" in the Americas (especially to the United States, Canada, Argentina and Brazil), Australia, New Zealand and Siberia.[23] These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War One, 38% of the world’s total population was of European ancestry.[23]

In Asia, European-derived populations (specifically Russians) predominate in Northern Asia, which is part of the Russian Federation. Africa has no countries with European-derived majorities, but there are significant minorities in South Africa, Namibia and some regions of other countries like Madagascar, Botswana and Morocco.

The countries in the Americas that received a major wave of European immigrants from the mid-1800s to the mid-1900s were: the United States (32.6 million), Argentina (6.5 million), Canada (5.1 million), Brazil (4.4 million), Cuba (1.4 million), Uruguay (713,000).[24] Other countries received a more modest immigration flow (accounting for less than 10% of total European emigration to Latin America) were: Mexico (270,000), Chile (90,000), Puerto Rico (62,000), Peru (30,000), and Paraguay (21,000).[24][25]

Early emigration[edit]

Colonial period[edit]

Further information: History of colonialism and Greater Europe

The discovery of the Americas in 1492 stimulated a steady stream of voluntary migration from Europe. About 200,000 Spaniards settled in their American colonies prior to 1600, a small settlement compared to the 3 to 4 million Amerindians who lived in Spanish territory in the Americas but then it grew the number of Spanish immigrants in addition to other European population of Romance language (French and Italian). In Brazil the European emigration remained very small in the first two centuries of colonization: between 1500 and 1700, only 100,000 Portuguese settled there. However, the development of the mining economy in the 18th century raised the wages and employment opportunities in the Portuguese colony and the emigration grew: in the 18th century alone, about 600,000 Portuguese settled in Brazil, a mass emigration given that Portugal had a population of only 2 million people. In North America the immigration was dominated by British, Irish and other Northern Europeans.[34]

Post-independence emigration[edit]

Mass European emigration to the Americas happened in the 19th and 20th centuries. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars until 1920, some 60 million Europeans (and 10 million Asians) emigrated. Of these, 71% went to North America, 21% to Latin America (mainly Argentina and Brazil) and 7% to Australia. About 11 million of these people went to Latin America, of whom 38% were Italians, 28% were Spaniards and 11% were Portuguese.[35]

Between 1821 and 1880, 9.5 million Europeans settled in the United States, mainly Germans and Irish. Other waves included British and Scandinavian people. Despite the large number of immigrants arriving, people born outside of the United States formed a relatively small number of U.S. population: in 1910, foreigners were 14.7% of the country's population. Nothing similar to what happened in Argentina, which was the American country where immigrants had a larger impact in the ethnic composition. By 1914, 30% of Argentina's population was foreign-born, with 12% of its population born in Italy, the largest immigrant group. Next was Canada: by 1881, 14% of Canada's population was foreign-born, and the proportion increased to 22% in 1921. In Brazil the proportion of immigrants in the national population was much smaller, and immigrants tended to be concentrated in the central and Southern parts of the country. The proportion of foreigners in Brazil peaked in 1920, with just 7%, mostly Italians, Portuguese, and Spaniards.[34] In 1901–1920 immigration was responsible for only 7 percent of Brazilian population growth but in the years of high immigration, 1891–1900, the share was as high as 30 percent (higher than Argentina's 26% in the 1880s).[25]

Immigration arrivals in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries[edit]

Destination Years Arrivals Ref(s)
United States United States 1821–1932 32,564,000 [36]
Argentina Argentina 1856–1932 6,501,000 [36]
Canada Canada 1821–1932 5,073,000 [36]
Brazil Brazil 1821–1932 4,361,000 [36]
Australia Australia 1821–1932 3,443,000 [36]
Cuba Cuba 1880–1932 1,394,000 [24][37]
Union of South Africa Union of South Africa 1881–1932 731,000 [36]
Uruguay Uruguay 1836–1932 713,000 [36]
New Zealand New Zealand 1821–1932 588,000 [36]
Mexico Mexico 1911–1931 270,000 [36]
Algeria Algeria 1820–1932 150,000 [24]
Chile Chile 1820–1932 90,000 [24]
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico 1880–1932 62,000 [24]
United Kingdom British West Indies 1820–1932 60,000 [24]
Hawaii Hawaii 1820–1932 40,000 [24]
Rhodesia Rhodesia 1820–1932 30,000 [24]
Peru Peru 1820–1932 30,000 [24]
Paraguay Paraguay 1820–1932 21,000 [24]
New Caledonia New Caledonia 1820–1932 12,000 [24]

By populations[edit]

Country (Peak year)1
% of total population
(Recent)
% of total population
Population in
(thousands & millions)
Year Ref(s)
Continent or region
North America N/D 279.6m Peak Recent
Costa Rica Costa Rica 80.1% 1927 82.7% 3.8 Lizcano3 [38] [6]
Canada Canada 98.5% 1871 76.7% 25.1 2011 Census [39][40] [5]
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (U.S.) 80.5% 2000 75.8% 2.8 2010 Census [41] [42]
United States United States 89.8% 1940 72.4% 223.5 2010 Census [43] [2]
Cuba Cuba 74.3% 1943 64.1% 7.2 2012 Census [44] [13]
Bermuda Bermuda (UK) 61.7% 1698 31.0% 19,938 2010 Census [45] [46]
Guatemala Guatemala - - 18% 2.4 INE 2010 - [20]
Nicaragua Nicaragua - - 17.0% 1 WFB2 - [47]
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic 28.14% 1950 13.6% or 16% 2.0 2006, WFB1 [48] [49][50]
United States Virgin Islands U.S. Virgin Islands (U.S.) 16.7% 1960 15.6% 16,646 2010 Census [51] [52]
Panama Panama 12.2% 1940 15.0% 0.5 WFB2 [53] [54]
Mexico Mexico 9.80% 1921 9% or 15% 10.8 or 16.8 WFB2, Lizcano3 [55] [6][7]
El Salvador El Salvador - - 12.7% 0.7 2007 Census - [56]
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos (UK) - - 7.90% 1,562 2001 Census - [57]
British Virgin Islands Virgin Islands (UK) - - 6.90% - 2001 Census - [58]
The Bahamas The Bahamas 74.0% 1722 5.0% 16,598 2010 Census [59][60] [61]
Anguilla Anguilla (UK) - - 3.2% 431 2011 Census - [62]
Barbados Barbados - - 2.7% 6,135 2010 Census - [63]
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincent - - 1.4% 1,478 2001 Census - [64]
South America N/D 173.5m
Uruguay Uruguay 93.2% 1996 87.7% 2.8 2011 Census [65] 1 [18]
Argentina Argentina - - 85% 34.6 WFB1, Lizcano3 - [6][66][67]
Chile Chile - - 52.7% 9.1 Lizcano3 - [6]
Brazil Brazil 63.47% 1940 47.7% 91.0 2010 Census [68] [69]
Venezuela Venezuela - - 42.2% 11.9 2011 Census - [70]
Colombia Colombia 34.4% 1912 37.0% 17 2010 study est [71] [72][73][74]
Paraguay Paraguay - - 20.0% 1.3 Lizcano3 - [6]
Peru Peru - - 6.0% or 15% 4.5 2012 ENAHO, WFB2 - [75][76]
Ecuador Ecuador 10.5% 2001 6.1% 1.3 2010 Census [77] [78]
Bolivia Bolivia 12.73% 1900 5.0% - WFB2 [79] [80]
Australia and Oceania N/D 22,983,042 -
Australia Australia 99.3% 1947 90.0% 20 2006 Census [81][82][83] [84][85]
New Zealand New Zealand 95.11% 1916 74.0% 2.9 2013 Census [86] [87]
New Caledonia New Caledonia (FR) 41.8% 1901 29.2% 71,721 2009 Census [88] [89]
Guam Guam (U.S.) - - 7.10% 11,321 2010 Census - [90]
Northern Mariana Islands Northern Mariana Islands (U.S.) - - 2.4% 1,117 2010 Census - [91]
Africa N/D 4.6m
South Africa South Africa 21.4% 1911 8.9% 4.5 2011 Census [92] [93]
Namibia Namibia - - 4.0% or 7.0% 75-100,000 est. - [94]
^1 Highest statistics available by percentage. ^2 CIA The World Factbook.
^3 Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XX by Francisco Lizcano Fernández.

The number above refer to those who self-described as white in the census. Exclude those who self describe as mixed race with European descent such as mestizo and mulatto.

By region[edit]

Nations and regions outside of Europe with significant populations of European ancestry:[95]

Map of percentage of people with European ancestry, showing the European diaspora. (The map is based on data from this article: European diaspora, censuses and articles quoted in the file description.)

Africa[edit]

Main article: White African

About 0-1 percent of the populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone, usually are in the professional business elites. Not limited to Europeans, the "white" population includes Arab peoples: Lebanese and Syrians.[101]

Asia[edit]

Further information: Western imperialism in Asia

Small communities of European, white American and white Australian expatriates live in East and Southeast Asia, such as China, Japan, South Korea, Thailand and Singapore.

Small communities of European, white American and white Australian expatriates in the Persian Gulf countries like Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and the UAE; and in Aramco compounds in Saudi Arabia. Historically before 1970, small ethnic European (esp. Greek and Italian) enclaves were found in Egypt (Greeks in Egypt, Italian Egyptians) and Syria (Greeks in Syria).

Americas[edit]

Total European population in the Americas—approximately 446,394,000

Europeans in Northern America[edit]

Europeans in Latin America and the Caribbean[edit]

  • Middle America (including Central America and the Caribbean) and South America (see White Latin American) -- Total European population approximately 197,094,000
    •  Argentina – 79% of the population or 38,900,000, may include an unknown percentage of mestizos and mulattos.[129] Other sources[130] put 86.4% of the population as white, with a higher number of mestizos.
    •  Bahamas (European Bahamian) – 12% of the population or 39,600, the majority are African or other races.[131]
    •  Barbados (White Barbadian) – 4% of the population or 11,238, it's thought to be the highest of all British West Indies islands.[132]
    •  Bermuda – 34.1% of the population or 23,064, with a black or part-white/black majority.[133]
    •  Bolivia – 15% of the population or 1,636,000, the country except for Paraguay and Ecuador have the lowest white populations of South America.[134]
    •  Brazil (White Brazilian) – 49.7% of the population or 93,000,000. Another 42.6% are pardos of mixed White, African and/or Amerindian descent (showed by genetic research to be of predominant European ancestry). Afro-Brazilians by genetical research showed to be of about 37.1% European ancestry (the majority inherited by colonial or Imperial times and of Portuguese origin). Some people of claimed Asian and Indigenous origin can also have European descent.[135]
    •  Chile – 52.7% (9,100,000) is white in Chile.[136]
    •  Colombia – 86% of the population are (white Colombian) or part white (mestizo or mulatto).[8][9]
    •  Costa Rica – up to 90% white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent); 80-85% is white and 10-15% mestizo, or 3,827,000 (3,400,000 and 427,000).[137]
    •  Cuba – 64.1% of the population or 7,160,399[13]
    •  Dominican Republic – 16% of the population or 1,655,959 is white and an additional 73% are mulatto or 7,555,311. In total, 89% of the Dominican population is either fully or partially of European ancestry.[138]
    •  Ecuador – 6% of the population or 940,000, while 72% are mestizos.[139]
    •  El Salvador – 9% of the population or 720,000, but the remainder 90% have some European ancestry.[140]
    •  French Guiana – 12% of the population or 26,000, but the French government insists all citizens of France regardless of race are "French".[141]
    •  Guatemala 18% of the population or 2,490,000 people.
    •  Haiti – 4% of the population in Haiti are white and mulatto (both African and European ancestry) and 1% European, or 97,000. White Haitians are chiefly of French, Italian, or German origin not including Middle Eastern & North American whites. This figure excludes the percentage of Haitians with less than noticeable European admixture.
    •  Jamaica – Approximately 2% of the population or 40,000 people are White, mainly British, American, and Portuguese (This number increases to 60,000 people and 3% of the total population when Arabs and Lebanese are included). However, the vast majority of the population in Jamaica have some degree of European Ancestry.[142]
    •  Martinique – 2% of the population or 8,000, with another 3% mulatto descent.[143]
    •  Mexico[144] (White Mexican) – About 16.5% of the population European or about 20,160,000, and an additional 70% of mixed European and Amerindian descent[145][146][147]
    •  Nicaragua – 17% of the population or 1,000,000 people, and 69% mestizo.[148]
    •  Panama 14.0% of the population is White of European origin or 352,000 people, 58.1% mestizo, 7% mulatto, 6.7% Amerindian, 5.5% Asian, and 7.1% other (2000 Census).
    •  Puerto Rico 75.8% of the population or 3,620,897 self identify as having European ancestry. 12.4% is of black or African-American ancestry and 8.5% are of other ancestry, including American Indian. 3.3% identify as mixed.[149]
    •  Peru (European Peruvian) – 15% of the population or 3,425,000, about 40% mestizo or partial European descent.[150]
    •  Suriname – Surinamese Creoles, mixed people descending from West African slaves and mostly Dutch Europeans, form 15.7 percent of the population.
    •  Trinidad and Tobago – 1.7% of European descent or 24,600, mainly British, Spanish, French, German, and Portuguese, with a number of Scandinavian descent, although 30-40% have East Indian or 5% are Lebanese/Syrian Arab backgrounds.[151]
    •  Venezuela (white Venezuelan) – 42,2% of the population or 11,490,018, about 49,9% are part white (mestizo or partial European descent.) making it 92,1% of the population white and/or mestizo (European and Amerindian descent) or 25,076,755.[152]
    •  Uruguay – 88% of the population or 3,074,000, the rest have various levels of European descent.[153]
    •  Saint Barthélemy—90% or 7,940; Saint Martin (Statistics not available).[154]
    •  Falkland Islands, 100% European of British descent—total population 3,140.

The Virgin Islands divided between U.S. Virgin Islands and the British Virgin Islands, each have a small European minority.

Oceania[edit]

Main article: Europeans in Oceania
  • Oceania -- Total population of Europeans in Oceania is approximately 23,185,000 or approximately 22,818,000 excluding Hawaii.
    •  Australia (European Australian) – 93.2% of the population or 20,299,000 people. People of aboriginal extraction number about 548,400, of which approximately 60,000 can speak Australian languages or Kriol.[155]
    •  New Zealand (New Zealand European) – 59.1% of the population or 2,361,000, plus some Māori of mixed white-European descent.
    •  New Caledonia (Caldoche) – 44.6% of the population or about 112,050; the territory is under French rule.
    •  French Polynesia – 10% of the population (mostly French with some white Americans) or 26,700, and 6 to 8% are Euronesian (part white-Polynesian).[156]
    •  Hawaii – Europeans are 27.1% of the population (2008 survey) or 367,000 (called Haoles), although 65% of all Hawaiians have white-European descent.
    •  Guam – 10% of the population have Spanish and white American descent (2000 Census) or about 17,800 people. Guam has a history of Spanish settlement before 1900, now a U.S. territory.[157]
    •  Norfolk Island, about 50% British-Polynesian from Pitcairn Island (1,070 people) and 50% white-British descent mainly via Australia (1,070 people).

Contemporary European diasporas[edit]

Further information: List of diasporas

Potential emigrants[edit]

According to a 2010 Gallup study, an estimated 80 million adults in the European Union would prefer to emigrate if given free choice. About half of these would migrate to another country within the EU. The remaining 40 million have a desired destination outside of the EU, about 14 million would migrate to North America (USA or Canada), and 9 million to Australia or New Zealand.[158]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  18. ^ a b "Atlas Sociodemografico y de la Desigualdad en Uruguay , 2011: Ancestry" (PDF) (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-09. 
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  23. ^ a b "European Migration and Imperialism". Archived from the original on 2010-11-22. Retrieved 2013-09-14. The population of Europe entered its third and decisive stage in the early eighteenth century. Birthrates declined, but death rates also declined as the standard of living and advances in medical science provided for longer life spans. The population of Europe including Russia more than doubled from 188 million in 1800 to 432 million in 1900. From 1815 through 1932, sixty million people left Europe, primarily to "areas of European settlement," in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand and Siberia. These populations also multiplied rapidly in their new habitat; much more so than the populations of Africa and Asia. As a result, on the eve of World War One (1914), 38 percent of the world’s total population was of European ancestry. This growth in population provided further impetus for European expansion, and became the driving force behind emigration. Rising populations put pressure on land, and land hunger and led to "land hunger." Millions of people went abroad in search of work or economic opportunity. The Irish, who left for America during the great Potato famine, were an extreme but not unique example. Ultimately, one third of all European migrants came from the British Isles between 1840 and 1920. Italians also migrated in large numbers because of poor economic conditions in their home country. German migration also was steady until industrial conditions in Germany improved when the wave of migration slowed. Less than one half of all migrants went to the United States, although it absorbed the largest number of European migrants. Others went to Asiatic Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand. 
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