European migrant crisis
The European migrant crisis, also known as the refugee crisis, was a period beginning in 2015 characterised by high numbers of people arriving in the European Union (EU) from across the Mediterranean Sea or overland through Southeast Europe following Turkey's migrant crisis. It was part of a pattern of increased immigration to Europe from other continents which began in the mid-20th century and which has encountered resistance in many European countries. In March 2019, the European Commission declared the migrant crisis to be at an end.
Immigrants from outside Europe include asylum seekers and economic migrants. The term "immigrant" is used by the European Commission to describe a person from a non-EU country establishing his or her usual residence in the territory of an EU country for a period that is, or is expected to be, at least twelve months. Most of the migrants came from Muslim-majority countries in regions south and east of Europe, including the Greater Middle East and Africa.
Some research suggested that record population growth in Africa and the Middle East was one of the drivers of the crisis, and it was also suggested that global warming could increase migratory pressures in the future. In rare cases, immigration has been a cover for Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) militants disguised as refugees or migrants. By religious affiliation, the majority of entrants were Muslim (usually Sunni Muslim), with a small component of non-Muslim minorities (including Yazidis, Assyrians and Mandeans). According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the top three nationalities of entrants of the over one million Mediterranean Sea arrivals between January 2015 and March 2016 were Syrian (46.7 percent), Afghan (20.9 percent) and Iraqi (9.4 percent).
Of the migrants arriving in Europe by sea in 2015, 58 percent were males over 18 years of age (77 percent of adults), 17 percent were females over 18 (22 percent of adults) and the remaining 25 percent were under 18. The number of deaths at sea rose to record levels in April 2015, when five boats carrying almost 2,000 migrants to Europe sank in the Mediterranean Sea, with a combined death toll estimated at more than 1,200 people. The shipwrecks took place in a context of ongoing conflicts and refugee crises in several Asian and African countries, which increased the total number of forcibly displaced people worldwide at the end of 2014 to almost 60 million, the highest level since World War II. The number of people crossing EU borders illegally has fallen from 1.8 million in 2015 to 204,219 in 2017.
- 1 Background
- 2 Motivations
- 3 Migration
- 3.1 Statistics
- 3.2 Migrant routes, development and responses in individual countries
- 3.3 Triggers of the summer 2015 crisis
- 3.4 Closure of green borders
- 3.5 Deaths and incidents
- 4 Reactions
- 4.1 European Union
- 4.1.1 Proposals
- 4.1.2 Border patrol operations
- 4.1.3 Relocation and resettlement of asylum seekers
- 4.1.4 Externalization of border control
- 4.1.5 EU "Safe countries of origin" list
- 4.1.6 Valletta Summit on Migration
- 4.1.7 Negotiations with Turkey
- 4.1.8 Effects on Dublin and Schengen rules
- 4.1.9 EU member states
- 4.2 International
- 4.1 European Union
- 5 Political debate
- 6 Press coverage
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Between 2010 and 2013, around 1.4 million non-EU nationals, excluding asylum seekers and refugees arrived in the EU each year, with a slight decrease after 2010.
Amid an upsurge in the number of sea arrivals in Italy from Libya in 2014, several European Union governments refused to fund the Italian-run rescue option Operation Mare Nostrum, which was replaced by Frontex's Operation Triton in November 2014. In the first six months of 2015, Greece overtook Italy in the number of arrivals, becoming in the summer of 2015 the starting point of a flow of refugees and migrants moving through Balkan countries to Northern European countries, mainly Germany and Sweden.
Already in 2010 the European Commission explored in a study the financial, political and legal implications of a relocation of migrants in Europe.
Since April 2015, the European Union has struggled to either handle the influx of migrants, reduce (or stop) that influx, or both, by:
-- increasing funding for border patrol operations in the Mediterranean;
-- devising plans to fight migrant smuggling through initiatives such as the military Operation Sophia;
-- proposing a new quota system both to relocate asylum seekers among EU states for processing of refugee claims to alleviate the burden on countries on the outer borders of the Union and to resettle asylum seekers who have been determined to be genuine refugees.
Individual countries have at times re-introduced border controls within the Schengen Area and rifts have emerged between countries willing to allow entry of asylum seekers for processing of refugee claims and other countries trying to discourage their entry.
According to Eurostat, EU member states received over 1.2 million first-time asylum applications in 2015, more than double that of the previous year. Four states (Germany, Hungary, Sweden and Austria) received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications in 2015, with Hungary, Sweden and Austria being the top recipients of asylum applications per capita. More than 1 million migrants crossed the Mediterranean Sea in 2015, considerably dropping to 364,000 in 2016. Numbers of arriving migrants fell again in 2017.
Schengen Area and Dublin Regulation
In the Schengen Agreement of 14 June 1985, 26 European countries (22 of the 28 European Union member states, plus four European Free Trade Association states) joined together to form an area where border checks on internal Schengen borders (i.e. between member states) are abolished and instead checks are restricted to the external Schengen borders and countries with external borders are obligated to enforce border control regulations. Countries may reinstate internal border controls for a maximum of two months for "public policy or national security" reasons.
The Dublin regulation determines the EU member state responsible to examine an asylum application to prevent asylum applicants in the EU from "asylum shopping", where applicants send their applications for asylum to numerous EU member states to get the best "deal" instead of just having "safety countries", or "asylum orbiting", where no member state takes responsibility for an asylum seeker. By default (when no family reasons or humanitarian grounds are present), the first member state that an asylum seeker entered and in which they have been fingerprinted is responsible. If the asylum seeker then moves to another member state, they can be transferred back to the member state they first entered. This has led many to criticise the Dublin rules for placing too much responsibility for asylum seekers on member states on the EU's external borders (like Italy, Greece and Hungary), instead of devising a burden-sharing system among EU states.
In June 2016, the Commission to the European Parliament and Council addressed "inherent weaknesses" in the Common European Asylum System and proposed reforms for the Dublin Regulation. Under the initial Dublin Regulation, responsibility was concentrated on border states that received a large influx of asylum seekers. A briefing by the European Parliament explained that the Dublin Agreement was only designed to assign responsibility, not effectively share responsibility. The reforms would attempt to create a burden-sharing system through several mechanisms. The proposal would introduce a "centralized automated system" to record the number of asylum applications across the EU, with "national interfaces" within each of the Member States. It would also present a "reference key" based on a Member State's GDP and population size to determine its absorption capacity. When absorption capacity in a Member State exceeds 150 percent of its reference share, a "fairness mechanism" would distribute the excess number of asylum seekers across less congested Member States. If a Member State chooses not to accept the asylum seekers, it would contribute €250,000 per application as a "solidarity contribution". The reforms have been discussed in European Parliament since its proposal in 2016, and was included in a meeting on "The Third Reform of the Common European Asylum System - Up for the Challenge" in 2017.
Article 26 of the Schengen Convention says that carriers which transport people into the Schengen area shall if they transport people who are refused entry into the Schengen Area, be responsible to pay for the return of the refused people, and pay penalties. Further clauses on this topic are found in EU directive 2001/51/EC. This has had the effect that migrants without a visa are not allowed on aircraft, boats or trains going into the Schengen Area, so migrants without a visa have resorted to migrant smugglers. Humanitarian visas are in general not given to refugees who want to apply for asylum.
The laws on migrant smuggling ban helping migrants to pass any national border if the migrants are without a visa or other permission to enter. This has caused many airlines to check for visas and refuse passage to migrants without visas, including through international flights inside the Schengen Area. After being refused air passage, many migrants then attempt to travel overland to their destination country. According to a study carried out for the European Parliament, "penalties for carriers, who assume some of the control duties of the European police services, either block asylum-seekers far from Europe's borders or force them to pay more and take greater risks to travel illegally".
Statistics on the EU's foreign-born population prior to 2015
The foreign-born population residing in the EU in 2014 was 33 million people, or 7 percent of the population of the 28 EU countries (above 500 million people). By comparison, the foreign-born population is 7.7 percent in Russia, 13 percent in the United States, 20 percent in Canada, 27 percent in Australia and 1.63 percent of the population in Japan. Between 2010 and 2013, around 1.4 million non-EU nationals, excluding asylum seekers and refugees, immigrated into the EU each year using regular means, with a slight decrease since 2010.
Prior to 2014, the number of asylum applications in the EU peaked in 1992 (672,000), 2001 (424,000) and 2013 (431,000). In 2014 it reached 626,000. According to the UNHCR, the EU countries with the biggest numbers of recognised refugees at the end of 2014 were France (252,264), Germany (216,973), Sweden (142,207) and the United Kingdom (117,161). No European state was among the top ten refugee-hosting countries in the world.
Global refugee crisis
According to the UNHCR, the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide during the refugee crisis reached 59.5 million at the end of 2014, the highest level since World War II, with a 40 percent increase taking place since 2011. Of these 59.5 million, 19.5 million were refugees (14.4 million under UNHCR's mandate, plus 5.1 million Palestinian refugees under UNRWA's mandate), and 1.8 million were asylum-seekers. The rest were persons displaced within their own countries (internally displaced persons). The 14.4 million refugees under UNHCR's mandate were around 2.7 million more than at the end of 2013 (a 23 percent increase), the highest level since 1995. Among them, Syrian refugees became the largest refugee group in 2014 (3.9 million, 1.55 million more than the previous year), overtaking Afghan refugees (2.6 million), who had been the largest refugee group for three decades. Six of the ten largest countries of origin of refugees were African: Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic and Eritrea.
Developing countries hosted the largest share of refugees (86 percent by the end of 2014, the highest figure in more than two decades); the least developed countries alone provided asylum to 25 percent of refugees worldwide. Even though most Syrian refugees were hosted by neighbouring countries such as Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan, the number of asylum applications lodged by Syrian refugees in Europe steadily increased between 2011 and 2015, totaling 813,599 in 37 European countries (including both EU members and non-members) as of November 2015; 57 percent of them applied for asylum in Germany or Serbia. The largest single recipient of new asylum seekers worldwide in 2014 was the Russian Federation, with 274,700 asylum requests.
Migration to Greece and Bulgaria 2007–2015
Between 2007 and 2011, large numbers of migrants from the Middle East and Africa crossed between Turkey and Greece, leading Greece and the European Border Protection agency Frontex to upgrade border controls. In 2012, immigrant influx into Greece by land decreased by 95 percent after the construction of a fence on that part of the Greek–Turkish frontier which does not follow the course of the Maritsa River. In 2015, Bulgaria followed by upgrading a border fence to prevent migrant flows through Turkey.
The Greek islands (Kos, Leros, Chios, for example) serve as main entry points into Europe for Syrian refugees.
Migration to Italy 2008–2014
In 2008, Berlusconi's government in Italy and Gaddafi's government in Libya signed a treaty including cooperation between the two countries in order to stop irregular migration from Libya to Italy. This led to a policy of forcibly returning to Libyan boat migrants intercepted by the Italian coast guard at sea. The cooperation collapsed following the outbreak of the Libyan civil war in 2011, and in 2012 the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Italy had violated the European Convention on Human Rights by returning migrants to Libya, as it exposed the migrants to the risk of being subjected to ill-treatment in Libya and violated the prohibition of collective expulsions.
Since 2011, and particularly since 2014, instability and the Second Civil War in Libya have made departures from the north-African country to Italy easier, with no central authority controlling Libya's ports and dealing with European countries and migrant smuggling networks flourishing. The war could also have forced to leave many African immigrants residing in Libya, which used to be itself a destination country for migrants looking for better jobs. The 2013 Lampedusa migrant shipwreck involved "more than 360" deaths, leading the Italian government to establish Operation Mare Nostrum, a large-scale naval operation that involved search and rescue, with some migrants brought aboard a naval amphibious assault ship. In 2014, the Italian government ended the operation, calling the costs too large for one EU state alone to manage; Frontex assumed the main responsibility for search and rescue operations. The Frontex operation is called Operation Triton. The Italian government had requested additional funds from the EU to continue the operation but member states did not offer the requested support. The UK government cited fears that the operation was acting as "an unintended 'pull factor', encouraging more migrants to attempt the dangerous sea crossing and thereby leading to more tragic and unnecessary deaths". The operation consisted of two surveillance aircraft and three ships, with seven teams of staff who gathered intelligence and conducted screening/identification processing. Its monthly budget was estimated at €2.9 million.
According to the UNHCR, the number of forcibly displaced people worldwide reached 65,600,000 at the end of 2016; the highest level since World War II, with a 40 percent increase taking place since 2011. Of these 65,600,000, 22.5 million were refugees (17.2 million under UNHCR's mandate, plus 5.3 million Palestinian refugees under UNRWA's mandate). 2.8 million of the refugees were asylum seekers. The rest were persons displaced within their own countries (internally displaced persons). The 17.2 million refugees under UNHCR's mandate were around 2.9 million more than at the end of 2014, the highest level since 1992. Among them, Syrian refugees became the largest refugee group in 2014 (3.9 million, 1.55 million more than the previous year), overtaking Afghan refugees (2.6 million), who had been the largest refugee group for three decades. Six of the ten largest countries of origin of refugees were African: Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, the Central African Republic and Eritrea. Developing countries hosted the largest share of refugees (86 percent by the end of 2014, the highest figure in more than two decades); the least developed countries alone provided asylum to 25 percent of refugees worldwide. Even though most Syrian refugees were hosted by neighboring countries such as Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan, the number of asylum applications lodged by Syrian refugees in Europe steadily increased between 2011–17. By December 2017, UNHCR had counted over 1,000,000 asylum applications in 37 European countries (including both EU members and non-members).
As of 2017, 55 percent of refugees worldwide came from three nations: South Sudan, Afghanistan, and Syria. Of all displaced peoples, 17 percent of them are being hosted in Europe. As of April 2018, 15,481 refugees have successfully arrived to the shores of Europe via sea within the first few months of the year alone. There was an estimated 500 that have died in this year alone. In 2015, there was a total of 1.02 million arrivals by sea. Since then, the influx has steadily decreased but is ongoing nonetheless.
The greatest number of refugees fleeing to Europe originate from Syria. Their migration stems from severe socio-political oppression under President Bashar al-Assad. Civil war ensued with clashes between pro and anti-government groups. Anti-government forces were supported by external governments (including the US, UK and France) in an effort to topple the Syrian government via classified programs such as Timber Sycamore that effectively delivered thousands of tons of weaponry to rebel groups. In 2011, a group of Syrians displayed pro-democracy protests in the city of Daraa. Syrian President Bashar al-Assad responded with force and consequently, more protests were triggered nationwide against the Assad regime. By July 2011, hundreds of thousands of people were protesting against President Assad. An early violent crackdown was implemented to try to mitigate these uprisings—however, these measures were met with more unrest. By May 2011, thousands of people had already fled the country and the first refugee camps opened in Turkey. In March 2012, the UNHCR decided to appoint a Regional Refugee Coordinator for Syrian Refugees—recognising the growing concerns surrounding the crisis. Just a year later, in March 2013, the number of Syrian refugees reached 1,000,000. By December 2017, UNHCR counted 1,000,000 asylum applications for Syrian refugees in the European Union. As of March 2018, UNHCR has counted nearly 5.6 million registered Syrian refugees worldwide.
Afghan refugees comprise the second-largest refugee population in the world. According to the UNHCR, there are almost 2.5 million registered refugees from Afghanistan. Most of these refugees have fled the region due to war and persecution. The majority have resettled in Pakistan and Iran, but it is becoming increasingly common to migrate further west to the European Union. Afghanistan has faced nearly 40 years of conflict dating back to the Soviet invasion in 1979. Since then, the nation has faced fluctuating levels of civil war amidst unending unrest. The increase in refugee numbers has been credited primarily to the Taliban presence within Afghanistan. Their retreat in 2001, led to nearly 6 million Afghan refugees returning to their homeland. However, after civil unrest and fighting alongside the Taliban's return, nearly 2.5 million refugees have fled Afghanistan. Most Afghan refugees, however, seek refuge in the neighboring nation of Pakistan. Increasing numbers, though, have committed to the strenuous migration to Turkey and the European Union.
For long, economic migration has been a global issue. Such migration is pursued in order to seek living conditions/standards and job opportunities that do not exist in the migrant's country of origin. These migrants are termed "migrant workers" by the United Nations. According to the OECD, over the last ten years, migrants accounted for over 70 percent of the increase in Europe's workforce. The OECD has reported that such immigration is actually crucial to the growing labor market—filling 15 percent of the entries into the fastest growing occupations. Overall, the OECD has found that the inflow of migrants has not greatly disrupted any nation's GDP.
In 2016, according to the Italian daily newspaper La Stampa, officials from Europol conducted an investigation into the trafficking of fake documents for ISIL. They identified fake Syrian passports in the refugee camps in Greece that were destined to supposed members of ISIL, in order to avoid Greek government controls and make their way to other parts of Europe. Also, the chief of Europol said that a new task force of 200 counter-terrorism officers would be deployed to the Greek islands alongside Greek border guards in order to help Greece stop a "strategic" level campaign by ISIL to infiltrate terrorists into Europe.
In February 2017, British newspaper The Guardian reported that ISIL was paying the smugglers fees of up to $2,000 USD to recruit people from refugee camps in Jordan and Lebanon child migrants in a desperate attempt to radicalize children for the group. The reports by counter-extremism thinktank Quilliam indicate that an estimated 88,300 unaccompanied children—who are reported as missing—were at risk of radicalization by ISIL.
Sea and land arrivals to the EU
|Sea and land arrivals to the EU |
in 2014 by nationality
|Unspecified sub-Saharan nationals||26,341|
According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), up to 3,072 people died or disappeared in 2014 in the Mediterranean while trying to migrate to Europe. Overall estimates are that over 22,000 migrants died between 2000 and 2014.
In 2014, 283,532 migrants irregularly entered the European Union, mainly following the Central Mediterranean, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Balkan routes. 220,194 migrants crossed EU sea borders in the Central, Eastern and Western Mediterranean (a 266 percent increase compared to 2013). Half of them had come from Syria, Eritrea and Afghanistan.
Of those arriving in Southern Europe in 2014, the vast majority (170,664, a 277 percent increase compared to 2013) arrived in Italy through Libya, whereas a minority (50,834, a 105 percent increase) arrived in Greece through Turkey. 62,000 applied for asylum in Italy, but most Syrians and Eritreans, who comprised almost half of the arrivals in Italy in 2014, did not stop in Italy but instead continued moving towards northern Europe, in particular Germany and Sweden.
IOM and UNHCR estimated that 1,005,504 migrants and refugees arrived in Europe from 1 January to 21 December 2015, three to four times more than in 2014. Just 3 percent (34,215) came by land to Bulgaria and Greece; the rest came by sea to Greece, Italy, Spain, Cyprus and Malta. The vast majority arrived by sea in Greece (816,752); 150,317 arrived by sea in Italy, with a slight drop from 170,000 in 2014. Half of those crossing the Mediterranean were from Syria, 20 percent were from Afghanistan and 7 percent from Iraq. IOM estimated that a total of 3,692 migrants and refugees lost their lives in the Mediterranean in 2015 – over 400 more than in 2014 – of whom 2,889 in the Central Mediterranean and 731 in the Aegean sea.
In 2015, a shift took place, with Greece overtaking Italy as the primary point of arrival and surpassing in the first six months of 2015 the numbers for the whole of 2014: 67,500 people arrived in Italy, mainly coming from Eritrea (25 percent), Nigeria (10 percent) and Somalia (10 percent), whereas 68,000 arrived on the islands of Greece, mainly coming from Syria (57 percent) and Afghanistan (22 percent). In total, 137,000 migrants crossed the Mediterranean into Europe in the first six months of 2015.
From 1 January to 17 April 2015, 21,191 migrants reached the Italian coast, with a decrease during the month of March due to bad weather conditions, and a surge since 10 April, bringing the number of arrivals in line with the number recorded in the same period in 2014. However, the death toll in the first four months of 2014 was 96, compared with 500 in the same period in 2015; this number excluded the victims of the shipwrecks on 13 and 19 April.
In early August 2015, the UNHCR said that 250,000 migrants had arrived in Europe by sea so far in 2015, 124,000 in Greece and 98,000 in Italy. According to Frontex, July set a new record for a single month, with 107,500 migrants estimated to have entered the EU. Frontex detected 615,492 irregular entries into the EU in the third quarter of 2015 and 978,338 entries in the fourth quarter, bringing the number of detections of irregular entries at EU sea and land external borders in 2015 to 1.82 million (872,938 in Greece, 764,038 in Hungary and Croatia and 153,946 in Italy), associated with an estimated one million individuals irregularly entering the EU (because most migrants following the Western Balkan route were double-counted when arriving in Greece and then when entering the EU for the second time through Hungary or Croatia).
In January and February 2016, over 123,000 migrants landed in Greece, compared to about 4,600 in the same period of 2015. In March, following the closing of the Western Balkan route by North Macedonia and the entry into force of the EU–Turkey deal on 20 March, the number of migrants arriving in Greece dropped to 26,460, less than half the figure recorded in February. Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis continued to account for the largest share of the migrants arriving in Greece. This downward trend continued in April, when only 2,700 migrants arrived in Greece, decreasing by 90 percent compared to the previous month.
Meanwhile, due to improved weather conditions, the number of mainly African migrants crossing the sea to Italy doubled between February and March, reaching nearly 9,600 in March 2016, compared to 2,283 in March 2015. In April, on the contrary, the number of migrants arriving in Italy (8,370) dropped by 13 percent compared to the previous month and by 50 percent compared to the same month in 2015; despite this, Italy exceeded the totals for Greece for the first time since June 2015. On 16 April, a shipwreck of a large boat between Libya and Italy was reported, in which as many as 500 people may have died, in one of the worst disasters since April 2015.
The mass influx of migrants into Europe was not seen favorably in many European Union countries. Many citizens disapproved of the EU's handling of the migrant crisis, with 94 percent of Greeks and 88 percent of Swedes disapproving of the measures taken, among other countries with similar disapproval rates. This contributed to the creation and implementation of the EU–Turkey Refugee Agreement, which was signed in March 2016. From that point on, the numbers of refugees entering Greece decreased. In February 2016, the last full month before the deal, 57,066 migrants arrived in Greece via the sea; from that point on, discounting March, the highest number of migrants reaching Greece via the sea was 3,650 (in April). While there is no direct connection to the implementation of the EU–Turkey deal, the number of migrants arriving in Italy in that same time period has increased. From March 2016 to October 2016, 140,358 migrants arrived in Italy via the sea, averaging to 20,051 per month. Overall the number of migrants arriving into the EU dropped, but the EU still worked to create agencies and plans to mitigate the crisis. In addition to the EU–Turkey Refugee Agreement, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency was launched on 6 October 2016.
Data released by the International Organization of Migration (IOM) for the third quarter of 2017 recorded 146,287 total arrivals to Europe, of which 137,771 were by sea. This is less than half the total recorded by the end of September 2016. The greatest decrease in influx was noted on the Eastern Mediterranean route. Despite an 86 percent drop in the number of migrant and refugee arrivals in September 2017 when compared to September 2016, Greece has observed a steady increase in the number of migrants from September 2016 till date. Further, while Italy also noted lower number of migrant arrival in 2017, there was a significant jump in the number of migrants reaching Spain, with over 16,000 having arrived in the country. Like Spain, the island-nation of Cyprus registered approximately an 8-fold increase in the number of migrants arriving last year and this year.
Closure of segments of certain heavy-traffic routes such as the Central and Eastern Mediterranean is responsible for the marked decrease in the number of migrants from the Middle East in 2017. However, the Western Mediterranean route is still in full use to facilitate the growing number of illegal immigrants from Africa. Nigerians topped the list of illegal immigrants into Italy in 2017, forming 16 percent of arrivals there.
In 2017, approximately 825,000 persons acquired citizenship of a member state of the European Union, down from 995,000 in 2016. The largest groups were nationals of Morocco, Albania, India, Turkey and Pakistan.
On 7 October 2018 at least 10 migrants are believed to have died in a boat off the coast of Morocco. Helena Maleno founder of the group Walking Borders told the reporters the migrants constantly appealed for help from Spain and Morocco before they died.
In August 2019, more than 270 Europe-bound migrants were rescued by the Libyan coast guards from Tripoli's Mediterranean coast. The guards informed that the group traveling in 4 different boats, included 18 women and two children. As per the new report released by UN, more than 45,000 migrants have already reached Europe by sea, since the beginning of the year. Of which, 859 have reportedly died on the way. In September 2019, Libya's coast guard intercepted another 108 Europe-bound migrants of the Mediterranean coast. Of 108 people stopped, 13 were reported as women, while seven as children. On October 8, Italian authorities rescued 22 Europe-bound migrants from a boat which was carrying about 50 people. At the time of this rescue, the bodies of 13 women were also reportedly found, and it later emerged that others were still missing. On October 16, Italian authorities found the bodies of at least 12 people who died in the incident. In November, Italian coast guards rescued 149 Europe-bound migrants after their boat capsized. Italian coast guards later found five dead bodies and confirmed that the death toll from the incident was at least 18.
|Source Eurostat: EU 27; EU28.|
|Source Eurostat · |
According to Eurostat, EU member states received 626,065 asylum applications in 2014, the highest number since the 672,000 applications received in 1992. The main countries of origin of asylum seekers, accounting for almost half of the total, were Syria (20 percent), Afghanistan (7 percent), Kosovo (6 percent), Eritrea (6 percent) and Albania
In 2014, decisions on asylum applications in the EU made at the first instance resulted in more than 160,000 asylum seekers being granted protection status, while a further 23,000 received protection status on appeal. The rate of recognition of asylum applicants was 45 percent at the first instance and 18 percent on appeal. The main beneficiaries of protection status, accounting for more than half of the total, were Syrians (68,300 or 37 percent), Eritreans (14,600 or 8 percent) and Afghans (14,100 or 8 percent).
Four states – Germany, Sweden, Italy and France – received around two-thirds of the EU's asylum applications and granted almost two-thirds of protection status in 2014. Sweden, Hungary and Austria were among the top recipients of EU asylum applications per capita, when adjusted for their own populations, with 8.4 asylum seekers per 1,000 inhabitants in Sweden, 4.3 in Hungary and 3.2 in Austria.
In 2015, EU member states received 1,255,640 first time asylum applications, a number more than double that of the previous year. The highest number of first time applicants was registered in Germany (with 441,800 applicants, or 35 percent of all applicants in EU states), followed by Hungary (174,400 or 14 percent), Sweden (156,100 or 12 percent), Austria (85,500 or 7 percent), Italy (83,200 or 7 percent) and France (70,600 or 6 percent). Compared with the population, the highest number was registered in Hungary (with 17.7 asylum seekers per 1,000 inhabitants), Sweden (16), Austria (10), Finland (5.9) and Germany (5.4). The three main countries of citizenship of asylum applicants, accounting for more than half of the total, were Syria (362,800 or 29 percent), Afghanistan (178,200 or 14 percent) and Iraq (121,500 or 10 percent), followed by Kosovo (5 percent), Albania (5 percent), Pakistan (4 percent), Eritrea (3 percent), Nigeria (2 percent) and Iran (2 percent).
333,350 asylum applicants were granted protection in the EU in 2015 following a positive decision on their asylum application. The main beneficiaries of protection status were citizens of Syria (50 percent of persons granted protection in the EU), Eritrea (8 percent), Iraq (7 percent), Afghanistan (5 percent), Iran (2 percent), Somalia (2 percent) and Pakistan (2 percent). The EU countries who granted protection to the highest number of asylum seekers were Germany (who granted protection to 148,200 people), Sweden (34,500), Italy (29,600) and France (26,000). The rate of recognition, i.e. the share of positive decisions in the total number of decisions, was 52 percent for first instance decisions in the EU and 14 percent for decisions on appeal. The citizenships with the highest recognition rates at first instance were Syria (97.2 percent), Eritrea (89.8 percent), Iraq (85.7 percent), Afghanistan (67 percent), Iran (64.7 percent), Somalia (63.1 percent) and Sudan (56 percent).
In the first three months of 2015, the number of new asylum applicants in the EU was 184,800, increasing by 86 percent if compared with the same quarter in the previous year but remaining stable if compared to the last quarter of 2014. More than half applied for asylum in Germany (40 percent) or Hungary (18 percent). The main nationalities of the applicants were Kosovo (48,875 or 26 percent), Syria (29,100 or 16 percent) and Afghanistan (12,910 or 7 percent). In the second quarter of 2015, 213,200 people applied for asylum in the EU, up by 15 percent compared with the previous quarter. 38 percent applied for asylum in Germany, followed by Hungary (15 percent) and Austria (8 percent). The main countries of citizenship of asylum seekers, accounting for more than half of the total, were Syria (21 percent), Afghanistan (13 percent), Albania (8 percent), Iraq (6 percent) and Kosovo (5 percent). In the third quarter of 2015 (July–September), EU countries received 413,800 first time asylum applications, almost double the number registered in the previous quarter. Germany and Hungary were the top recipients, with 26 percent each of total applicants. One third of asylum seekers were Syrians (33 percent), followed by Afghans (14 percent) and Iraqis (11 percent). In the fourth quarter of 2015, there were 426,000 first time applicants, mainly Syrians (145,130), Afghans (79,255) and Iraqis (53,585). The top recipients were Germany (38 percent), Sweden (21 percent) and Austria (7 percent).
In August 2015, the German government announced that it expected to receive 800,000 asylum applications by the end of the year. Data released by Germany's Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF) in January 2016 showed that Germany received 476,649 asylum applications in 2015, mainly from Syrians (162,510), Albanians (54,762), Kosovars (37,095), Afghans (31,902), Iraqis (31,379), Serbians (26,945), Macedonians (14,131), Eritreans (10,990) and Pakistanis (8,472). In 2015, Germany made 282,762 decisions on asylum applications; the overall asylum recognition rate was 49.8 percent (140,915 decisions were positive, so that applicants were granted protection). The most successful applicants were Syrians (101,419 positive decisions, with a 96 percent recognition rate), Eritreans (9,300 positive decisions; 92.1 percent recognition rate) and Iraqis (14,880 positive decisions; 88.6 percent recognition rate).
Sweden received 162,877 asylum applications in 2015, mainly from Syrians (51,338), Afghans (41,564), Iraqis (20,857), Eritreans (7,231) and Somalis (5,465). In 2015, Sweden granted protection to 32,631 asylum applicants, whereas it rejected 9,524 applications (the proportion of positive decisions out of materially considered applications was 77 percent). The main beneficiaries of protection were Syrians (18,523 positive decisions, with a 100 percent recognition rate), Eritreans (6,542 positive decisions; 100 percent recognition rate) and Afghans (1,088 positive decisions; 74 percent recognition rate).
In 2016, according to Eurostat, most of the non EU28 asylum seekers in EU 28 originated from Syria. Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq together make 50 percent of the grand total.
The second quarter of 2017 recorded a 54 percent decrease in the number of first time asylum applicants as compared to the second quarter of 2016, and 11 percent fewer applicants than the first quarter of 2017 as well. The greatest number of applications were from Syria, Afghanistan and Nigeria, giving a clear indication of the current nodes of this crisis. However, the number of Syrians and Afghans continued to be less than that of the same time in 2016, suggesting that perhaps, the peak of this crisis has passed. Initially looking at the noticeably fewer number of both migrants and applications indicates that this crisis may be on the decline. But the increasing number of illegal immigrants from Africa simply suggests that the direction of the crisis is changing. While Germany recorded the highest number of first time applicants (over 49,000), Spain saw a 30 percent increase in the number of asylum seekers, along with Cyprus and Bulgaria.
Origins and motivations
Ascertaining motivation is complex, but, according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, most of the people arriving in Europe in 2015 were refugees, fleeing war and persecution in countries such as Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and Eritrea: according to UNHCR data, 84 percent of Mediterranean Sea arrivals in 2015 came from the world's top ten refugee-producing countries. According to UNHCR, the top ten nationalities of Mediterranean Sea arrivals in 2015 were Syria (49 percent), Afghanistan (21 percent), Iraq (8 percent), Eritrea (4 percent), Pakistan (2 percent), Nigeria (2 percent), Somalia (2 percent), Sudan (1 percent), the Gambia (1 percent) and Mali (1 percent). Asylum seekers of seven nationalities had an asylum recognition rate of over 50 percent in EU States in the first quarter of 2015, meaning that they obtained protection over half the time they applied: Syrians (94 percent recognition rate), Eritreans (90 percent), Iraqis (88 percent), Afghans (66 percent), Iranians (65 percent), Somalis (60 percent) and Sudanese (53 percent). Migrants of these nationalities accounted for 90 percent of the arrivals in Greece and 47 percent of the arrivals in Italy between January and August 2015, according to UNHCR data. Wars fueling the crisis are the Syrian Civil War and the Iraq War, the War in Afghanistan, the War in Somalia and the War in Darfur. Refugees from Eritrea, one of the most repressive states in the world, flee from indefinite military conscription and forced labour. Some ethnicities or religions from an originating country are more represented among the migrants than others, for instance Kurds make up 80 to 90 percent of all Turkish refugees in Germany.
Migrants from the Western Balkans (Kosovo, Albania, Serbia) and parts of West Africa (The Gambia, Nigeria) are more likely to be economic migrants, fleeing poverty and lack of jobs, many of them hoping for a better lifestyle and job offers, without valid claims to refugee status. The majority of asylum applicants from Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro are Roma people who feel discriminated against in their countries of origin. The influx from states like Nigeria and Pakistan is a mix of economic migrants and refugees fleeing from violence and war such as Boko Haram insurgency in north-east Nigeria and the War in North-West Pakistan.
According to UNHCR data, 58 percent of the refugees and migrants arriving in Europe by sea in 2015 were men, 17 percent were women and 25 percent were children. Of the asylum applications received in Sweden in 2015, 70 percent were by men (including minors). Men search for a safe place to live and work before attempting to reunite later with their families. In war-torn countries, men are also at greater risk of being forced to fight or of being killed. Among people arriving in Europe there were also large numbers of women and unaccompanied children. Europe has received a record number of asylum applications from unaccompanied child refugees in 2015, as they became separated from their families in war, or their family could not afford to send more than one member abroad. Younger refugees also have better chances of receiving asylum.
Some argue that migrants have been seeking to settle preferentially in those national destinations offering more generous social welfare benefits and hosting more established Middle Eastern and African immigrant communities. Others argue that migrants are attracted to more tolerant societies with stronger economies, and that the chief motivation for leaving Turkey is that they are not permitted to leave camps or work. A large number of refugees in Turkey have been faced with rather difficult living circumstances. Thus, many refugees arriving in southern Europe continue their journey in attempts to reach northern European countries such as Germany, which are observed as having more prominent outcomes of security. In contrast to Germany, historically a popular final destination for the EU migrants, France saw its popularity erode in 2015 among migrants seeking asylum.
Refugees coming specifically from the Middle East have been attempting to seek asylum in Europe rather than in countries surrounding their own neighboring regions. In 2015, over 80 percent of the refugees who arrived in Europe by sea, came from Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Routes in which these refugees face while attempting to arrive in Europe, are most often extremely dangerous. The jeopardy to endure such routes also supports the arguments behind certain refugees' preferential motivations of seeking asylum within European nations.
Migrant routes, development and responses in individual countries
In September 2015, Europol estimated there were 30 000 suspected migrant smugglers, which rose to 55 000 in 2016 and a further 10 000 more in 2017. Of the smugglers, 63 percent are from Europe of which 45 percent are from Balkan countries, 14 percent from the Middle East, 13 percent from Africa and 9 percent from Eastern Asia.
- Western African route (Sea passage from West African countries, into the Canary Islands, i.e. territory of Spain)
- Western Mediterranean route (Sea passage from North Africa to southern coast of Spain, also including the land route through the borders of Ceuta and Melilla.)
- Central Mediterranean route (Sea passage from North Africa (particularly Egypt and Libya) towards Italy and Malta across the Mediterranean Sea.) Most migrants taking to sea on this route do so on vessels operated by people smugglers. NGOs such as Save the Children, MSF and German organisation Sea Eye operate search-and-rescue ships in this area bringing migrants to Europe.
- Apulia and Calabria route (Sea passage of migrants from Turkey and Egypt who enter Greece and then cross the Ionian Sea towards southern Italy. Since October 2014 classified by Frontex as a subset of the Central Mediterranean route.)
- Albania–Greece circular route (Large number of illegal land border crossings whereby economic migrants from Albania cross into Greece for seasonal jobs and then return home.)
- Western Balkan route (Land and sea route from the Greek-Turkish border, through Macedonia and Serbia into Hungary, Romania or Croatia. Mostly used by Asian immigrants (from Syria, Afghanistan and Iraq) but also used by large numbers of migrants from Western Balkan countries themselves, primarily Kosovo).
- Eastern Mediterranean route (Passage used by migrants, mostly Asian, crossing from Turkey into EU via Greece, Bulgaria or Cyprus. Large portions of these migrants continue along the Western Balkan route towards Hungary or Romania.)
- Eastern Borders route (The 6,000 km long land border between EU's eastern member countries and Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova.)
- An Arctic route (from Russia via to Sør-Varanger in Norway) had emerged by September 2015 and was becoming one of the fastest-growing routes to enter Western Europe by November 2015. This route was closed for a while in 2016, after Russia and Norway decided to curb movement through Salla and Lotta for migrants, allowing only Russian, Norwegian and Belarusian citizens to access it.
Frontex tracks and publishes data on numbers of illegal crossings along the main six routes twice a year. The following table shows the data for the period up to and including the year 2015:
|Main migration routes into the European Union||Illegal border crossings (land and sea)|
|Western African route||31,600||12,500||9,200||2,250||200||340||170||250||275||874||671|
|Western Mediterranean route||N/A||N/A||6,500||6,650||5,000||8,450||6,400||6,800||7,840||7,164||10,231|
|Central Mediterranean route||N/A||N/A||39,800||11,000||4,500||64,300||15,900||40,000||170,760||153,946||181,459|
|Apulia and Calabria route||N/A||N/A||N/A||807||2,788||5,259||4,772||5,000|
|Circular Albania–Greece route||N/A||N/A||42,000||40,000||35,300||5,300||5,500||8,700||8,840||8,932||5,121|
|Western Balkan route||N/A||N/A||N/A||3,090||2,370||4,650||6,390||19,950||43,360||764,038||130,261|
|Eastern Mediterranean route||N/A||N/A||52,300||40,000||55,700||57,000||37,200||24,800||50,830||885,386||182,277|
|Eastern Borders route||N/A||N/A||1,335||1,050||1,050||1,050||1,600||1,300||1,270||1,920||1,349|
On 27 August 2015, 71 migrants were found dead in an unventilated food truck near Vienna. As an official response to this event, on 31 August 2015, Austria began inspections of vehicles for smuggled immigrants entering from across the border with Hungary, leading to vehicular backups of 19 km (12 mi) and trains stalled for hours.
Late on 4 September 2015, Chancellor Werner Faymann of Austria, in conjunction with Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, announced that migrants would be allowed to cross the border from Hungary into Austria and onward to Germany, and early on 5 September 2015, buses with migrants began crossing the Austro-Hungarian border. Austria noted that 6,500 migrants had crossed the border by the afternoon of 5 September 2015, with 2,200 already on their way to Germany.
On 14 September 2015, Austria followed Germany's suit and instituted border controls of its own at the border with Hungary. Austrian authorities also deployed the Austrian Army to the border with Hungary.
On 19 September 2015, Austria permitted entry to approximately 10,000 migrants from Slovenia and Hungary. Austria has taken on the role of regulator of the flow of migrants destined for Germany by feeding, housing and providing them health care in transit.
On 28 October 2015, Austria decided to build a fence along its border with Slovenia (that has a total length of 91 km) to "be able to control the migrants in an orderly manner", said Minister of the Interior Johanna Mikl-Leitner.
On 20 January 2016, Austria announced it would limit the number of asylum applicants to 37,500 in each of the next four years, compared to the 90,000 applications in 2015. On 19 February 2016, Austria started putting a daily cap of 80 asylum seekers allowed to enter the country to apply for Austrian asylum, and a maximum of 3,200 allowed daily to transit towards other countries (de facto most of them to Germany). The EU's migration commissioner said the cap was incompatible with Austria's obligations under EU and international law. The EU Council of Ministers' legal team however concluded that Austria's moves are not illegal.
In February 2018, Austrian authorities planned to stop providing food and accommodation to rejected asylum applicants. The proposed legislation introduces penalties between €5000 to €15000 for those who remain in Austria with those refusing to leave to be detained. The applicant lying about his identity would face a €5000 fine. According to the interior ministry, application from Afghans, Nigerians and Pakistanis had mainly been rejected.
From April 2018, Austrian authorities would confiscate mobile phones of migrants in order to use its geographical data to verify how the migrant arrived to the country. If migrants are found to have entered via a country covered by the Dublin regulation, they will be sent there. To cover the cost of handling the application, 840 euro is demanded.
Croatia, an EU member state since 2013, shares a land border (527 km) with Serbia and therefore experienced a strong inflow of migrants from Serbia after Hungary erected a fence on its border with Serbia. Nearly 80 percent of the border consists of the Danube River, but there is a 70 kilometer-long segment of land border in Syrmia, in the forests and fields near Tovarnik. Also, parts of the Croatia-Serbia border are known minefields, which represent a considerable threat. According to the Croatian Minister of Interior Ranko Ostojić, "police in the area have enough people and equipment to protect the Croatian border against illegal immigrants". Croatian President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and First Deputy Prime Minister Vesna Pusić have so far rejected the option of building a fence along the Croatian border with Serbia. Croatian Prime Minister Zoran Milanović said his country is ready to help refugees coming to Europe, insisting that people fleeing conflict should be given the right to remain in the EU.
On 15 September 2015, Croatia started to experience the first major waves of refugees, who carved out a new route through Europe after Hungary sealed its borders. On 15 September 2015, Hungary announced it would start arresting people crossing the border illegally, and as of early 16 September, Hungary had detained 519 people and pressed criminal charges against 46 for trespassing. Thousands of migrants were subsequently led to pursue alternative routes through Croatia from Serbia. After Hungary closed its border with Serbia on 15 September, migrants headed towards the Serbian town of Šid, less than 10 kilometers from the Croatian border. Several buses filled with migrants arrived on the Croatian border crossing of Tovarnik, where the Croatian Vukovar-Srijem County Care and Rescue teams as well as the Croatian Red Cross were on standby awaiting migrants. On 17 September, as of 3:30 am, more than 5,000 migrants had arrived in Tovarnik. Interior Minister Ranko Ostojić said Croatia was "absolutely full" by the evening of 17 September 2015, and Croatia decided to close its border with Serbia. Train lines from Serbia via Croatia to Slovenia were closed until further notice.
As of 6 October 2015, 125,000 had entered Croatia in the space of three weeks. Between mid-September and mid-October 2015, about 200,000 migrants had passed through Croatia, most moving on to Hungary. On 17 October 2015, Hungary closed its border with Croatia to migrants, forcing diversion of migrants to Slovenia instead. However, Slovenia, with a population of only two million, stated that it would only be able to admit 2,500 people per day, stranding thousands of migrants in Croatia as well as Serbia and Macedonia, while new migrants continued to add to this backlog.
In late December 2015, Slovenia put up a razor-wire fence on the border with western Croatian regions of Istria and Gorski kotar, of which the latter is a habitat of the lynx and the brown bear, which are both endangered and protected by law in Croatia. Local hunters have found deer killed by the fence. The WWF and the inhabitants of the regions from both sides of the border have protested against the decision to put up the razor-wire fence.
On 9 March 2016, Croatia started implementing border restrictions on the border with Serbia, aiming to reinstate the Schengen rules.
Starting on 6 September 2015, large groups of migrants who declined to apply for asylum in Germany started passing the Danish borders with the majority heading for Sweden. Initially the Danish police attempted to register all migrants in accordance with EU rules, but many refused (instead wishing to seek asylum in Sweden), eventually resulting in a scuffle of about 50 people on 9 September at the Padborg rail station.
On 9 September, Denmark suspended all rail and ferry links with Germany (reopened the following day). On the same day parts of the E45 motorway was closed for vehicles to avoid accidents as hundreds of migrants were walking along it in southern Jutland towards Sweden. It was reopened a few hours later when the walking migrants exited the motorway. After initial uncertainty surrounding the rules, it was decided that migrants wishing to continue to other Nordic countries and refusing to seek asylum in Denmark would be allowed to pass. In the five weeks following 6 September alone, approximately 28,800 migrants passed the Danish borders. 3,500 of these applied for asylum in Denmark and the remaining continued to other Nordic countries.
After Sweden introduced ID checks on the Danish border to prevent undocumented migrants from coming to Sweden, Denmark also reintroduced border controls on the Danish-German border in January 2016, wanting to avoid predicted accumulation of illegal migrants on their way to Sweden as one of the reasons for this decision. As of December 2019, the border control remains.
In October 2016 Danish immigration minister Inger Støjberg authorities reported 50 cases of suspected radicalised asylum seekers at asylum centres. The reports encompassed everything from adult Islamic State sympathisers celebrating terror attacks to violent children who dress up as IS fighters decapitating teddy bears. Støjberg expressed her consternation at asylum seekers ostensibly fleeing war yet simultaneously supporting violence. Asylum centres having detected radicalisation routinely report their findings to police. The 50 incidents were reported between 17 November 2015 and 14 September 2016.
In October 2017 the Danish migration agency Udlændingestyrelsen rejected over 600 asylum applications because the applicants had lied about their national identity in order to achieve preferential treatment.
Migrants entering France illegally by train from Italy were returned to Italy by French police since border controls were introduced in July 2015. Due to "poor housing", lower social benefits and a thorough asylum application process France is not commonly considered attractive enough to seek asylum in. Thus many of them seek to enter the United Kingdom, resulting in camps of migrants around Calais, where one of the Eurotunnel entrances is located. During the summer of 2015, at least nine people died in attempts to reach Britain, including falling from, or being hit by trains, and drowning in a canal at the Eurotunnel entrance. Migrants from the camps also attempt to enter trucks bound for the UK, with some truck drivers being threatened by migrants, and cargo being stolen or damaged.
In response, a UK financed fence was built along the A 216 highway in Calais. At the camp near Calais, known as the Jungle, riots broke out when authorities started to demolish the illegally constructed campsite on 29 January 2015. Amid the protests, which included hunger strikes, thousands of refugees living in the camp were relocated to France's "first international-standard refugee camp" of La Liniere refugee camp in Grande-Synthe which replaced the predecessor encampment at Basroch refugee camp.
On 13 September 2015, it was reported that the local authorities had estimated the flow of 300 asylum seekers per day entering via the northern land border from Sweden into Tornio, which is the main route of migration flow into Finland. The total number of asylum seekers for the year was reported to be over 2.6 times the total amount for the whole of the previous year. During October 2015, 7,058 new asylum seekers arrived in Finland. In mid-October the number of asylum seekers entering Finland during 2015 reached 27,000, which is, in relation to the country's size, the fourth-largest in Europe. In late November, the number passed 30,000, nearly ten-fold increase compared to the previous year.
More than 60 percent of asylum seekers who arrived during 2015 came from Iraq. In late October, The Finnish Immigration Service (Migri) changed its guidelines about areas in Iraq which are recognized as safe by the Finnish authorities, putting Iraqi asylum seekers under closer scrutiny. The Interior Minister Petteri Orpo estimated that two in three of recent asylum seekers come to Finland in hopes of higher standard of living. In November, the Permanent Secretary of the Interior Ministry stated that approximately 60 to 65 percent of the recent applications for asylum will be denied.
In September, the processing time of an asylum application was estimated to be extended from normal six months up to two years. In late November, the reception centers were reported to be running out of space, forcing the authorities resorting to refurbished shipping containers and tents to house new asylum seekers. Interior Minister Petteri Orpo has announced that special repatriation centers would be established. These centers would be inhabited by the asylum seekers whose applications were declined. While he stressed that these camps would not be prisons, he described the inhabitants would be under strict surveillance.
In 2017, hundreds Muslim asylum seekers from Iraq and Afghanistan converted to Christianity after having had their first asylum application rejected by the Finnish Immigration Service (Migri), in order to re-apply for asylum on the grounds of religious persecution.
Germany's asylum practice is generally to be based on article 16a of its Basic Law, as well as international regulations like the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees Germany has been the most sought-after final destination in the EU migrant and refugee crisis. Between January and December 2015, 1,091,894 arrivals of asylum seekers were registered in Germany's "EASY" system for the first distribution of asylum seekers among Germany's federal states; however, asylum applications in 2015 were only 476,649, because many asylum seekers had not formally applied for asylum yet or did not stop in Germany and moved on to other EU states.
- Merkel's asylum policy
Around 24 August 2015, while thousands of migrants tried to reach Western Europe through the Balkans, a considerable part of them fleeing the Syrian Civil War, and noticing that most of the burden of migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea fell on the peripheral southern EU member states Greece and Italy, the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, according to news media, decided to no longer follow the rule under the 'Dublin' EU regulations for asylum seekers holding that migrants "can apply for asylum only in the first EU member state they enter" – which is an incorrect summary of the 'Dublin' regulation which holds that the migrant should apply for asylum in the first EU country where he was formally registered. Germany, anyway, ordered its officers to also process asylum applications from Syrians if they had come through other EU countries.
In the night of 4 September 2015, Merkel decided that Germany would admit the thousands of refugees who were stranded in Hungary, in sweltering conditions, and whom the Hungarian prime minister Orban had sent to the Austrian border. With that decision, she reportedly aimed to prevent disturbances at the German borders. The days following that 4 September, tens of thousands of refugees traveled from Hungary via Vienna into Germany.
- Further developments
Germany has a quota system to distribute asylum seekers among all German states. In September 2015 however the federal states, responsible for accommodation, criticised the Government in Berlin for not providing enough help to them.
The Interior Minister announced on 13 September 2015 the introduction of temporary controls on the southern border with Austria and explained the measure with reference to security concerns. The restrictions incorporated a temporary suspension of rail travel from Austria and allowed spot checks on automobiles. In September 2019, following the rise in the number of migrants reaching Italy after having been rescued from drowning by activists, Interior Minister Horst Seehofer said that Germany would accept one in four migrants previously rescued and brought to Italy.
On 5 October, the German tabloid Bild claimed to possess a secret document stating that the number of asylum seekers would increase to 1.5 million by the end of 2015. This report was immediately disclaimed by the German ministry of the interior which restated its own estimate of 800,000 applicants. Germany has followed a policy of treating migrants under 18 years of age as "children first and refugees second," giving them − according to the Convention on the Rights of the Child − mostly the same rights as German children. In late October 2015, the small village of Sumte, population 102, was told by Lower Saxony officials that it would receive 750 asylum-seekers.
In January 2016, 18 of 31 men suspected of violent assaults on women in Cologne on New Year's Eve were identified as asylum seekers, prompting calls by German officials to deport convicted criminals who may be seeking asylum; these sexual attacks brought about a fresh wave of anti-immigrant protests across Europe.
In February 2016, the German government admitted that it had lost track of around 13 percent of the 1.1 million people registered as asylum seekers on arrival in 2015, because they never arrived at the refugee accommodation they were assigned. The German government said that probably many of the missing asylum seekers simply went to other European countries, while others continued to live illegally in Germany. Merkel's immigration policies are being criticised in the Christian Social Union, e.g. by the CSU-chairman Horst Seehofer.
In October 2016, Angela Merkel travelled to African countries Mali and Niger. The diplomatic visit took place in order to discuss how their governments could improve conditions which cause people to flee those countries and how illegal migration through and from these countries could be reduced.
In November 2016 Germany security officials cracked down on the militant salafist organisation Die Wahre Religion as these preachers had targeted newly arrived migrants with their violent form of Islam.
The migrant crisis has spurred right-wing electoral preferences across Germany with the Alternative for Germany (AfD) gaining 12% of the vote in the 2017 German federal election. These developments have prompted debates over the reasons for increased right-wing populism in Germany. Literature argues that the increased right-wing preferences are a result of the European migrant crisis which has brought thousands of people, predominantly from Muslim countries to Germany, and spurred a perception among a share of Germans that refugees constitute an ethnic and cultural threat to Germany.
Migrants arrive from the Middle East making the 6-kilometre (4 mi) water crossing to the Greek islands of Chios, Kos, Lesbos, Leros, Kastellorizo, Agathonisi, Farmakonisi, Rhodes, Samos, Symi and other islands which are close to Turkey and are thus a quick and easy access border into Europe. Some arrive via the Evros border crossing from Turkey. As of June 2015, 124,000 migrants had arrived into Greece, a 750 percent increase from 2014, mainly refugees stemming from the wars in Syria, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Greece appealed to the European Union for assistance, whilst the UNCHR European Director Vincent Cochetel said facilities for migrants on the Greek islands were "totally inadequate" and the islands in "total chaos".
Frontex's Operation Poseidon, aimed at patrolling the Aegean Sea, is badly underfunded and undermanned, with only 11 coastal patrol vessels, one ship, two helicopters, two aircraft and a budget of €18 million.
Human traffickers charge illegal immigrants $1,000 to $1,500 for the 25-minute boat ride from Bodrum, Turkey to Kos. In August 2015, "hundreds" of boats made the crossing carrying illegal immigrants every night. The migrants travel onward to Thessaloniki in the mainland of Greece and estimate that it will cost them €3,000 to €4,000 to reach Germany, and €10,000 or €12,000 to reach Britain. Desperate migrants have fought brawls over places in boats leaving Bodrum for Kos.
Airlines charge passengers usually less than $400 for oneway economy class tickets from Turkey to Germany or Britain, but a rule in the Schengen Agreement requires airlines to check that all passengers have a visa or are exempt from visa.
In September 2015, the photos of dead 3-year-old Alan Kurdi, who drowned when he and his family were in a small inflatable boat which capsized shortly after leaving Bodrum trying to reach the Greek island of Kos, made headlines around the world. Konstantinos Vardakis, the top EU diplomat in Baghdad, told The New York Times that at least 250 Iraqis per day had been landing on Greek islands between mid-August and early September 2015.
On 27 January 2016, the European Commission accused Greece of neglecting its obligations under the Schengen agreement to carry out external border controls, saying that a visit by EU inspectors in November 2015 found that Greece was failing to identify and register arrivals properly, to fingerprint everyone and to check travel documents for authenticity and against security databases. On 12 February, the EU gave Greece a three months deadline to fix its border controls, or other member states could be authorized to extend border controls for up to two years instead of the normal six months.
On 11 February, NATO announced that it was going to deploy ships in the Aegean Sea to deter people smugglers taking migrants from Turkey to Greece, the first 3 ships being the Royal Canadian Navy's HMCS Fredericton (FFH 337), Turkish Naval Forces's TCG Barbaros (F-244) and German Navy's Bonn (A1413) from NATO's SNMG2. NATO chief Jens Stoltenberg said the mission would not be about "stopping or pushing back refugee boats", but about intelligence gathering and sharing information with Turkey and Greece, both NATO allies.
On 1 March 2016, the Greek government asked the EU for €480 million in emergency funds to shelter 100,000 refugees.
The Republic of Macedonia closed its border with Greece on 9 March 2016 where 12,000 to 13,000 migrants were stuck at Idomeni on the Greek side, while the total number of migrants throughout Greece are estimated to be more than 50,000.
After the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt Greek authorities on a number of Aegean islands have called for emergency measures to curtail a growing flow of refugees from Turkey, the number of migrants and refugees willing to make the journey across the Aegean has increased noticeably. At Athens officials voiced worries that Turkish monitors overseeing the deal in Greece had been abruptly pulled out after the failed coup with little sign of them being replaced. Also, the mayor of Kos, expressed concern in a letter to the Greek Prime Minister sighting the growing influx of refugees and migrants after the failed coup. The Association of Greek Tourism Enterprises (SETE) warned about the prospect of another flare-up in the refugee/migrant crisis due to the Turkish political instability.
In September 2016, Greek volunteers of the "Hellenic Rescue Team" and human rights activist Efi Latsoudi were awarded the Nansen Refugee Award by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) "for their tireless volunteer work" to aid refugees arriving in Greece during the 2015 refugee crisis.
In December 2017, the Hellenic Rescue Team received the award "Mother Teresa" by the Harmony Foundation. The Greek team was rewarded for their "heroic actions" and their effort to save human lives while risking their own during the migrant and refugee crisis.
Migrants taking the Western Balkan route cross into the Schengen Area first in Greece. In June 2015, Hungary said it was contemplating countermeasures against the influx of illegal immigrants from Serbia, a non-EU and non-Schengen state.
On 17 June 2015, the Hungarian government announced the construction of a 4-metre-high (13 ft), 175-kilometre-long (109 mi) fence along its southern border with Serbia. The European Commission warned EU members against steps that contravene EU obligations and urged members like Hungary to find other ways to cope with an inflow of illegal migrants. The first phase of the construction was finished at the end of August and Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced that it would be fully completed by the end of 2015.
On 3 September 2015, Hungary's prime minister, Viktor Orbán, defended the country's management of the migrant situation internally, notwithstanding chaos at Budapest's main international rail station, while criticising Germany and Europe overall for not dissuading migrants from entering Europe. On the same day, Hungarian police let migrants board a train in Budapest heading west, then stopped it in Bicske and tried to transport migrants to a registration camp there. The migrants refused to cooperate and remained on the train, which did not travel further west.
On 4 September 2015, about a thousand of the migrants at Railway Station East (Keleti Pályaudvar) set off by foot toward Austria and Germany. On the same night, the Hungarian government decided to send buses to transport illegal migrants to Hegyeshalom, on the border with Austria.
On 14 September 2015, it was reported that the Hungarian police were blocking the route from Serbia, and that the regular entry point was heavily manned with officers, soldiers and helicopters hovering above, sealing this border with a razor wire and detaining migrants crossing the border illegally with the threat of arrest and criminal charges. On 15 September 2015, Hungary sealed its border with Serbia. Several hundred migrants broke the fence between Hungary and Serbia twice on Wednesday, 16 September, and threw chunks of concrete and water bottles over the fence. Hungarian police reacted with tear gas and water cannons at Horgoš 2 border crossing. Belgrade protested these actions. A 20-year-old Iraqi refugee was sentenced to deportation and one-year entry ban in Hungary, as well as €80 in court fees, according to the new law put into action a few days before. On 18 September, Hungary started building another fence, this time along the border with Croatia, a fellow EU member state, but not part of the Schengen Area. Within two weeks, tens of thousands of refugees crossed from Croatia into Hungary, most of whom went toward the Austrian border.
On 16 October 2015, Hungary announced that it would close its green border with Croatia to migrants, and since 17 October onward, thousands of migrants daily were diverted to Slovenia instead.
In December 2015, Hungary challenged EU plans to share asylum seekers across EU states at the European Court of Justice. The border has been closed since 15 September 2015, with razor wire fence along its southern borders, particularly Croatia, and by blocking train travel. The government believes that "illegal migrants" are job-seekers, threats to security and likely to "threaten our culture". There have been cases of immigrants and ethnic minorities being attacked. In addition, Hungary has conducted wholesale deportations of refugees, who are generally considered to be allied with ISIL. Refugees are outlawed and almost all are ejected.
On 9 March 2016 Hungary declared a state of emergency for the whole of the country, and was deploying 1500 soldiers to the borders. In August 2017 the state of emergency was extended to March 2018.
Since 2014, thousands of migrants have been trying every month to cross the Central Mediterranean to Italy, risking their lives on unsafe boats including fishing trawlers. Many of them are fleeing poverty-stricken homelands or war-torn countries and seeking economic opportunity within the EU. Italy, and, in particular, its southern island of Lampedusa, receives enormous numbers of Africans and Middle-Easterners transported by smugglers and NGOs operating along the ungoverned coast of the failed state of Libya.
In 2014, 170,100 migrants arrived in Italy by sea, a 296 percent increase compared to 2013. 141,484 of the travellers ferried over from Libya. Most of the migrants had come from Syria, Eritrea, and various countries in West Africa.
From January to April 2015, about 1600 migrants died on the route from Libya to Lampedusa, making it the deadliest migrant route in the world. As a consequence of the April 2015 Libya migrant shipwrecks, the EU launched a military operation known as Operation Sophia. More than 13,000 migrants had been rescued from the sea in the course of the operation as of April 2016.
There were 153,842 Mediterranean sea arrivals to Italy in 2015, 9 percent less than the previous year; most of the refugees and migrants came from Eritrea, Nigeria, and Somalia, whereas the number of Syrian refugees sharply decreased, as most of them took the Eastern Mediterranean route from Turkey to Greece.
The first three months of 2016 saw an increase in the number of migrants rescued at sea being brought to southern Italian ports. In April 2016, nearly 6,000 mostly sub-Saharan African migrants have landed in Italy in just four days. In June 2016, over 10,000 migrants have been rescued in just four days.
In 2016, 181,100 migrants arrived in Italy by sea. In April 2017, more than 8,000 migrants were rescued near Libya and brought to Italy in just three days. Based on UN-data, about 80,000 refugees were registered at Italian refugee centers in the first half of 2017, an increase of 14 percent compared to the same time period in 2016. In June 2017, 10,000 asylum seekers were picked up in the Mediterranean sea by the Italian coastguard and other naval vessels in just a couple of days. EU ambassador Maurizio Massari has expressed concern about the recent uptake of refugee arrivals on Italian's coastline, which would reach 200,000 in 2017. As a result, foreign aid vessels docking in Italian ports may no longer be able to do so because of stricter admission policies and exceeded limits in Italian asylum centers. In February 2017 Italian government accepted to fund Libyan coastguard. Since then many migrants were forced to go back to Libya.
In July 2017, Italy drew up a code of conduct for NGO rescue vessels delivering migrants to Italian ports. These rules include
- Except in situations of imminent danger, not to enter the territorial waters of Libya.
- Never to switch off the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and LRIT transponders if they are installed on the ship.
- Not to signal human traffickers with flares or radio to coordinate with them when to send out their dinghies.
- Not to transfer those rescued onto other vessels.
- Commit to carrying a policeman to travel on board whenever requested in order to identify and prosecute human traffickers among the migrants.
Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International have criticised the code of conduct and some NGOs like MSF refused to sign. Italian authorities feared that rather than saving lives, the NGO operations encouraged more people to try the very dangerous passage facilitated by human traffickers. NGO ships not behaving according to the code could be refused access to Italian ports.
After the entry into force of the NGO code, in July 2017 arrivals decreased by 52.5 percent compared to the same month of 2016, from 23,552 to 11,183, and in August 2017 arrivals decreased by 85 percent, form 21,294 to 3,914. Also all NGO, except Sos Méditerranée, have withdrawn their ships from the Mediterranean.
Between 2008 and 2012, Malta received on average the highest number of asylum seekers compared to its national population: 21.7 applicants per 1,000 inhabitants.:13 In 2011, most of these asylum applications were submitted by nationals of Somalia, Nigeria, Eritrea and Syria.:26 In 2012, more than half of the requests were by Somalian nationals alone.:45 In a 2013 news story, The Guardian reported, "Before Malta joined the EU in 2004, immigration levels were negligible. Because it is located close to north Africa, it has now become a gateway for migrants seeking entry to Europe." Following the arrival of asylum seekers, Malta was unable to cope with accommodating asylum seekers in a manner which was congruent with EU standards on the reception of asylum seekers, particularly standards related to housing.
In 2015, very few migrants arrived in Malta compared to previous years, since most of those rescued were taken to Italy. In September, 78 migrants rescued by the Armed Forces of Malta refused to be brought to Malta. They insisted on going to Italy, and were eventually taken there.
Melilla and Ceuta (Spain)
Melilla and Ceuta, two autonomous Spanish cities on the north coast of Africa bordering Morocco, are the only EU territories to share a land border with an African country. The number of undocumented migrants hoping to reach the EU via Melilla or Ceuta grew in 2014. Between January and September 2015, only 100 people out of 3700 hopefuls have managed to cross the Melilla border fence, down from 2100 people from 19,000 attempts the previous year. In October 2015, 165 people were rescued from fourteen attempts to cross the Strait of Gibraltar to reach Ceuta.
In a report published on 17 November 2015, Amnesty International called on Spain to cease cooperation with Morocco on immigration matters because of alleged human rights abuses on the Melilla and Ceuta borders. Amnesty said it has "photographs, images and evidence" of "blows with sticks, feet and stones" on migrants attempting to get to Spain. Other reports accuse Spain of using rubber bullets and tear gas to prevent migrants from reaching Spanish territory. The Spanish Government said that it has now banned its border guards from using rubber bullets to repel migrants.
Migrants have been found trying to smuggle themselves into Ceuta and Melillia in cars and suitcases, including in March 2016, when migrants were discovered hiding in "impossibly small spaces" in a car at the Melilla border crossing, with some in the dashboard area and some under the back seat. According to the authorities, people are found hiding in cars almost every day. Also, in May 2015, an 8-year-old boy from Ivory Coast was found in a suitcase being smuggled into Ceuta, when the police opened the case, they found him in a "terrible state". And in December 2016, one migrant was found in a suitcase, carried by a Moroccan woman, trying to get into Ceuta. On 1 January 2017, there was an attempt by 1100 migrants to cross the Ceuta border fence. 50 Moroccans and five Spanish border guards prevented them from crossing the fence, but one border guard lost an eye during the attempt.
The number of migrants crossing from Russia into Norway increased from a handful in the first half of 2015 to 420 asylum seekers crossing by bicycle in September 2015 alone. As of 11 December 2015 over 4,000 migrants had crossed the Northern border, and the Norwegian government vowed to send all migrants with Russian residence visa back to Russia even if they were from countries experiencing conflicts such as Afghanistan. In 2016, 5,500 asylum-seekers illegally entered Norway from Russia. Norway began sending migrants back to conflict-torn countries of origin, such as Afghanistan, defying Amnesty International. The number of migrants returned from Europe to Afghanistan between 2015–16 nearly tripled from 3290 to 9460. Because it is illegal to drive from Russia to Norway without proper legal permission, and crossing on foot is prohibited, the migrants make the crossing on bicycles. It was in 2016 decided that a barrier will be located at the Storskog border crossing. It will be built of steel and will stand 660 feet (200 m) long and 11 feet (3.4 m) to 12 feet (3.7 m) high. Norwegian officials aim to complete the barrier before winter temperatures harden the ground.
Slovenia established temporary controls on the otherwise unsupervised border with Hungary in the north east on 17 September 2015, following Germany and Austria's similar actions. On 18 September, Slovenia experienced the first larger and largely illegal border crossing occurrences, coming mostly from Croatia, already overwhelmed by the large influx of migrant groups.
On the evening of 18 September, the Slovenian riot police were forced to use pepper spray on a bridge at the Harmica border to prevent migrants and activists from illegally crossing the border from Croatia.
By midday of 19 September, the country had registered around 1500 migrants, with all of them being accommodated in temporary reception camps or asylum centres. The largest traffic was seen at Obrežje border crossing, Dobova border crossing and Brežice. Prime Minister Miro Cerar visited the reception centre in Brežice on Saturday, stressing that Slovenia had the situation under control, while criticising the Croatian government for being uncooperative.
There were also various humanitarian and non-governmental organisations aiding the migrants on the border, coming mostly from Slovenia, Croatia and Austria.
From 18 October, the country began receiving large numbers of refugees, which soon exceeded the upper admission limit of 2,500. On 22 October, the police reported 12,600 migrant arrivals in 24 hours, reportedly a record, and more than Hungary had received in any one day. The Slovenian government also passed a law giving the army more powers and asked the EU for aid. The latter responded by sending the commissioner for migration to Slovenia, and announcing a "mini EU summit". On the same day the Slovenian government accused the Croatian police of leading migrants through cold waters in an effort to bypass the Slovene controls by crossing the green border, and released a night time thermovision video apparently showing the events on the preceding night.
By 24 October, Slovenia had reported more than 56,000 total migrant arrivals.
On 10 November, Prime Minister Cerar announced that Slovenia would impose temporary technical hurdles to control migrants, but that the country would not close border crossings. On 11 November, Slovenian military personnel began the construction of the fence consisting of razor wire. The Austrian minister of the interior Johanna Mikl-Leitner expressed full support for the Slovenian government's action on the border with Croatia.
On 23 February 2016, German press noted that Slovenia decided to deploy army on the border facing Croatia, to assist the police. It was noted, that the bill did not approve military action, however noting that the army was still authorized to use force in the case of emergency.
From 2000 until at least 2016, dealing with irregularly arriving migrants on the Spanish Canary Islands, Spain developed a purportedly efficient plan to manage that inflow, consisting in four aspects:
- Strengthening bilateral ties and close cooperation with local actors in all origin and transit countries
- Bilateral partnership agreements with those countries
- Security, intelligence and policy strategies and joint actions
- Legal avenues and resettlement policies through agreements with those countries.
In 2017, Spain saw a huge increase in the number of asylum applicants, fast catching up to Italy and Greece in terms of popularity as a destination country, with nearly 8300 people trying to enter in the first half of this year itself.
The International Organization for Migration recorded a 217 percent increase in the first seven months of 2017 compared with the same period in 2016, when more than 8,000 arrived throughout the year. Authorities believe that Spain is ill-equipped to handle the surging numbers of migrants. Reports of women and children being kept in inhumane conditions have surfaced, pushing governments and organizations to devise short-term policies to help curb the pressure. Several deaths were recorded in 2017 on a daily basis, both at the destination and during the journey, but this does not deter migrants, who are more economic migrants than war refugees, coming mostly from Western African nations such as Gambia, Guinea, Senegal etc.
During all of 2015, migration authorities reported 500 cases of suspected terrorism links or war criminals to Swedish Security Service. Twenty individuals were denied asylum in 2015 due to war crimes.
In November 2015, Sweden reintroduced border controls for arrivals, including the Öresund Bridge. This did not have so much effect on the inflow of asylum seekers, since they had the right to apply for asylum once they were on Swedish ground. In December 2015, Sweden passed a temporary law that allows the government to oblige all transport companies to check that their passengers carry valid photographic identification before border crossing. The new law came into effect on 21 December 2015 and is valid until 21 December 2018. The government decided that the new rules will apply from 4 January 2016 until 4 July 2016. The new law led to the mandatory train change and passage through border control at Copenhagen Airport station for travellers between Copenhagen and Sweden, and with a reduction in service frequency.
On the first day of border controls this led to a reduction in the number of migrants arriving to southern Sweden from the previous hundreds to some dozens. Within hours of Swedish border control becoming effective, Denmark in turn created a border control between Denmark and Germany. The migration pattern also changed with the majority of those arriving by ferry from Germany to Trelleborg instead of by train to Hyllie station, bypassing the border control between Denmark and Germany. Migrants then started taking taxis in greater numbers over the Öresund Bridge in order to evade identification. Three days later, a Danish cab driver was arrested for human trafficking near the Øresund Bridge. In January 2016 newspaper Sydsvenskan reported that the migration flow had led to an increase of MRSA infections in southernmost Skåne province where many migrants are received, from 160 cases in 2005 to more than 635 cases in 2015. In January 2016 interior minister Anders Ygeman said that Sweden was rejecting about 45 percent of asylum applications, which meant that around 60,000–80,000 of the 160,000 asylum-seekers who applied for asylum in 2015 could be deported in coming years.
Of the 162 000 who migrated to Sweden in 2015, by May 2016 only 500 had found employment, where employment constituted more than 1 hour of work per week or state-subsidised schemes.
In late June 2016 the Swedish parliament voted for more restrictive policy with a large majority in favour. As a result, residence permits will be temporary and immigration of family members will be curtailed, along with higher demands of proof to be able to support immigrating relatives. These measures are to be valid for three years. The law applies retroactively on everyone who arrived 24 November onwards and came into effect 20 July 2016. These measures puts Sweden in line with the minimum line of requirements mandated by the EU. Thirty individuals were denied asylum January–June 2016 due to war crimes.
In August 2016 four workers at asylum centres for refugee children were reported to have been infected by tuberculosis and health services reported a marked increase in tuberculosis infections due to the crisis. In 2015 an increase of 22 percent on the previous year was noted, this was largely attributed to an increased inflow of migrants over that year. 90 percent of people infected with tuberculosis were born abroad.
In October 2016 a leaked internal memo from the cabinet showed that spending cuts to all public services had become necessary due to the escalating costs of the migration crisis.
In January 2017 police described gangs of recently arrived youth making the central shopping mall of Gothenburg unsafe at night with muggings and violence over drug trade between gangs of Moroccan, Afghani and Syrian origin. Police work is made difficult by the Swedish Migration Agency which has neglected to identify arriving migrants leading to an arrested individual's fingerprint matching a handful of identities. When offered help from social services the youth declined and preferred a life on the streets supporting themselves with crime.
In May 2017 border police reported that it had been possible to verify the identities of 77 migrants from Morocco using fingerprint matches checked against the Moroccan fingerprint database. It was found that out of the 77, 65 had lied about their identity and of the 50 claiming to be underage, all but two were adult.
In May 2017 the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine started aiding the Swedish Migration Agency with determining the age of migrants claiming to be under 18. The first batch of 518 investigations indicated that 442 were likely adult. Of the 442, 430 were men and 12 women.
Up until 2017, the Swedish Migration Agency awarded temporary residence permits also to people considered war criminals and security threats. This allowed these individuals to claim welfare benefits and healthcare from the state of Sweden.
In Falkenberg, the municipality created gender segregated housing for unaccompanied minors, as the boys would sexually harass the girls and the girls did previously not dare to go out into the communal areas of the accommodations without wearing the veil. With the segregated housing, the girls were able to make better use of the facilities.
In June 2017, the Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden (HFD) ruled that illegal immigrants, such as those who stay in hiding after their asylum applications had been rejected in order to evade deportation, had no right to welfare benefits. A woman was denied welfare benefits (sv:socialbidrag) by the council of Vännäsand she took the council to court. The first instance (sv:förvaltningsrätten) ruled in the woman's favour, but the council took the case to the highest court HFD which ruled in favour of the council.
In July 2017 Swedish Radio reported that few recently arrived migrants who have low education are willing to improve their schooling; about 3 to 4 percent are taking classes two years after receiving a residence permit. Migrants are not generally aware that in order to find steady employment in the job market of Sweden, completed secondary education is a frequent requirement.
In August 2017 dozens of Afghani asylum seekers made a demonstration in a square in Stockholm against their pending deportations. They were attacked by a group of 15-16 men who threw fireworks at them. Three protesters were injured and one was taken to hospital. None were arrested.
In September 2017 staff at the Swedish Migration Agency reported rising levels of death threats and harassment from migrants applying for residence. The nature of the threats changed with staff members being sought out at their homes or receiving threatening messages on private phones or in social media.
In November 2017, Swedish Public Employment Service statistics showed that of the 24 034 recently arrived migrants in Stockholm, 9 324 were women of whom 3 percent had found non-subsidised employment and 14 710 were men, of whom 7 percent had found non-state-subsidised employment.
In March 2018, researcher Pernilla Andersson Joona at Stockholm University found that 50 percent of recently arrived migrants had less than the Swedish 9-year basic education (Swedish: grundskolekompetens).
As a non-EU member country but full participant in the Schengen Agreement, the Swiss Confederation was directly affected by the migrant crisis with most of the refugees arriving from Italy at border crossings in the Southern cantons of Ticino and Valais. In the crisis year 2015, almost 40,000 asylum seekers were applying for refugee status. In 2016, this number dropped by 31 percent, and in the first quarter of 2017 by another 57 percent, compared to the same time period in 2016. Most of the asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland originate from Eritrea (49 percent), followed by Afghanistan (30 percent) and Syria. Despite relative restrictive admission policies, and increased patrolling of illegal border crossings, the Swiss have attempted to admit refugees throughout the course of the migrant crisis, and distributed those asylum seekers to the appropriate cantons and city states.
Refugees first receive a temporary residence permit "N" valid for 6 months while they await approval of their status. Asylum seekers who are not admitted but cannot return to their home country because of health or safety considerations receive a residence permit "F" that allows them to stay in Switzerland. Persons receiving a "B" permit are admitted refugees according to the Geneva Convention with a full residence allowance for 12 months and possible extensions. Almost 50 percent of the asylum seekers receive residence permits or are allowed to stay, and about 10 percent of those rejected can be placed in another Schengen country.
With 3.4 asylum seekers per 1000 inhabitants in 2016, Switzerland processed more asylum applications than the European average at 2.5, Germany at the top of the list with almost 10 asylum seekers/1000. About 2.5 percent of asylum seekers in Switzerland are employed; the numbers are higher at 30 percent for those with temporary permits and at 24 percent for admitted refugees.
The vast majority of migrants and refugees entering Europe by sea in 2015, nearly half million by September, arrived from Turkey, according to the United Nations. Turkish officials attempting to deter migration facilitated by smugglers have detained 57,000 travellers and over 100 human traffickers in 2015 through September.
Triggers of the summer 2015 crisis
Factors cited as immediate triggers or causes of the sudden and massive increase in migrant numbers in the summer of 2015 along the Eastern Mediterranean and Western Balkan route (Turkey-Greece-North Macedonia-Serbia-Hungary) include:
- On 18 June 2015 the government of North Macedonia announced that it was changing its policy on migrants entering the country illegally. Previously, migrants were forbidden from transiting Macedonia, causing those who chose to do so to take perilous, clandestine modes of transit, such as walking along railroad tracks at night. Beginning in June, migrants were given three-day, temporary asylum permits, enabling them to travel by train and road.
- The opening of the Macedonia route enabled migrants from the Middle East to take very short, inexpensive voyages from the coast of Turkey to the Greek Islands, instead of the far longer, more perilous, and far more expensive voyage from Libya to Italy. According to the Washington Post, in addition to reducing danger, this lowered the cost from around $5–6,000 to $2–3,000.
- On 25 August 2015 – according to The Guardian – 'Germany's federal agency for migration and refugees' made it public, that "The #Dublin procedure for Syrian citizens is at this point in time effectively no longer being adhered to". During a press conference, "Germany's interior minister, Thomas de Maizière, confirmed that the suspension of the Dublin agreement was "not as such a legally binding act", but more of a "guideline for management practice".
- According to the Washington Post, German Chancellor Angela Merkel's public pledges (at a time of diplomatic standoff with the government of Hungary at the beginning of September, when tens of thousands of refugees were attempting to cross Hungarian territory without getting processed for asylum application in the country) that Germany would offer temporary residency to refugees, combined with television footage of cheering Germans welcoming refugees and migrants arriving in Munich, persuaded large numbers of people to move from Turkey up the Western Balkan route.
- Syrian President Bashar al-Assad blamed Europe and the United States for the migrant crisis, saying most of the refugees are fleeing the "terrorism" that he accuses the West of fomenting by supporting elements of the Syrian opposition. Meanwhile, the Syrian government announced increased military conscription, and simultaneously made it easier for Syrians to obtain passports, leading Middle East policy experts to speculate that he was implementing a policy to encourage opponents of his regime to leave the country.
Closure of green borders
The entry routes through the Western Balkan have experienced the greatest intensity of border restrictions in the 2015 EU migrant crisis, according to The New York Times and other sources, as follows:
|Turkey||Greece|| In September 2015, Turkish provincial authorities gave approximately 1,700 migrants three days to leave the border zone.Greece built a razor-wire fence in 2012 along its short land border with Turkey.|
|Turkey||Bulgaria||As a result of Greece's diversion of migrants to Bulgaria from Turkey, Bulgaria built its own fence to block migrants crossing from Turkey.|
|Greece||Macedonia|| However, in November 2015, Macedonia began erecting a fence along its southern border with Greece, with the intention of channeling the flow of migrants through an official checkpoint as opposed to limiting the inflow of migrants. Beginning in November 2015, Greek police permitted only Syrians, Iraqis, and Afghans to cross into Macedonia. In February, Macedonian soldiers began erecting a second fence meters away from the previous one.In August 2015, a police crackdown on migrants crossing from Greece failed in Macedonia, causing the police to instead turn their attention to diverting migrants north, into Serbia.|
|Serbia||Hungary||Hungary built a 175-km (109-mi) razor-wire fence along its border with Serbia in 2015.|
|Croatia||Hungary|| On 16 October 2015, Hungary announced that it would close off its border with Croatia to migrants.Hungary built a 40-km (25-mi) razor-wire fence along its border with Croatia in 2015.|
|Croatia||Slovenia|| pepper spraying migrants trying to cross. Although re-opening the border, by 18 October 2015, Slovenia restricted crossing to 2,500 migrants per day.Slovenia blocked transit from Croatia in September 2015,|
|Hungary||Austria||Austria planned to put border controls into effect along its border with Hungary in September 2015, and officials said the controls could stay in effect under European Union rules for up to six months.|
|Russia||Norway||On 25 January 2016, it was reported that Russia closed its northern border checkpoint with Norway for asylum seekers to return to Russia. While the announcement was noted as closure of the border, it apparently was considering only returning asylum seekers, thus only partial closure of the border.|
|Russia||Finland||On 4 December 2015, Finland temporarily closed one of its land border crossings by lowering the border gate and blocking the road with a car. The closure was reported to only apply for asylum seekers and lasted only a couple of hours. On 27 December 2015, Finland closed its Russian border for people riding on bicycles, reportedly enforcing the rule only on Raja-Jooseppi and Salla checkpoints. Earlier, more and more asylum seekers had crossed the border on bikes.|
|Austria||Germany||Germany placed temporary travel restrictions from Austria by rail in 2015 but has imposed the least onerous restrictions for migrants entering by the Western Balkans route in 2015, in the context that Chancellor Angela Merkel had insisted that Germany will not limit the number of refugees it accepts.|
Deaths and incidents
Several serious accidents and deaths have occurred in Europe as a result of migrant smuggling, both in the Mediterranean Sea, due to the capsizing of crowded and unseaworthy migrant smuggling vessels, and on European soil, due to the use of standard cargo trucks by smugglers to transport illegal migrants. The vast majority of deaths occurred while persons were being illegally smuggled across the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas. More than 34,000 migrants and refugees have died trying to get to Europe since 1993.
After the migrant shipwreck on 19 April 2015, Italy's Premier Matteo Renzi spoke by telephone to French President François Hollande and to Maltese Prime Minister Joseph Muscat. They agreed to call for an emergency meeting of European interior ministers to address the problem of migrant deaths. Renzi condemned human trafficking as a "new slave trade" while Prime Minister Muscat said 19 April shipwreck was the "biggest human tragedy of the last few years". Hollande described people traffickers as "terrorists" who put migrant lives at risk. The German government's representative for migration, refugees and integration, Aydan Özoğuz, said that with more migrants likely to arrive as the weather turned warmer, emergency rescue missions should be restored. "It was an illusion to think that cutting off Mare Nostrum would prevent people from attempting this dangerous voyage across the Mediterranean", she said. Federica Mogherini, High Representative of the EU for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, called for collective EU action ahead of a meeting in Luxembourg on Monday 20 April.
In a press conference, Renzi confirmed that Italy had called an "extraordinary European council" meeting as soon as possible to discuss the tragedy, various European leaders agreed with this idea. Cameron tweeted on 20 April that he "supported" Renzi's "call for an emergency meeting of EU leaders to find a comprehensive solution" to the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean. He later confirmed that he would attend an emergency summit of European leaders on Thursday.
On 20 April 2015, the European Commission proposed a 10-point plan to tackle the crisis:
- Reinforce the Joint Operations in the Mediterranean, namely Triton and Poseidon, by increasing the financial resources and the number of assets. We will also extend their operational area, allowing us to intervene further, within the mandate of Frontex;
- A systematic effort to capture and destroy vessels used by the smugglers. The positive results obtained with the Atalanta operation should inspire us to similar operations against smugglers in the Mediterranean;
- Europol, Frontex, EASO and Eurojust will meet regularly and work closely to gather information on smugglers' modus operandi, to trace their funds and to assist in their investigation;
- EASO to deploy teams in Italy and Greece for joint processing of asylum applications;
- Member States to ensure fingerprinting of all migrants;
- Consider options for an emergency relocation mechanism;
- A EU wide voluntary pilot project on resettlement, offering a number of places to persons in need of protection;
- Establish a new return programme for rapid return of irregular migrants coordinated by Frontex from frontline Member States;
- Engagement with countries surrounding Libya through a joined effort between the Commission and the EEAS; Initiatives in Niger have to be stepped up.
- Deploy Immigration Liaison Officers (ILO) in key third countries, to gather intelligence on migratory flows and strengthen the role of the EU Delegations.
A year after the 10-point plan was introduced[when?], the European Commission also began the process for reforming the Common European Asylum system.
Started in 1999, the European Commission began devising a plan to create a unified asylum system for those seeking refuge and asylum. Named the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), the system sought to address three key problems which consisted of asylum shopping, differing outcomes in different EU Member States for those seeking asylum, and differing social benefits in different EU Member States for those seeking asylum.
In an attempt to address these issues, the European Commission created five components that sought to fulfill minimum standards for asylum:
- The Asylum Procedures Directive
- The Receptions Conditions Directive
- The Qualification Directive
- The Dublin regulation
- The Eurodac Regulation
Completed in 2005, the Common European Asylum System sought to protect the rights those seeking asylum. The system proved to create differing implementation across EU states, building an uneven system of twenty-eight asylum systems across individual states. Due to this divided asylum system and problems with the Dublin system, the European Commission proposed a reform of the Common European Asylum System in 2016.
Starting on 6 April 2016, the European Commission began the process of reforming the Common European Asylum System and creating measures for safe and managed paths for legal migration to Europe. First Vice-President Frans Timmermans stated that, "we need a sustainable system for the future, based on common rules, a fairer sharing of responsibility, and safe legal channels for those who need protection to get it in the EU."
The European Commission identified five areas that needed improvement in order to successfully reform the Common European Asylum System:
- Establishing a sustainable and fair system for determining the Member State responsible for asylum seekers.
- Achieving greater convergence and reducing asylum shopping.
- Preventing secondary movements within the EU.
- A new mandate for the EU's asylum agency (to allow the Asylum Support Office to have a role in implementing policy and have an operational position).
- Reinforcing the Eurodac system (to support the implementation of a reformed Dublin System).
To create safer and more efficient legal migration routes, the European Commission sought to meet the following five goals:
- A structured resettlement system.
- A reform of the EU Blue Card Directive (to enhance the admission process and increase rights).
- Measures to attract and support innovative entrepreneurs (to increase economic growth and create jobs).
- A REFIT evaluation of the existing legal migration rules (to simplify the current rules for living, working, or studying in the EU).
- Pursuing close cooperation with third countries (to create a more successful management of migrants).
On 13 July 2016, the European Commission introduced the proposals to complete the reform of the Common European Asylum System. The reform sought to create a just policy for asylum seekers, while providing a new system that was simple and shortened. Ultimately, the reform proposal attempted to create a system that could handle normal and impacted times of migratory pressure.
The European Commission's outline for reform proposed the following:
- Replace the Asylum Procedures Directive with a Regulation, which sought to create a fair and efficient common EU procedure:
- Simplify, clarify, and shorten asylum procedures.
- Ensure common guarantees for asylum seekers.
- Ensure stricter rules to combat abuse.
- Harmonize rules on safe countries.
- Replace the existing Qualification Directive with a new Regulation, which sought to unify protection standards and rights:
- Create greater convergence of recognition rates and forms or protection.
- Implement firmer rules sanctioning secondary movements.
- Provide protection only for as long as needed.
- Strengthen integration incentives.
- Reform the Reception Conditions Directive, which would allow for common reception standards for asylum seekers:
- Administer standards and indicators on reception conditions developed by the European Asylum Support Office and update contingency plans.
- Ensure asylum seekers remain available and discourage them from absconding.
- Clarify that reception conditions will only be provided in the Member State responsible.
- Grant earlier access to the labour market.
- Implement common reinforced guarantees.
As of October 2019, German Interior Minister Horst Seehofer has warned that Europe may soon face a massive inflow of refugees and migrants that will be even bigger than at the peak of the infamous crisis. Horst said that "If we do not do that we will once again face a refugee wave like in 2015 or maybe even greater", he also warned that if Europe does not find "strength to solve this problem" it could see a "loss of control" in case another crisis breaks out. The German minister's statements came amid a growing number of new arrivals at the Greek coasts. According to the UN refugee agency (UNHCR), more migrants crossed from Turkey to Greece by sea in the nine months of 2019 than in 2018. These figures are still far lower than the 2015 numbers, when Europe saw almost one million refugees.
Border patrol operations
The Guardian and Reuters noted that doubling the size of Operation Triton would still leave the mission with fewer resources than the previous Italian-run rescue option (Operation Mare Nostrum) whose budget was more than 3 times as large, had 4 times the number of aircraft and had a wider mandate to conduct search and rescue operations across the Mediterranean Sea.
On 23 April 2015, a five-hour emergency summit was held and EU heads of state agreed to triple the budget of Operation Triton to €120 million for 2015–2016. EU leaders claimed that this would allow for the same operational capabilities as Operation Mare Nostrum had had in 2013–2014. As part of the agreement the United Kingdom agreed to send HMS Bulwark, two naval patrol boats and three helicopters to join the Operation. On 5 May 2015 it was announced by the Irish Minister of Defence Simon Coveney that the LÉ Eithne would also take part in the response to the crisis. Amnesty International immediately criticised the EU response as "a face-saving not a life-saving operation" and said that "failure to extend Triton's operational area will fatally undermine today's commitment".
On 18 May 2015, the European Union decided to launch a new operation based in Rome, called EU Navfor Med, under the command of the Italian Admiral Enrico Credendino, to undertake systematic efforts to identify, capture and dispose of vessels used by migrant smugglers. The first phase of the operation, launched on 22 June, involved naval surveillance to detect smugglers' boats and monitor smuggling patterns from Libya towards Italy and Malta. The second phase, called "Operation Sophia", started in October, and was aimed at disrupting the smugglers' journeys by boarding, searching, seizing and diverting migrant vessels in international waters. The operation uses six EU warships. As of April 2016, more than 13,000 migrants were rescued from the sea and 68 alleged smugglers were arrested in the course of the operation.
The EU seeks to increase the scope of EU Navfor Med so that a third phase of the operation would include patrols inside Libyan waters in order to capture and dispose of vessels used by smugglers. Land operations on Libya to destroy vessels used by smugglers had been proposed, but commentators note that such an operation would need a UN or Libyan permit.
Relocation and resettlement of asylum seekers
The escalation in April 2015 of shipwrecks of migrant boats in the Mediterranean led European Union leaders to reconsider their policies on border control and processing of migrants. On 20 April the European Commission proposed a 10-point plan that included the European Asylum Support Office deploying teams in Italy and Greece for joint processing of asylum applications. Also in April 2015 German chancellor Angela Merkel proposed a new system of quotas to distribute non-EU asylum seekers around the EU member states.
In September 2015, as thousands of migrants started to move from Budapest to Vienna, Germany, Italy and France demanded asylum-seekers be shared more evenly between EU states. Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker proposed to distribute 160,000 asylum seekers among EU states under a new migrant quota system to be set out. Jean Asselborn, the Luxembourg foreign minister, called for the establishment of a European Refugee Agency, which would have the power to investigate whether every EU member state is applying the same standards for granting asylum to migrants. Viktor Orbán, the prime minister of Hungary, criticised the European Commission warning that "tens of millions" of migrants could come to Europe. Asselborn declared to be "ashamed" of Orbán. German Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier said that EU members reluctant to accept compulsory migrant quotas may have to be outvoted: "if there is no other way, then we should seriously consider to use the instrument of a qualified majority".
Leaders of the Visegrád Group (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia) declared in a September meeting in Prague that they will not accept any compulsory long-term quota on redistribution of immigrants. Czech Government's Secretary for European Affairs Tomáš Prouza commented that "if two or three thousand people who do not want to be here are forced into the Czech Republic, it is fair to assume that they will leave anyway. The quotas are unfair to the refugees, we can't just move them here and there like a cattle." According to the Czech interior minister Milan Chovanec, from 2 September 2015, Czech Republic was offering asylum to every Syrian caught by the police notwithstanding the Dublin Regulation: out of about 1,300 apprehended until 9 September, only 60 decided to apply for asylum in the Czech Republic, with the rest of them continuing to Germany or elsewhere.
Czech President Miloš Zeman said that Ukrainian refugees fleeing War in Donbass should be also included in migrant quotas. In November 2015, the Czech Republic started a program of medical evacuations of selected Syrian refugees from Jordan (400 in total). Under the program, severely sick children were selected for treatment in the best Czech medical facilities, with their families getting asylum, airlift and a paid flats in the Czech Republic after stating clear intent to stay in the country. However, from the initial 3 families that had been transported to Prague, one immediately fled to Germany. Czech Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka stated that this signals that quota system will not work either.
On 7 September 2015, France announced that it would accept 24,000 asylum-seekers over two years; Britain announced that it would take in up to 20,000 refugees, primarily vulnerable children and orphans from camps in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey; and Germany pledged US$6.7 billion to deal with the migrant crisis. However, also on 7 September 2015, both Austria and Germany warned that they would not be able to keep up with the current pace of the influx and that it would need to slow down first.
On 22 September 2015, European Union interior ministers meeting in the Justice and Home Affairs Council approved a plan to relocate 120,000 asylum seekers over two years from the frontline states Italy, Greece and Hungary to all other EU countries (except Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom which have opt-outs). The relocation plan applies to asylum seekers "in clear need of international protection" (those with a recognition rate higher than 75 percent, i.e. Syrians, Eritreans and Iraqis) – 15,600 from Italy, 50,400 from Greece and 54,000 from Hungary – who will be distributed among EU states on the basis of quotas taking into account the size of economy and population of each state, as well as the average number of asylum applications. The decision was taken by majority vote, with the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia voting against and Finland abstaining. Since Hungary voted against the relocation plan, its 54,000 asylum seekers would not be relocated for now, and could be relocated from Italy and Greece instead. Czech Interior Minister tweeted after the vote: "Common sense lost today." Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico is threatening legal action over EU's mandatory migrant quotas at European Court of Justice in Luxembourg. On 9 October, the first 20 Eritrean asylum seekers were relocated by plane from Italy to Sweden, following the EU prerequisite fingerprinting in Italy as the first member country of asylum registration.
On 25 October 2015, the leaders of Greece and other states along Western Balkan routes to wealthier nations of Europe, including Germany, agreed to set up holding camps for 100,000 asylum seekers, a move which German Chancellor Merkel supported.
In the wake of November 2015 Paris attacks, Poland's European affairs minister-designate Konrad Szymański stated that he sees no possibility of enacting the EU refugee relocation scheme, saying, "We'll accept [refugees only] if we have security guarantees." The attacks prompted European officials—particularly German officials—to re-evaluate their stance on EU policy toward migrants, especially in light of the ongoing European migrant crisis. Many German officials believed a higher level of scrutiny was needed, and criticised the position of German Chancellor Angela Merkel, but the German Vice-Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel defended her stance, and pointed out that a lot of migrants were fleeing terrorism.
On 15 December 2015, the EU proposed taking over the border and coastal security operations at major migrant entry pressure points, via its Frontex operation.
By 9 June 2017, 22,504 people have been resettled through the quota system, with over 2000 of them being resettled in May alone. All relevant countries participate in the relocation scheme with exception of Austria, Denmark, Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary, against whom the European commission has consequentially launched sanctions procedure only to the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary.
Externalization of border control
The externalization of borders is essentially the transferring of border controls and management to foreign countries, which are in close proximity to EU countries. The EU’s decision to externalize its borders puts significant pressure on non-EU countries to cooperate with EU political forces. Beginning in 1999, the Tampere Agenda outlines the EU’s policy on migration, presenting a certain openness towards freedom, security, and justice. This agenda focuses on two central issues, including the development of a common asylum system and the enhancement of external border controls. The Migration Partnership Framework introduced in 2016 implements greater resettlement of migrants and alternative legal routes for migration. The Migration Partnership Framework's goals aligns with the EU’s efforts throughout the refugee crisis to deflect responsibility and legal obligations away from EU member states and onto transit and origin countries.
By directing migrant flows to third countries,[clarification needed] policies place responsibilities on third countries[clarification needed]. States with insufficient resources are forced (by law) to ensure the protection of migrants’ rights, including the right to asylum. Destination states under border externalization strategies are responsible for rights violated outside their own territory. Fundamental rights of migrants can be impacted during the process of externalizing borders. For example, child migrants are recognized to have special status under international law, yet during transit, they are vulnerable to trafficking and other crimes.
EU "Safe countries of origin" list
12 EU countries have national lists of so-called safe countries of origin. The European Commission is proposing one, common EU list designating as 'safe' all EU candidate countries (Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey), plus potential EU candidates Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo. The list would allow for faster returns to those countries, even though asylum applications from nationals of those countries would continue to be assessed on an individual, case-by-case basis. International Law generated during the Geneva Convention states that a country is considered "safe" when there is a democratic system in a country and generally there is: no persecution, no torture, no threat of violence, and no armed conflict. When EU Member States designates a country as a candidate for EU membership, they must check that the country fulfills “Copenhagen criteria."The Copenhagen criteria are the following: guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities.
Valletta Summit on Migration
Between 11 and 12 November 2015, a summit between European and African leaders was held in Valletta, Malta, to discuss the migrant crisis. The summit resulted in the EU setting up an Emergency Trust Fund to promote development in Africa, in return for African countries to help out in the crisis.
Negotiations with Turkey
On 12 November 2015, at the end of the two-day summit in Malta, EU officials announced an agreement to offer Turkey €3 billion over two years to manage more than 2 million refugees from Syria who had sought refuge there, in return for curbing migration through Turkey into the EU. In November, Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan reportedly threatened to send the millions of refugees in Turkey to EU member states if it was left to shoulder the burden alone. The €3 billion fund for Turkey was approved by the EU in February 2016. In January, the Netherlands proposed that the EU take in 250,000 refugees a year from Turkey in return for Turkey closing the Aegean sea route to Greece, but Turkey rejected the plan. Starting on 7 March 2016, the EU met with Turkey for another summit in Brussels to negotiate further solutions of the crisis. An original plan saw for the closing statement to declare the Western Balkan route closed. However, this was met with criticism from German chancellor Angela Merkel.
The EU proposed to the Turkish government a plan in which Turkey would take back every refugee who entered Greece (and thereby the EU) illegally. In return, the EU would accept one person into the EU who is registered as a Syrian refugee in Turkey for every Syrian sent back from Greece. Turkey countered the offer by demanding a further €3 billion in order to help them in supplying the 2.7 million refugees in Turkey. In addition, the Turkish government asked for their citizens to be allowed to travel freely into the Schengen area starting at the end of June 2016, as well as an increased speed in talks of a possible accession of Turkey to the European Union. The plan to send migrants back to Turkey was criticized on 8 March 2016 by the United Nations, which warned that it could be illegal to send the migrants back to Turkey in exchange of financial and political rewards.
On 20 March 2016, an agreement between the European Union and Turkey, aiming to discourage migrants from making the dangerous sea journey from Turkey to Greece, came into effect. As the deal outlines, migrants arriving in Greece will be sent back to Turkey if they do not apply for asylum or their claim is rejected. Under the deal the EU would send around 2,300 experts, including security and migration officials and translators to Greece who will help implement the deal.
The deal further outlines the mechanism that any irregular migrants who will cross into Greece from Turkey after 20 March 2016 will be sent back to Turkey based on individual case by case evaluation. Any Syrian who is returned to Turkey will be replaced by a Syrian resettled from Turkey to the EU, preferably the individuals who did not try to enter the EU illegally in the past and not exceeding a maximum of 72,000 people. Turkish nationals would have access to Schengen passport-free zone by June 2016 but this will not include non-Schengen countries such as Britain. The talks aiming at Turkey's accession to the EU as a member will start in July 2016 and a promised $3.3 billion aid will speedily be delivered to Turkey.
Following the arrival of migrants from Greece to Turkey, they are given medical checks and are registered and fingerprinted, then bused to "reception and removal" centres in Ankara, Erzurum, İzmir, Gaziantep, Kayseri, Van and Kırklareli, and later deported to their home countries.
The UNHCR said it was not a party to the EU-Turkey deal and it would not be involved in returns or detention. Like the UNHCR, four aid agencies (Médecins Sans Frontières, the International Rescue Committee, the Norwegian Refugee Council and Save the Children) said they would not help implementing the EU-Turkey deal because blanket expulsion of refugees contravened international law.
Amnesty International said that the agreement between EU and Turkey was "madness", and that the day (18 March 2016) was a dark day for Refugee Convention, Europe and humanity. By contrast, Turkish prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu described the day as a historic day, adding that Turkey and EU had the same challenges, the same future and the same destiny. Donald Tusk said that the migrants in Greece would not be sent back to dangerous areas.
Following Turkish-EU tensions, Turkey warned about canceling the deal. In April 2016, Turkish President Erdoğan threatened to allow the EU-Turkey deal to collapse. Erdoğan said: "We have received lots of thanks for our action on the refugees and in the fight against terrorism. But we are not doing this for thanks." The UNHCR's director Vincent Cochetel claimed in August 2016 that parts of the EU-Turkey deal about immigration were already de facto suspended due to the post-coup absence of Turkish police at the Greek detention centres, as there were no officers to oversee deportations. On 17 March 2017, Turkish interior minister Süleyman Soylu threatened to send 15,000 refugees to the European Union every month while Turkish foreign minister Mevlut Cavusoglu has also threatened to cancel the March 2016 EU-Turkey migrant deal. A similar threat was raised as the European Parliament voted to suspend EU membership talks with Turkey in November 2016: "if you go any further," Erdoğan declared, "these border gates will be opened. Neither me nor my people will be affected by these dry threats."
On 9 October 2019, the Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria began. Within the first week and a half 130,000 people were displaced. On 10 October it was reported that President Erdoğan had threatened to send "millions" of Syrian refugees to Europe in response to criticism of his military offensive into Kurdish-controlled northern Syria. 
Effects on Dublin and Schengen rules
Under the Dublin Regulation, an asylum seeker has to apply for asylum in the first EU country they entered, and, if they cross borders to another country after being fingerprinted, they can be returned to the former. As most asylum seekers try to reach Germany or Sweden through the other EU countries in order to apply for asylum there, and as 22 EU countries form the borderless Schengen area where internal border controls are abolished, enforcement of the Dublin Regulation became increasingly difficult during late summer 2015, with some countries allowing asylum seekers to transit through their territories and other countries renouncing the right to return them back or reinstating border controls within the Schengen Area to prevent them from entering.
- Hungary became overburdened by asylum applications and on 23 June 2015 it stopped receiving back its applicants who later crossed the borders to other EU countries and were detained there.
- On 24 August 2015, according to article 17 of the Dublin III Regulations Germany decided to suspend the general procedure as regards Syrian refugees and to process their asylum applications directly itself. The change in Germany asylum policy incited large numbers of migrants to move towards Germany, especially after German chancellor Merkel stated that "there is no legal limit to refugee numbers". Austria was meanwhile allowing unimpeded travel of migrants from Hungary to Germany through its own territory.
- On 2 September 2015, the Czech Republic also decided to defy the Dublin Regulation and to offer Syrian refugees who have already applied for asylum in other EU countries and who reach the country to either have their application processed in the Czech Republic or to continue their journey elsewhere. The rules regarding immigrants of other nationalities were not changed—i.e., they would still face detention and return under the Dublin Regulation if trying to reach Germany through the Czech Republic (unless they had the right to apply for asylum in the Czech Republic).
- On 7 September, Austria announced it would phase out special measures that have allowed tens of thousands of migrants to cross its territory and will reinstate the Dublin Regulation.
- Between 9 and 10 September, Denmark closed rail lines with Germany, after hundreds of migrants refused to be registered in the country as asylum seekers and insisted on continuing their travel to Sweden.
- On 13 September, Germany established temporary border controls along its border with Austria, in order to "limit the current inflows" and "return to orderly procedures when people enter the country" according to German Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière. The Czech Republic reacted by increasing police presence along its border with Austria in order to be able to react if the mass of migrants that was in Austria tried to reach Germany through the Czech Republic. Czech police did not establish actual border control like Germany, but conducted random searches of vehicles and trains within the Czech territory not far from the border, with cars and helicopters patrolling also alongside the green border. Some Czech police officers were stationed also within Austria in order to give advance warning in case large numbers of migrants moved towards the Austrian–Czech borders.
- On 14 September, Austria established border controls alongside its border with Hungary. Austria deployed not only police officers, but also the army along its border. Hungary also deployed army personnel along its border with Serbia and announced that from 15 September, all people who illegally enter the Hungarian territory of Schengen area will be arrested and face from 3 to 5 years imprisonment. Following Austrian chancellor Werner Faymann's remarks that Hungary's treatment of refugees is akin to Nazi policies, Hungary started transporting refugees by buses directly to the borderline with Austria, where they were offloaded and were then trying to cross to Austria on foot.
- On 15 September it was reported that migrants in southern Hungary have started a hunger strike protesting the closure of the green border with Serbia.
- On 16 September it was reported that Hungarian police had used tear gas and a water cannon on protesting migrants demanding the opening of the green border, after they had thrown stones and concrete at the riot police.
- On 17 September, Croatia closed its border with Serbia.
- In July 2017, the European Court of Justice upheld the Dublin Regulation declaring it still stands despite the high influx of 2015, giving EU member states the right to deport migrants to the first country of entry to the EU.
EU member states
Austria – On 6 August 2015, Amnesty International Secretary General Heinz Patzelt inspected the refugee camp Bundesbetreuungsstelle in Traiskirchen where more than 4,800 migrants/refugees are housed. Medical expert Siroos Mirzaei from Amnesty International noted that the people had to wait for days in order to get medical help, this due to the vast number of people received over a short period of time. The report also stated that four doctors were present at the refugee camp and that showers and some hygienic facilities were in disrepair. Patzelt claimed, "Austria is currently violating human rights and should focus on unattended children and minors".
Bulgaria – Bulgaria built a fence along its border with Turkey to prevent migrants from crossing through its territory in order to reach other EU countries. The fence is equipped with infrared cameras, motion sensors and wire, and is monitored by the army.
Croatia – Croatia will receive 1,064 migrants in the next two years from 2015 according to the EU plan. Croatia was originally supposed to receive 505 migrants, but decided to accept more—which makes it the only country in the EU, along with Estonia, which has done so. On 29 August 2015 a Croatian daily newspaper Jutarnji list published an interview with a "senior government official" who said that the Croatian Government formed an interdepartmental working group that is working on a plan on how to accept these migrants. Croatia will in October 2015 send its delegation to the migrants' camps in Italy and Greece, which will choose immigrants from Syria and Eritrea that Croatia will accept. Criteria for the selection will be: 1. any kind of connection to Croatia, such as family in Croatia or a diploma from one of the Croatian Universities (while Croatia was member of Yugoslavia, many foreigners from Non-Aligned Movement countries, especially Syrians, were coming to Croatia to study), 2. education in occupations that are in demand in Croatia, and 3. families with small children. In addition, Croatia shares a land border with Serbia. Therefore, there is a risk of a strong inflow of migrants from Serbia considering that Hungary erected a fence on its border with Serbia. Nearly 80 percent of the border consists of the Danube river, but the problem is the 70 kilometers long so-called "Green Border" near Tovarnik. According to the Croatian Minister of Interior Ranko Ostojić "police in the area has enough people and equipment to protect Croatian border against illegal immigrants". Croatian President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and First Deputy Prime Minister Vesna Pusić rejected the option of building a fence on Croatian border with Serbia. Grabar-Kitarović has accused German Chancellor Angela Merkel of causing "chaos". In expectancy of possible new migrant wave that might activate in winter of 2016, President Grabar-Kitarović stated on 21 September 2016 before the UN General Assembly that "if a new migrant wave reaches Croatian borders, Croatia would not let migrants pass through its territory" because Croatia needed to protect its territory, adding that it turned out that over 85 percent of them were economic migrants and not genuine refugees.
Czech Republic – Czech Republic will receive 4,306 refugees according to quotas accepted by the European Commission. Prime Minister Bohuslav Sobotka said the European Commission had failed in solving the crisis and expressed disagreement with proposed quotas saying: "We reject the system of quotas. I do not consider it effective, I do not think it would help bring any solution. It makes no sense to discuss any numbers for now". He said Europe needs to complete what the European Council has agreed in the past and not to create new plans and proposals. He supports the idea of creating hotspots in Italy or Greece. Czech President Miloš Zeman has expressed his dissatisfaction with the mass inflow of migrants to Europe on several occasions. In late August 2015 in an interview for radio "Frekvence 1" he said: "The reception of migrants from the Middle East and Northern Africa to the territory of Czech Republic brings with it three major risks – spread of infectious diseases, terrorism of the Islamic state and the creation of new ghettos." According to his opinion the majority of refugees are actually economic migrants that are not fleeing war. The President also thinks that migrants that are crossing Czech territory in order to go to Germany will stay in Czech Republic when Germany eventually stops accepting them, "which would then make Czech Republic to defend its boundaries with the police and army".
Czech Deputy Prime Minister Andrej Babiš called for NATO intervention against human trafficking in the Mediterranean. After talks with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg on migrant crisis issue Babiš said: "NATO is not interested in refugees, though Turkey, a NATO member, is their entrance gate to Europe and smugglers operate on Turkish territory". Opposition TOP09's Miroslav Kalousek said that "confident and wealthy countries such as the Czech Republic should not be afraid to accept 3,000 refugees" and accused President Zeman of giving rise to hatred to refugees; however he also shares disagreement with proposed quotas. Former Minister of Foreign Affairs Karel Schwarzenberg has said that accepting 80,000 refugees would be suitable. Minister of Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Jiří Dienstbier said the country is able to accept 7,000 —15,000 refugees now and should express solidarity and help other countries facing the strongest influx of refugees without quotas.
Denmark – Denmark temporarily closed rail links with Germany in September to stop migrants from illegally entering the country, and the E45 Motorway due to migrants on the road. Denmark used the second highest amount on asylum seekers among European nations in 2015, compared to GDP (0.47 percent of GDP, after Sweden at 0.5 percent, followed by Germany and Italy at 0.2 percent, with remaining lower). This is expected to rise in 2016. In December 2015, the Danish Government announced that it would introduce new laws that will allow confiscation of cash above 3,000 DKK (c. €402) and valuables worth more than 3,000 DKK from asylum seekers to pay the cost of their stay. Items of sentimental value (such as wedding rings, personal mobile phones and personal laptops) would not be taken. In January 2016, the limit was changed to 10,000 DKK (c. €1,340) and the law was passed. Similar laws already exist in Switzerland (limit 1,000 Swiss francs [c. €913]), the Netherlands (limit €5,895) and some federal states of Germany (limit varies, €750 in Bavaria and €350 in Baden-Württemberg). The Danish law was condemned from several sides, including by the UNHCR, and caused one Danish politician, Jens Rohde, to defect from the Venstre party to the Social Liberal Party. The Danish Police said that this would be unenforceable and a review two months after the law came into effect showed that there had been no confiscations.
Finland – Many migrants arrived over the land border from Sweden. They were stopped from using ferries by carrier's responsibility rules. On 14 September, a former prime minister Matti Vanhanen noted that the government needed to regain control on who enters the country and to divert asylum seekers to special camps. He did not think that it would be appropriate that the asylum seekers could continue to freely move around. Later on the same day, the Minister of the Interior Petteri Orpo, who is also a member of the National Coalition Party, noted that tightened border controls would be imposed on the northern border stations by the end of the week. On 14 November 2015 Finnish prime minister Juha Sipilä noted that border controls need to be tightened and he expressed his concern that Schengen Agreement and freedom of movement was not working. He stressed, that border controls will be restored if Schengen agreement is not fixed. Furthermore, he noted, that Finnish National Bureau of Investigation will improve its cyber surveillance. On the same day Finnish President Sauli Niinistö (elected from the National Coalition Party) was referred to have noted that national solutions needed to be formed if the Schengen agreement could not be repaired.
France – On 23 September 2015, after the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia voted against a plan to relocate asylum-seekers arriving in Greece, Italy and Hungary among other member states, French President François Hollande warned the four former Eastern Bloc countries against rejecting the EU mandatory migrant quotas: "Those who don't share our values, those who don't even want to respect those principles, need to start asking themselves questions about their place in the European Union."
Germany – Junior coalition partner, Vice Chancellor Sigmar Gabriel said that Germany could take in 500,000 refugees annually for the next several years. German opposition to the government's admission of the new wave of migrants has been an increasingly tense political debate, coupled with a rise in anti-immigration protests. Pegida, an anti-immigration movement flourished briefly in late 2014, followed by a new wave of anti-immigration protests in the late summer of 2015. Chancellor Angela Merkel insisted that Germany has the economic strength to cope with the influx of migrants and reiterated that there is no legal maximum limit on the number of migrants Germany can take. In September 2015, enthusiastic crowds across the country welcomed arriving refugees and migrants.
Horst Seehofer, leader of the Christian Social Union in Bavaria (the sister party of Merkel's Christian Democratic Union) and then Bavarian Minister President, attacked Merkel's policies in sharp language, threatened to sue the government in the high court, and hinted that the CSU might topple Merkel. Many MPs of Merkel's CDU party also voiced dissatisfaction with Merkel. Seehofer criticised Merkel's decision to allow in migrants, saying that "we're now in a state of mind without rules, without system and without order because of a German decision." Seehofer estimated as many as 30 percent of asylum seekers arriving in Germany claiming to be from Syria are in fact from other countries, and suggested to reduce EU funding for member countries that reject mandatory refugee quotas. The Bavarian Interior Minister Joachim Herrmann (CSU) accused the Berlin government of pushing its policy forward without consulting the federal states, which would have had to cope with the consequences.
Meanwhile, Yasmin Fahimi, secretary-general of the Social Democratic Party, the junior partner of the ruling coalition, praised Merkel's policy allowing migrants in Hungary to enter Germany as "a strong signal of humanity to show that Europe's values are valid also in difficult times". North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany's most populous state, was hiring more than 3,600 new teachers to manage the influx of an estimated 40,000 new refugee children in 2015.
In November 2015, there were talks inside the governing coalition to stop family unification for migrants for two years, and to establish "Transit Zones" on the border and – for migrants with low chances to get asylum approved – to be housed there until their application is approved. The issues are in conflict between the CSU who favours those new measures and threaten to leave the coalition without them, and the SPD who opposes them. Merkel has agreed to the measures. The November 2015 Paris attacks prompted reevaluation of German officials' stance on the EU's policy toward migrants. There appeared to be a consensus among officials, with the notable exception of Angela Merkel herself, that a higher level of scrutiny was needed in vetting migrants with respect to their mission in Germany. However, while not officially limiting the influx numerically, Merkel has tightened asylum policy in Germany.
Hungary – Hungary has finished construction of the first phase of a fence on its southern border with Serbia in late August 2015, according to the Hungarian Ministry of Defence. The fence consists of three strands of NATO razor wire, and is 175 kilometers long. The next phase involves construction of a wire fence which will be approximately 4 meters high. In August, describing Hungary as, "under siege from human traffickers", Minister of the Prime Minister's Office János Lázár announced that the government would "defend this stretch of our borders with force", deploying 9,000 police to keep undocumented migrants out.
Hungary's Prime Minister Viktor Orbán wrote in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: "Europe's response is madness. We must acknowledge that the European Union's misguided immigration policy is responsible for this situation". Orbán also demanded an official EU list of "safe countries" to which migrants can be returned. He said that "the moral, human thing is to make clear: 'Please don't come. Why do you have to go from Turkey to Europe? Turkey is a safe country. Stay there. It's risky to come'." Hungary has adopted a list of countries deemed safe for transiting purposes. If an asylum seeker has passed through those countries, it is assumed that he could have found asylum there, and therefore he is not eligible for asylum in Hungary. Speaking at United Nations General Assembly, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán called for "global quota" system to distribute refugees to all countries.
Italy – Some Italian towns and cities have refused instructions from the national government to house migrants. The Mafia Capitale investigation revealed that the Italian Mafia profits from the migrant crisis and exploits refugees. Pope Francis thanked the Italian navy for migrant rescue effort.
The murder of Ashley Ann Olsen in her Italian apartment by an illegal immigrant from Senegal rapidly acquired political significance in the context of the European migrant crisis. The police chief of Florence addressed safety worries, "assuring the public that Florence remained safe" in the wake of the Olsen murder.
Latvia – Latvia decided to receive 250 migrants in the next two years according to the EU plan. National Alliance party expressed its disapproval of such decision. On 4 August 2015 around 250 activists gathered in Riga on a protest against Government's decision on receiving migrants.
Lithuania – Lithuania decided to receive 325 migrants, although after the increase of migrant flow in August 2015, its government did not discount the possibility of accepting a greater number of migrants later in the same year.
Malta – Prime Minister Joseph Muscat called the crisis "an ugly period" for Europe, and said that Malta will take in 75 migrants from Italy and Greece. He also called for a 'global system of refugee quotas'.
Poland – In 2015, just before the parliamentary elections that were to happen that year, government officials with then Prime Minister Ewa Kopacz stated that the country was ready to take 2,000 refugees. However, after the Law and Justice party won the elections, the rhetoric was changed. Both the government of Poland and President Andrzej Duda rejected the European Union's proposal of compulsory migrant quotas, the latter stating: "I won't agree to a dictate of the strong. I won't back a Europe where the economic advantage of the size of a population will be a reason to force solutions on other countries regardless of their national interests".
Portugal – In the next two years, Portugal is willing to offer shelter to 1,500 of the refugees flooding into Europe from the Mediterranean Sea. A source has told Diário de Notícias that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has already presented its counter-proposal to the European Commission (EC), which wanted Portugal to absorb 2,400 refugees.
Romania – The European Commission asked Romania to accept 6,351 refugees under an EU quota scheme. The EurActiv reported that "Romanian Prime Minister Victor Ponta said that his country will request admission to the EU's Schengen borderless area if mandatory quotas to accept refugees are decided by the Union".
Slovakia – Government of Slovakia stated that it would help with migration into Europe by receiving 200 migrants according to the EU plan, but on condition that the migrants are Christians. Slovak Prime Minister Robert Fico said: "I have only one question: who bombed Libya? Who caused problems in North Africa? Slovakia? No!" The Prime Minister proposed temporary refuge in his country for 500 migrants who have submitted requests for asylum in Austria, whose accommodation for refugees is overfilled, but as for 200 migrants that Slovakia will receive according to the EU plan, requires that these 500 are Christians as well. On 15 September 2015, Fico was reported saying that all crossing the border illegally would be detained. Fico rejected European Commission plan to distribute migrants among EU member states, saying: "As long as I am prime minister, mandatory quotas will not be implemented on Slovak territory." S&D Group leader has proposed to suspend Fico's SMER party from the Party of European Socialists (PES).
Sweden – As of 26 November, Sweden had received 146,000 asylum seekers in 2015, with a record of 39,000 applications in October. Most asylum seekers were Afghan, followed by Syrians and Iraqis. In the beginning of November, the authorities warned they could no longer offer housing to all asylum seekers and on 12 November temporary border control was enacted (on the Swedish side) which reduced the number of migrants somewhat (migrants could still apply for asylum). On 26 November 2015, Prime Minister Stefan Löfven said the system for welcoming migrants was about to collapse and that the cabinet would propose major new restrictions and measures to reduce the inflow of migrants. He called on other European countries to take more responsibility. The government in December decided to introduce "carrier's responsibility" for trains and buses on the Öresund bridge which would introduce Swedish de facto border controls on the Danish side.
United Kingdom – British Home Secretary Theresa May said that it was important to help people living in war zone regions and refugee camps, "not the ones who are strong and rich enough to come to Europe". British UKIP politician Nigel Farage stated that the exodus from Libya had been caused by NATO military intervention, approved by David Cameron and Nicolas Sarkozy, in the civil war in Libya.
In September 2015, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg identified "a need for immediate measures, border, migrant, the discussion about quotas, so on – this is civilian issues, addressed by the European Union." Czech Deputy Prime Minister Andrej Babiš said in reaction, "According to the NATO chief, the problem of refugees is a problem of the EU and the border protection and the fight against people smugglers is in the power of particular EU member states."
The Russian Federation released an official statement on 2 September 2015 that the United Nations Security Council was working on a draft resolution to address the European migrant crisis, likely by permitting the inspection of suspected migrant ships.
The International Organization for Migration claimed that deaths at sea increased ninefold after the end of Operation Mare Nostrum. Amnesty International condemned European governments for "negligence towards the humanitarian crisis in the Mediterranean" which they say led to an increase in deaths at sea.
In April 2015, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch criticised the funding of search and rescue operations. Amnesty International said that the EU was "turning its back on its responsibilities and clearly threatening thousands of lives".
Australian PM Tony Abbott said the tragedies were "worsened by Europe's refusal to learn from its own mistakes and from the efforts of others who have handled similar problems. Destroying the criminal people-smugglers was the centre of gravity of our border control policies, and judicious boat turnbacks was the key."
In July 2013, Pope Francis visited the island of Lampedusa on his first official visit outside of Rome. He prayed for migrants, living and dead and denounced their traffickers. He expressed his concern about the loss of life and urged EU leaders to "act decisively and quickly to stop these tragedies from recurring".
Former U.S. President Barack Obama praised Germany for taking a leading role in accepting refugees. During his April 2016 visit to Germany, Obama praised German Chancellor Angela Merkel for being on "the right side of history" with her open-border immigration policy.
In a report released in January 2016, Médecins Sans Frontières denounced the EU response to the refugee crisis in 2015, saying that policies of deterrence and a chaotic response to the humanitarian needs of those who fled actively worsened the conditions of refugees and migrants and created a "policy-made humanitarian crisis". According to MSF, obstacles placed by EU governments included "not providing any alternative to a deadly sea crossing, erecting razor wire fences, continuously changing administrative and registration procedures, committing acts of violence at sea and at land borders and providing completely inadequate reception conditions in Italy and Greece".
In March 2016, NATO General Philip Breedlove stated, "Together, Russia and the Assad regime are deliberately weaponizing migration in an attempt to overwhelm European structures and break European resolve. .. These indiscriminate weapons used by both Bashar al-Assad, and the non-precision use of weapons by the Russian forces – I can't find any other reason for them other than to cause refugees to be on the move and make them someone else's problem." He also claimed that criminals, extremists and fighters were hiding in the flow of migrants.
Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev said: "It's quite simply stupid to open Europe's doors wide and invite in everyone who wants to come to your country. European migration policy is a total failure, all that is absolutely frightening."
On 18 June 2016, United Nations chief Ban Ki-moon praised Greece for showing "remarkable solidarity and compassion" towards refugees and he also called for international support. The lack of action of UNESCO in this area, until now, is subject of a controversy. Some scholars, as António Silva, blame this UN institution not to denounce racism against war refugees in Europe with the same vigor as the vandalism against ancient monuments perpetrated by fundamentalists in the Middle East. They also accuse the organization to contribute to the emerging process of fetishization of the cultural heritage, forgetting that it should be used primarily as an instrument in the fight against racism, as openly declared the authors of the constitutive charter of the institution in 1945.
In November 2016, the Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Monitor issued a report regarding the humanitarian situation of migrants into Greece. It hosts 16.209 migrants on its island and 33.650 migrants on the mainland, most of whom are women and children. Because of lack of water, medical care and security protection witnessed by the Euro- Med monitor team- especially with the arrival of winter, they are at risk of serious deterioration in health, mostly children and pregnant women. 1,500 refugees were, accordingly, moved into other places since their camps were deluged with snow, but relocation of the refugees always came too late after they lived without electricity and heating devices for too long. It also showed that there is a lack of access to legal services and security protection to the refugees and migrants in the camps; there is no trust between the resident and the protection offices, paving a path for some people to report crimes and illegal acts in the camps. In addition, the migrants are subject to regular xenophobic attacks, fascist violence, forced strip searches at the hands of residents and police and detention. The women living in the Athens settlements and the Vasilika, Softex and Diavata camps feel worried about their children as they may be subjected to sexual abuse, trafficking and drug use. As a result, some of the refugees and migrants commit suicide, burn property and protest. Finally, it clarified the difficulties the refugees face when entering into Greece; more than 16,000 people are trapped while waiting for deportation on the Greek islands of Lesvos, Chios, Samos, Leros and Kos, and the number of residents is double the capacity of the five islands.
According to Reuters, most migrants setting sail from Libya did so in vessels operated by people smugglers. As of September 2018, one in five migrants attempting to cross the Mediterranean Sea from Libya has either drowned or disappeared.
In August 2017 the Libyan Coast Guard issued a declaration that NGO search and rescue vessels must stay outside a zone running 360 km (190 nautical miles) from the Libyan coast unless given express permission to enter. This zone is 10 nautical miles less than the Libyan Exclusive Economic Zone, The coast guard statement criticised the NGO vessels from approaching the Libyan coastline to a distance of as little as 10-13 nautical miles, which is inside the Libyan territorial waters. As a result, NGOs MSF, Save the Children and Sea Eye suspended their operations after clashes where the Libyan coastguard asserted its sovereignty of its waters by firing warning shots.
Slavoj Žižek identifies a "double blackmail" in the debate on the migrant crisis: those who argue Europe's borders should be entirely opened to refugees, and those who argue that the borders should be closed completely.
European People's Party
European Commissioner for Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship, Dimitris Avramopoulos, said that the European Commission "does not care about the political cost" of its handling of the migration crisis, because it's there for five years to do its job "with vision, responsibility and commitment" and what drives it "is not to be re-elected", and invited European national leaders to do likewise and stop worrying about reelection.
On 31 August 2015, according to The New York Times, Angela Merkel, German Chancellor and leader of the Christian Democratic Union, in some of her strongest language theretofore on the immigrant crisis, warned that freedom of travel and open borders among the 28 member states of the EU could be jeopardised if they did not agree on a shared response to this crisis.
Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republicans and former French president, compared EU migrant plan to "mending a burst pipe by spreading water round the house while leaving the leak untouched". Following German Chancellor Angela Merkel's decision to allow tens of thousands of people to enter Germany, Sarkozy criticised her, saying that it would attract even greater numbers of people to Europe, where a significant part would "inevitably" end up in France due to the EU's free movement policies and the French welfare state. He also demanded that the Schengen agreement on borderless travel should be replaced with a new agreement providing border checks for non-EU citizens.
Party of European Socialists
Italian Prime Minister and Secretary of the Italian Democratic Party Matteo Renzi said the EU should forge a single European policy on asylum. French Prime Minister Manuel Valls of the French Socialist Party stated, "There must be close cooperation between the European Commission and member states as well as candidate members." Sergei Stanishev, President of the Party of European Socialists, stated:
At this moment, more people in the world are displaced by conflict than at any time since the Second World War. ... Many die on the approach to Europe – in the Mediterranean – yet others perish on European soil. ... As social democrats the principle of solidarity is the glue that keeps our family together. ... We need a permanent European mechanism for fairly distributing asylum-seekers in European member states. ... War, poverty and the stark rise in inequality are global, not local problems. As long as we do not address these causes globally, we cannot deny people the right to look for a more hopeful future in a safer environment.
Nigel Farage, leader of the British anti-EU United Kingdom Independence Party and co-leader of the eurosceptic Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group, blamed the EU "and Germany in particular" for giving "huge incentives for people to come to the European Union by whatever means" and said that this would make deaths more likely. He claimed that the EU's Schengen agreement on open borders had failed and that Islamists could exploit the situation and enter Europe in large numbers, saying that "one of the ISIL terrorist suspects who committed the first atrocity against holidaymakers in Tunisia has been seen getting off a boat onto Italian soil". In 2013, Farage had called on the UK government to accept more Syrian refugees, before clarifying that those refugees should be Christian due to the existence of nearer places of refuge for Muslims. Marine Le Pen, leader of the French far-right National Front and co-president of the former Europe of Nations and Freedom (EMF) grouping, accused Germany of looking to hire "slaves" by opening its doors to large numbers of asylum seekers among a debate in Germany whether there should be exceptions to the recently introduced minimum wage law for refugees. Le Pen also accused Germany of imposing its immigration policy on the rest of the EU unilaterally. Her comments were reported by the German and Austrian press, and were called "abstruse claims" by the online edition of Der Spiegel. Centreright daily Die Welt wrote that she "exploits the refugee crisis for anti-German propaganda".
Geert Wilders, the leader of the Dutch Party for Freedom (a member of the former EMF grouping), who is known for his criticism of Islam, called the influx of people an "Islamic invasion" during a debate in the Dutch parliament, speaking about "masses of young men in their twenties with beards singing Allahu Akbar across Europe". He also dismissed the idea that people arriving in Western Europe via the Balkans are genuine refugees, stating: "Turkey, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia are safe countries. If you flee them then you are doing it for benefits and a house."
Future of the Crisis
While data recorded by various bodies and organizations including the UNHCR, IOM and Frontex shows that the overall numbers of immigrants entering Europe has significantly decreased, suggesting that the peak of the crisis has passed, ease of access via the West Mediterranean route has boosted migrant numbers from Africa, with preference being given to Spain over Italy or Greece as a landing point.
Michael Møller, Director of the United Nations office in Geneva, said: "Young people all have cellphones and they can see what's happening in other parts of the world, and that acts as a magnet." In August 2017, various world leaders, including Angela Merkel and Emmanuel Macron, met in Paris to devise policies that would combat this situation. Since poverty and lack of education are the biggest push factors prompting migration from Africa to the EU, obstacles like perilous journeys and harsh living conditions at the destination are unlikely to deter African migrants.The crisis is experiencing a lull after the first explosion, and is soon headed toward the next stage of illegal immigration.
Klaus Schwab, founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum, Warned the Refugee Crisis Could Be Precursor to Something Much Bigger. saying As the crash in commodities prices spreads economic woe across the developing world, Europe could face a wave of migration that will eclipse today's refugee crisis. adding Look how many countries in Africa, for example, depend on the income from oil exports, Schwab said in an interview ahead of the WEF's 46th annual meeting, in the Swiss resort of Davos. Now imagine 1 billion inhabitants, imagine they all move north.
In a report ordered by UNHCR and authored by the Cardiff School of Journalism, analysis was made of media reports in five European countries: Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden. In the period 2014 to the early months of 2015, UNHCR and other humanitarian launched a series of large media advocacy exercises. Significant discrepancies were noted in the response to the campaign in other media for the same period. Differences included:
- There differences in the kind of sources journalists used for their articles, such as domestic or foreign politicians, citizens or NGOs.
- The language used: Germany and Sweden overwhelmingly used terms refugee or asylum seeker while Italy and UK preferred the term migrant. In Spain, the dominant term was immigrant.
- The reasons given for the increase in refugee flows.
- Suggested solutions.
- The predominant themes: threats to welfare systems and cultural threats were most prevalent in Italy, Spain and Britain while humanitarian themes were more frequent in Italian coverage.
- Overall the Swedish press was most positive towards the arrivals, while UK press was both the most negative and the most polarised.
Press coverage of German migration policies
Analyst Will Hutton for the British newspaper The Guardian on 30 August 2015 praised Merkel's decisions on migration policies: "Angela Merkel's humane stance on migration is a lesson to us all… The German leader has stood up to be counted. Europe should rally to her side… She wants to keep Germany and Europe open, to welcome legitimate asylum seekers in common humanity, while doing her very best to stop abuse and keep the movement to manageable proportions. Which demands a European-wide response (…)".
Analyst Naina Bajekal for the United States' magazine Time in September 2015 suggested that the German decision, late August 2015, to allow Syrian refugees to apply for asylum in Germany even if they had reached Germany through other EU member states, has led to increased numbers of refugees from Syria and other regions – Afghanistan, Somalia, Iraq, Ukraine, Congo, South Sudan etc. – endeavouring to reach (Western) Europe.
An analyst for the British newspaper The Daily Telegraph in March 2016 labeled the decisions of the German Chancellor Angela Merkel in 2015 concerning migration policies as "open door policy" and "welcoming refugees", which he condemned as "encouraging migration into Europe that her own country is unwilling to absorb" and as damaging the EU, "perhaps terminally".
- African immigration to Europe
- Death of Alan Kurdi
- Demographics of Europe
- Emigration from Africa
- EU Malta Declaration
- Illegal immigration
- Immigration to Greece
- List of migrant vessel incidents on the Mediterranean Sea
- Migrants' African routes
- Petra László tripping incident
- With Open Gates
- Wir schaffen das
- Data for the rest of the year 2015 can be found in the Eurostat Asylum quarterly report.
- "Asylum quarterly report – Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu.
- "Europe migrant crisis". BBC News. 4 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Ruz, Camila (28 August 2015). "The battle over the words used to describe migrants". BBC News. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Europe's Migration Crisis". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Rachman, Gideon (3 September 2015). "Refugees or migrants – what's in a word?". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- Smith-Spark, Laura (5 September 2015). "European migrant crisis: A country-by-country glance". CNN. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
- "Europe's African Refugee Crisis: Is the Boat Really Full?". Der Spiegel. 15 April 2014.
- "UNHCR chief issues key guidelines for dealing with Europe's refugee crisis". UNHCR."This is a primarily refugee crisis, not only a migration phenomenon".
- "European Refugee Crisis 2015: Why So Many People Are Fleeing The Middle East And North Africa". International Business Times. 3 September 2015.
- "What You Need to Know About Europe's Refugee Crisis: Q&A". Bloomberg. 8 September 2015.
- "EU migrant crisis: facts and figures | News | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
- "Migrant crisis: Migration to Europe explained in seven charts". BBC News. 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- Marozzi, Marco (2015). "Construction, Robustness Assessment and Application of an Index of Perceived Level of Socio-economic Threat from Immigrants: A Study of 47 European Countries and Regions". Social Indicators Research. 128: 413–437. doi:10.1007/s11205-015-1037-z.
- Jennifer Rankin (6 March 2019). "EU declares migration crisis over as it hits out at 'fake news'". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 November 2019.
- "UNHCR viewpoint: 'Refugee' or 'migrant' – Which is right?". UNHCR."The majority of people arriving this year in Italy and Greece especially have been from countries mired in war or which otherwise are considered to be 'refugee-producing' and for whom international protection is needed. However, a smaller proportion is from elsewhere, and for many of these individuals, the term 'migrant' would be correct."
- "Refugee crisis: apart from Syrians, who is travelling to Europe?". The Guardian. 10 September 2015.
- "Europe's Migration Crisis". Council on Foreign Relations.
- Delauney, Guy (8 September 2015). "Migrant crisis: Explaining the exodus from the Balkans". BBC News. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "Population growth is part of migrant crisis".
- Correspondent, Fiona Harvey Environment (21 December 2017). "Devastating climate change could lead to 1m migrants a year entering EU by 2100". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- "Want To Reduce Migration? Spend Money On Climate Change, Not Border Security". Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- "A provocative new study says climate change will make Europe's migrant crisis even worse". Retrieved 24 December 2018.
- "German spy agency says ISIS sending fighters disguised as refugees". Reuters. 5 February 2017. Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "Tracing the path of four terrorists sent to Europe by the Islamic State". Washington Post. 22 April 2016. Retrieved 25 June 2017.
- "Monthly Arrivals by Nationality to Greece, Italy and Spain". Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response - Mediterranean. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "Over 1 million arrivals in Europe by sea: UNHCR". Business Standard. 30 December 2015.
- "Mediterranean Crisis 2015 at six months: refugee and migrant numbers highest on record". UNHCR. 1 July 2015.
- "UNHCR Global Trends –Forced Displacement in 2014". UNHCR. 18 June 2015.
- Rod Nordland (31 October 2015). "A Mass Migration Crisis, and It May Yet Get Worse". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
- Bréville, Benoît (1 November 2018). "Immigration, un débat biaisé". Le Monde diplomatique.
- "Immigration in the EU" (PDF). European Commission.
- "Study on the Feasibility of Establishing a Mechanism for the Relocation of Beneficiaries of International Protection" (PDF). European Commission. July 2010. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- "Record number of over 1.2 million first time asylum seekers registered in 2015". EUROSTAT.
- "Number of refugees reaching Europe plunged in 2016". www.aljazeera.com.
- Nebehay, Stephanie (5 January 2018). "Half as many migrants landed in Europe in 2017 as 2016: IOM". Reuters. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- "Schengen: Controversial EU free movement deal explained". BBC News. 14 September 2015.
- "EU floats new asylum system, seeks to stop 'asylum shopping'". 13 July 2016.
- "EU legal framework on asylum and irregular immigration 'on arrival'" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service.
- "Asylum in the EU: Facts and Figures" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service.
- "Dublin regulation leaves asylum seekers with their fingers burnt". The Guardian. 7 October 2011.
- "Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council" (PDF). 4 June 2016.
- "EU Legislation in Process: Reform of the Dublin System" (PDF).
- "Addressing Migration in the European Union: Selected publications by the European Parliamentary Research Service" (PDF).
- "Legislative train schedule | European Parliament". European Parliament. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- Official Journal L 239, 22 September 2000. (The Schengen acquis – Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement)
- "Carrieri sanctions". European Council on Refugees and Exiles. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016.
- "COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2001/51/EC supplementing the provisions of Article 26 of the Convention implementing the Schengen Agreement".
- Refugee crisis: Smugglers offer 'Bad weather discount' to migrants (International Business Times, 25 October 2015)
- Europe’s Refugee Crisis, An Agenda for Action (Human Rights Watch, 16 November 2015)
- "Analysis of the external dimension of the EU's asylum and immigration policies" (PDF). European Parliament.
- "Way to Future of the Refugee crisis". Act Now News. Archived from the original on 14 November 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- "Asylum and first time asylum applicants by citizenship, age and sex Annual aggregated data (rounded)". EUROSTAT.
- "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015.
- Trends in International Migrant Stock: The 2013 Revision. United Nations.
- "Can immigration save a struggling, disappearing Japan?". Fortune. 20 November 2014.
- "Asylum statistics". EUROSTAT. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015.
- "UNHCR persons of concern". 10 November 2016.
- "The Global Refugee Crisis, Region by Region". The New York Times. 26 August 2015.
- "The dispossessed". The Economist. 18 June 2015.
- "Syria Regional Refugee Response". UNHCR.
- "Mapping Mediterranean migration". BBC. 15 September 2014.
- "Greece completes anti-migrant fence at Turkish legends border". Kathimerini. 17 December 2012.
- Krasimirov, Angel (14 January 2015). "Bulgaria to extend fence at Turkish border to bar refugee influx". Reuters.
- *"Survivor: Smugglers locked hundreds in hold of capsized boat". Associated Press. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Analisi: Paolo Gentiloni". Pagella Politica (in Italian). 22 February 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Witness: Boat migrants used bottles to stay afloat". USA Today. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "'Dozens feared dead' off Lampedusa as migrant boat capsizes". BBC. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Hundreds more migrants reach Italy from Africa". Reuters. 14 May 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Sbarchi al 2 marzo 2015". ISMU. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Italian navy rescues Pakistani migrants from boats". Reuters. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Lampedusa and Immigration at the Mediterranean: Tragedies, Dilemmas and International Conflicts. A Crossroad for Europe". Festival d'Europa. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Why is EU struggling with migrants and asylum?". BBC. 21 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Updated: Italy rescues 1,500 migrants off Libyan coast, pregnant migrant brought to Malta". Malta Today. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Italy blocks ferry of Moroccans fleeing Libya". BBC. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- Rozali, Eleni (2016). "Host Communities and the Refugee Crisis A Case Study of Kos Island, Greece" (PDF). Retrieved 4 February 2018.
- "Pushed Back, Pushed Around". Human Rights Watch. 21 September 2009.
- "Italy: 'Historic' European Court judgment upholds migrants' rights". Amnesty International. 23 February 2012.
- "Why Libya is springboard for migrant exodus". BBC News. 20 April 2015.
- "Mare Nostrum Operation". Marina Militare.
- "EC MEMO, Brussels, 7 October 2014, Frontex Joint Operation 'Triton' – Concerted efforts to manage migration in the Central Mediterranean". European Union, European Commission. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- "Italy Is About to Shut Down the Sea Rescue Operation That Saved More Than 90,000 Migrants This Year". Vice News. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "UK axes support for Mediterranean migrant rescue operation". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- Geddes, Andrew (2016). The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe (2nd ed.). London. ISBN 978-1-4739-8757-9. OCLC 961205880.
- "What is a Refugee? Definition and Meaning". USA for UNHCR. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "UNHCR Population Statistics – Data – Overview". popstats.unhcr.org. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "Situation Mediterranean Situation". data2.unhcr.org. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "Hollande confirms French delivery of arms to Syrian rebels". AFP. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
- "C.I.A. Arms for Syrian Rebels Supplied Black Market, Officials Say". Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "US arms shipment to Syrian rebels detailed | IHS Jane's 360". 5 December 2016. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Trump ends covert CIA program to arm anti-Assad rebels in Syria, a move sought by Moscow". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Opinion | What the demise of the CIA's anti-Assad program means". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Top general confirms end to secret U.S. program in Syria". POLITICO. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Behind the Sudden Death of a $1 Billion Secret C.I.A. War in Syria". Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Plans to send heavier weapons to CIA-backed rebels in Syria stall amid White House skepticism". Washington Post. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Creeping Incrementalism: U.S. Forces and Strategy in Iraq and Syria from 2011 to 2016: An Update". www.csis.org. Retrieved 4 October 2018.
- "Situation Syria Regional Refugee Response". data2.unhcr.org. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Afghanistan". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
- "Afghanistan: What you need to know about one of the world's longest refugee crises". International Rescue Committee (IRC). 8 September 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2018.
- "Migration Policy Debates" PDF. Migration. OECD. 2014. Retrieved April 2018.
- Scarcella, Roberto (21 August 2016). "In Europa la fabbrica della cittadinanza: così funziona il business dei passaporti comprati". LaStampa.it (in Italian). Retrieved 29 June 2019.
- Townsend, Mark (5 February 2017). "Isis paying smugglers' fees in recruitment drive among child refugees". The Guardian. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
- "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015. p. 59.
- "Migrant boat capsizes off Libya, 400 feared dead". Fox News Channel. 15 April 2015. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "IOM Releases New Data on Migrant Fatalities Worldwide: Almost 40,000 Since 2000". IOM - International Organization for Migration. International Organization for Migration. 29 September 2014. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- Brian, Tara; Laczko, Frank (2014). "Fatal Journeys. Tracking Lives Lost during Migration" (PDF). IOM online bookstore. IOM – International Organization for Migration. p. 12. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- "Latest Trends at external borders of the EU". Frontex. 2 February 2015.
- "Migratory routes map". Frontex. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Annual Risk Analysis 2015" (PDF). Frontex. 27 April 2015. p. 59.
- "The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees". UNHCR. p. 14.
- Miles, Tom (22 December 2015). "EU gets one million migrants in 2015, smugglers seen making $1 billion". Reuters. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Irregular Migrant, Refugee Arrivals in Europe Top One Million in 2015: IOM". IOM. 22 December 2015.
- "A million refugees and migrants flee to Europe in 2015". UNHCR. 22 December 2015.
- "The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees". UNHCR. p. 11.
- "Mediterranean Crisis 2015 at six months: refugee and migrant numbers highest on record". UNHCR. 1 July 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- "IOM Applauds Italy's Weekend Rescue at Sea of 2,800 Migrants". International Organization for Migration. 13 April 2015.
- "Migrant Deaths Soar in Mediterranean". International Organization for Migration. 17 April 2015.
- Cameron, Bobby Thomas (2015). "Migration in the Mediterranean Region and Policy Implications". Commonwealth Voices. Royal Commonwealth Society.
- "Arrivals to Greece, Italy and Spain. January–December 2015" (PDF). UNHCR.
- "European Union border agency: Number of migrants entering EU hits new monthly record in July". Fox News Channel. Associated Press. 18 August 2015. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
- "FRAN Quarterly – Quarter 4" (PDF). Frontex.
- "Risk analysis for 2016" (PDF). Frontex.
- "Refugees/Migrants Emergency Response – Mediterranean". UNHCR.
- LARRY BUCHANAN; SERGIO PEÇANHA (11 March 2016). "Europe Tries to Shut Down Routes as Migrant Flow Intensifies". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
- "Number of migrants arriving in Greece dropped in March". Frontex. 18 April 2016.
- "Number of migrants arriving in Greece dropped 90 per cent in April". Frontex. 13 May 2016.
- "Migration Flows to Europe – Quarterly Overview" (PDF). International Organisation of Migration. October 2017. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- "Massive loss of life reported in latest Mediterranean tragedy". UNHCR. 20 April 2016.
- "Overwhelming majorities unhappy with EU's handling of refugees". 6 June 2016.
- (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Refugees/Migrants Response – Mediterranean".
- (UNHCR), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "UNHCR Refugees/Migrants Response – Mediterranean".
- "Frontex – News – European Border and Coast Guard Agency launches today". Archived from the original on 9 October 2017.
- "Asylum Quarterly Report – explained" (PDF). EC Europa. Retrieved 4 November 2017.
- Hayden, Sally. "Migrants deaths in Mediterranean reach record percentage". The Irish Times.
- "Acquisition of citizenship in the EU – EU Member States granted citizenship to over 800 thousand persons in 2017 – Moroccans, Albanians and Indians were the main recipients". www.europa.eu. European Commission.
- "Acquisition of citizenship statistics". www.ec.europa.eu. Eurostat.
- "'The potential for loss of life is a lot higher now' in Mediterranean Sea". NBC News.
- "Dozens of migrants feared dead after waiting 36 hours for rescue". NBC News.
- "Libya intercepts boats with over 270 Europe-bound migrants". 660 News. Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- "UN: 45,000+ refugees enter Europe in 2019". haberlutfen. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
- "Libya's coast guard intercepts 108 Europe-bound migrants". My Mother Lode. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
- "Bodies of migrants who died at sea located by Italian authorities". The World News. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
- "Italy recovers 5 more bodies from sunken migrant boat". The Herald. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 14 October 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Eurostat, Asylum and first time asylum applicants by citizenship, age and sex Annual aggregated data (rounded), Last update: 26/04/17
- "The number of asylum applicants in the EU jumped to more than 625 000 in 2014". EUROSTAT.
- "EU Member States granted protection to more than 185 000 asylum seekers in 2014". EUROSTAT.
- "euronews – Data raises questions over EU's attitude towards asylum seekers". euronews.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "Which Countries Are Under the Most Strain in the European Migration Crisis?". The New York Times. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "Asylum in the EU" (PDF). European Commission.
- "Asylum and first time asylum applicants by citizenship, age and sex Monthly data (rounded)". Eurostat.
- "EU Member States granted protection to more than 330 000 asylum seekers in 2015". Eurostat. 20 April 2016.
- "185 000 first time asylum seekers in the EU in the first quarter of 2015". EUROSTAT. 18 June 2015.
- "Over 210 000 first time asylum seekers in the EU in the second quarter of 2015". EUROSTAT. 18 September 2015.
- "More than 410 000 first time asylum seekers registered in the third quarter of 2015". Eurostat.
- "Asylum quarterly report". EUROSTAT.
- "Europe migrant crisis: Germany 'will cope with surge'". BBC News. 19 August 2015.
- "476.649 Asylanträge im Jahr 2015". BAMF. 6 January 2016.
- "Asylgeschäftsstatistik 12/2015". BAMF. 6 January 2016.
- "Applications for asylum received, 2015" (PDF). Swedish Migration Agency.
- "Asylum decisions, 2015" (PDF). Swedish Migration Agency.
- "Asylum applicants in the EU". Eurostat. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- "Over one million sea arrivals reach Europe in 2015". UNHCR. 30 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- "More than 1 million asylum seekers reached Europe by sea this year: UNHCR". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 30 December 2015.
- "How many migrants to Europe are refugees?". The Economist. 7 September 2015.
- "It's not at war, but up to 3% of its people have fled. What is going on in Eritrea?". The Guardian. 22 July 2015.
- "Auffallend viele kurdische Flüchtlinge". www.tagesspiegel.de.
- "Mass Migration: What Is Driving the Balkan Exodus?". Der Spiegel. 26 August 2015.
- Nossiter, Adam (20 August 2015). "Migrant Smuggling Business Is Booming in Niger, Despite Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: Explaining the exodus from the Balkans". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: Who does the EU send back?". BBC News. 9 September 2015.
- "Europe's forgotten migrants – the ones who aren't from Syria". Los Angeles Times. 16 September 2015.
- "The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees". UNHCR. p. 7.
- "Europe's man problem". Politico Europe. 6 January 2016.
- Sylvia Hui, Associated Press (11 October 2015). "Young and alone: Europe sees record surge of child refugees". Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
- Rick Lyman (12 September 2015). "Eastern Bloc's Resistance to Refugees Highlights Europe's Cultural and Political Divisions". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Villasana, Danielle (October 2016). "Picturing health: challenges for Syrian refugees in Turkey". The Lancet. 388 (10056): 2096–103. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31647-6. PMID 27642017.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees". UNHCR. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- Adam Nossiter (17 September 2015). "A Belated Welcome in France Is Drawing Few Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
Migrants crowding onto the trains in Hungary shout, "Germany, Germany!" But they do not shout, "France, France."
- Gregor Aisch; Sarah Almukhtar; Josh Keller; Wilson Andrews (10 September 2015). "The Scale of the Migrant Crisis, From 160 to Millions". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
- "A region-by-region guide to the Middle East's migrant crisis". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- "Why is EU struggling with migrants and asylum?". BBC News. 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- Daynes, Leigh (1 October 2016). "The health impacts of the refugee crisis: a medical charity perspective". Clinical Medicine. 16 (5): 437–440. doi:10.7861/clinmedicine.16-5-437. ISSN 1470-2118. PMC 6297302. PMID 27697805.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "The sea route to Europe: The Mediterranean passage in the age of refugees". UNHCR. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
- CARMICHAEL/AFP, by Lachlan. "EU tracking 65,000 migrant smugglers: Europol". The Citizen. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "Migratory routes map". Frontex. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- "Migration through Egypt: The Safe Alternative to Libya?". Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- "More NGOs follow MSF in suspending Mediterranean migrant rescues". Reuters. 15 August 2017. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
- "Refugees cross Croatia border in search of new route". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Andrew Higgins (9 October 2015). "Avoiding Risky Seas, Migrants Reach Europe With an Arctic Bike Ride". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- Catherine Evans (11 November 2015). "Growing Number of Asylum Seekers Opt for Arctic Route to Enter Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- Smith, Oli (2 April 2016). "Russia SHUTS DOWN border with Europe amid fears over new migrant route through the ARCTIC".
- see also German Wikipedia[better source needed]
- Alison Smale; Melissa Eddy (31 August 2015). "Migrant Crisis Tests Core European Value: Open Borders". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
- Rick Lyman; Anemona Hartocollis; Alison Smale (4 September 2015). "Migrants Cross Austria Border From Hungary". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- "The Latest: Austria, Germany to accept bused migrants". MSN. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Alison Smale; Steven Erlanger (5 September 2015). "Thousands of Migrants Reach Austria as New Groups Set Off". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- "Relieved migrants cross Hungary-Austria border". euronews. 5 September 2015. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- Melissa Eddy; Dan Bilefsky (14 September 2015). "Austria, Slovakia and the Netherlands Introduce Border Controls". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Austria deploys army to boost refugee checks, Slovakia brings back border controls". RT English. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Austria says army will help impose tougher border checks". Reuters UK. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Sewell Chan; Palko Karasz (19 September 2015). "Thousands of Migrants Flood into Austria". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- Palko Karasz; Barbara Surk (22 September 2015). "Austria Takes Role of Distribution Center for Germany-Bound Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "Staatsgrenzen – Grenzlänge, Küstenlänge und Grenzländer aller Staaten der Welt". laenderdaten.de. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Austria to build Slovenia border fence to 'control' migrant flow". Yahoo News. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: Austria to slash asylum claims". BBC News. 20 January 2016.
- "Migrant crisis: Austria asylum cap begins despite EU anger". BBC News. 19 February 2016.
- "Council lawyers: Austria's refugee cap not illegal". POLITICO. 4 March 2016.
- (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. "Austria plans tougher measures against refused asylum seekers | DW | 28.02.2017". DW.COM. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "Austria to seize refugees' mobiles and demand cash". France 24. 18 April 2018. Retrieved 29 April 2018.
- "Hrvatska na udaru imigranata, krizne točke Bajakovo i Tovarnik". Večernji list.
- T.V. "Grabar KitaroviĆ: Hrvatska neće graditi zidove prema Srbiji kao Mađarska". Dnevnik.hr.
- "'HRVATSKA NEĆE GRADITI ZIDOVE AKO VAL IZBJEGLICA KRENE PREMA NAMA' Vesna Pusić iskazala prezir prema mađarskom rješenju". Jutarnji.hr.
- "Croatian PM Pledges Help for Refugees". balkaninsight.com. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Rick Lyman; Dan Bilefsky (16 September 2015). "Migrants Clash With Police in Hungary, as Others Enter Croatia". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- "Ovako je danas bilo u Tovarniku: Preko polja se do Hrvatske probijala i djevojka u kolicima". index.hr. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "FOTO, VIDEO: SITUACIJA SVE TEŽA Drama u Slavoniji: Vlaka još uvijek nema, a izbjeglice nemaju ni kapi vode! U Dugavama azilant gađao ciglom fotoreportera, s balkona hotela viču: 'Sloboda'". jutarnji.hr.
- "Migrant crisis: Croatia closes border crossings with Serbia". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "If Germany Stops Receiving Refugees, Croatia Could Close Its Borders".
- Rick Lyman (16 October 2015). "Hungary to Close Its Border With Croatia in Migrant Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
- "Thousands of Migrants Surge into Slovenia in New Route". The New York Times. Associated Press. 18 October 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Radul Radovanovic (18 October 2015). "Thousands stranded on new migrant route through Europe". The Associated Press, MSN. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- Yahoo News (18 December 2015). "Slovenia's fence on Croatia border threatening wildlife: WWF". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Croatia (19 December 2015). "Istrians protest against razor wire fence on Croatia-Slovenia border". Hina. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Croatia (7 January 2016). "Protest rally against razor fence at Slovenian-Croatian border crossing". Hina. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- New Kerala (9 March 2016). "Slovenia, Croatia, Serbia begin closure of Balkan route". Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Overblik: Det skete da flygtningestrømmen nåede Danmark". Jyllands-Posten. 7 October 2015. Archived from the original on 14 October 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Melissa Eddy (9 September 2015). "Migrant Tide Bringing Out Europe's Best and Worst". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
- Melissa Eddy (9 September 2015). "Motorvej spærret i begge retninger: Flygtninge går fra Padborg mod Sverige". TV2 News Denmark. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Kristian Corfixen (9 September 2015). "Flygtninge drejer af: Den sønderjyske motorvej er nu genåbnet". Politiken. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Jonas Hamidavi R. Moestrup (12 October 2015). "28.800 flygtninge og migranter er kommet til Danmark på fem uger". TV2 News Denmark. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- "Regeringen indfører midlertidig grænsekontrol til Tyskland". www.politiko.dk. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "IS-videoer, terrorjubel og halshugget bamse: 50 mistanker om radikalisering på asylcentre sendt til Udlændingestyrelsen". TV 2 (Denmark). 22 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Støjberg om radikalisering på asylcentre: Der er alvorlige sager iblandt". TV2 (Denmark). 22 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- "Over 600 asylansøgere får afslag efter snyd med deres identitet". DR (in Danish). Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "Migrants' Journeys Stall in Italy, Near the French Border". The New York Times. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Top French court approves border controls with Italy". Yahoo News. 29 June 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Samuel, Henry (21 September 2015). "EU migrant crisis: Refugees shun France over red tape, unemployment and poor housing – Telegraph". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Naina Bajekal/Calais (1 August 2015). "Why Thousands of Migrants Are Risking Their Lives at Calais". Time. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Haroon Siddique (5 July 2015). "Calais drivers need more protection from migrants, says lorry group". the Guardian. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Will new mile-long Calais fence stop migrants?". BBC News. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Lizzie Dearden (16 December 2015). "Refugee crisis: Hundreds of migrants storm Calais motorway attempting to board lorries heading to the UK". The Independent. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Chrisafis, Angelique; Walker, Peter; Quinn, Ben (1 March 2016). "Calais 'Jungle' camp: clashes as authorities demolish homes". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "Nach Räumung des "Dschungels": Frankreich eröffnet neues Flüchtlingslager am Ärmelkanal". Spiegel Online (in German). 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "France opens new refugee camp, amid protest". euronews.com. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Sami Koski (13 September 2015). "Turvapaikanhakijoiden määrä räjähti Torniossa: "Satoja tullut tänään"". Iltalehti. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- Olli Waris (14 September 2015). "Viime viikolla ennätyksellinen määrä turvapaikanhakijoita". Iltalehti. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Interior Ministry: Finland set to reject two thirds of asylum seekers". YLE. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Eurajoki resorting to containers to house asylum seekers". YLE. 13 November 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Reception centres use containers to house new arrivals". YLE. 28 November 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Disappointed Iraqis cancel asylum applications". YLE. 24 November 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Finland adopts one-stop approach to slash asylum processing queues". YLE. 30 November 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Turvapaikkahakemusten käsittelyajat venyvät – "Täällä on tuhansia turvapaikanhakijoita monta vuotta"". YLE. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Interior Minister: Finland to set up asylum seeker repatriation centres". YLE. 3 December 2015. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Russian border guard to STT: Russian security service behind northeast asylum traffic". YLE. 24 January 2016. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
- "Stort finländskt fenomen – hundratals muslimer blir kristna". 4 October 2017. Archived from the original on 21 April 2018.
- Deutscher Bundestag: Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, print version in English, November 2012 (PDF Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine)
- "2015: Mehr Asylanträge in Deutschland als jemals zuvor". BMI. 6 January 2016.
- Holehouse, Matthew; Huggler, Justin; Vogt, Andrea (24 August 2015). "Germany drops EU rules to allow in Syrian refugees". The Telegraph. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- (in Dutch) 'Wenen verwacht vandaag weer 10.000 migranten – paus doet oproep' (Vienna today expects another 10,000 migrants – Pope issues an appeal). NRC Handelsblad, 6 September 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- 'Why Merkel changed her mind'. Politico, 15 September 2015. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- (in Dutch) 'Duitse 'Wilkommenskultur' is ver in het geheugen weggezakt' (German welcoming culture has sunk deep in our memory). Trouw, 3 September 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
- Katrin Bennhold; Melissa Eddy (6 September 2015). "German Quota System Highlights Possible Path and Pitfalls for Handling Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- Melanie Amann, Matthias Gebauer und Horand Knaup (11 September 2015). "Länderinnenminister: "Sie öffnen die Grenzen und lassen uns im Stich"". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 11 September 2015.[permanent dead link]
- Melissa Eddy; Alison Smale (13 September 2015). "Germany Announces Emergency Border Controls Amid Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Germany introduces 'temporary' controls along Austrian border". euronews. 13 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- Melissa Eddy; Rick Lyman; Alison Smale (13 September 2015). "Germany Orders Curbs at Border in Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Bundesregierung pocht auf langfristige "solidarische" Lösung". Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 16 September 2019.
- FRANZ SOLMS-LAUBACH und PETER TIEDE. "Behörden warnen in der Flüchtlingskrise: Zusammenbruch der Versorgung droht". Bild. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
- Katrin Bennhold (28 October 2015). "Distinguishing Minors From Adults in a Tide of Young Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Andrew Higgins (31 October 2015). "German Village of 102 Braces for 750 Asylum Seekers". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
- Alison Smale (8 January 2016). "18 Asylum Seekers Are Tied to Attacks on Women in Germany". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Jim Yardley (13 January 2016). "Sexual Attacks Widen Divisions in European Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016.
- Germany admits 130,000 asylum seekers 'lost' raising fears over crime and terrorism J. Huggler, The Daily Telegraph, 26 February 2016
- Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (9 February 2016). "Streit über Flüchtlingspolitik: Seehofer unterstellt Merkel "Herrschaft des Unrechts" – SPIEGEL ONLINE – Politik". Spiegel Online.
- "Hunderte Millionen gegen die Flucht". Der Spiegel. 10 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- "Germany Cracks Down on Salafists to Shield Refugees". New York Times. 19 November 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- Lucassen, Geertje; Lubbers, Marcel (2012). "Who Fears What? Explaining Far-Right-Wing Preference in Europe by Distinguishing Perceived Cultural and Economic Threats". Comparative Political Studies. 45 (5).
- Yeginsu, Ceylan (16 August 2015). "Amid Perilous Mediterranean Crossings, Migrants Find a Relatively Easy Path to Greece". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- Neely, Bill (13 August 2015). "Migrants Crisis: Refugees Attempt to Reach Greek Island of Lesbos". NBC News. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Daley, Suzanne (4 August 2015). "On Island of Lesbos, a Microcosm of Greece's Other Crisis: Migrants". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- "Refugees and migrants outnumber Kastelorizo's residents". Protothema. 20 February 2016. Retrieved 24 February 2016.
- "Migrant 'chaos' on Greek islands – UN refugee agency". BBC News. 7 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Pop, Valentina (7 August 2015). "Greek Government Holds Emergency Meeting Over Soaring Migrant Arrivals". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
- "40 migrants 'killed by fumes' in hold of boat off Libya". Irish Independent. 15 August 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2015.
- "Turkish Airlines ® - Flights to 110+ countries from İstanbul". www.turkishairlines.com.
- "Book Flights, Holidays & Check In Online – British Airways". www.britishairways.com.
- The Schengen acquis See Article 26
- Tim Arango (7 September 2015). "A New Wave of Migrants Flees Iraq, Yearning for Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: EU threatens Greece over border controls". BBC News. 27 January 2016.
- "EU issues deadline for Greece to remedy migration 'deficiencies'". Deutsche Welle. 12 February 2016.
- "Migrant crisis: Nato deploys Aegean people-smuggling patrols". BBC News. 11 February 2016.
- "Europe Migrant crisis: Greece seeks emergency funds from EU to shelter refugees". First Post. 1 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016.
- "More than 50,000 migrants and refugees stranded in Greece". Η ΚΑΘΗΜΕΡΙΝΗ. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 28 March 2016.
- "Aegean islands alarm as refugee numbers rise after Turkey coup attempt". The Guardian.
- "The number of migrants arriving on the Greek islands has DOUBLED since the failed military coup in Turkey". Daily Mail.
- "More Refugees Arriving in Greece Since Failed Coup in Turkey". telesurtv.
- "Sector group: Coup attempt in Turkey to negatively affect Greek tourism". naftemporiki. 2016.
- Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Greek Volunteers share UNHCR Nansen Refugee Award".
- ""Mother Teresa" award goes to the Hellenic Rescue Team". www.balkaneu.com. 26 October 2017.
- Pablo Gorondi (9 June 2015). "Hungary seeks to tighten south border, hold illegal migrants". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "Hungary to fence off border with Serbia to stop migrants". Reuters. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Pablo Gorondi (19 June 2015). "Hungary's leader says Hungary will protect Europe's borders". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "EU Warns Against New 'Walls' As Hungary Plans Fence on Serbia Border". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "Orbán: Nyár végére megépül a kerítés". mno.hu. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Anemona Hartocollis; Dan Bilefsky; James Kanter (3 September 2015). "Hungary Defends Handling of Migrants Amid Chaos at Train Station". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Migrants cling to Hungarian train west, lawmakers debate sealing border". Reuters. 3 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "Over 1,000 migrants leave Budapest train station on foot for Austria". Agence France-Presse. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- Dan Bilefsky (4 September 2015). "Blocked by Rail, Migrants Set Out for Germany on Foot". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: Hungary to bus migrants to Austria border". BBC News. 4 September 2015. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "+++ Refugee crisis – live updates +++". DW.COM. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Hungary seals border with razor wire". euronews. 15 September 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- Helene Bienvenu; Dan Bilefsky (15 September 2015). "Hungary Detains Migrants in Border Crackdown". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 September 2015.
- "Kaos na mađarskoj granici: Izbjeglice probili ogradu, čula se pucnjava, policija mlatila ljude". index.hr. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "UŽIVO: SUZAVAC PRIMIRIO IZBJEGLICE NA GRANICI KOD ZAPREŠIĆA! Hrvatski policajci izbačeni s vlaka u Mađarskoj: 'Nisu razoružani, samo su ih evidentirali. Ništa dramatično se nije dogodilo...'". jutarnji.hr. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "More than 24,000 refugees enter Hungary over weekend". Retrieved 30 September 2015.
- Barbara Surk; Stephen Castle (17 October 2015). "Hungary Closes Border, Changing Refugees' Path". The New York Times. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
- no by-line. (22 December 2015). "Migrant crisis: One million enter Europe in 2015". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Noack, Rick (22 December 2015). "Over a million refugees and migrants arrived in Europe this year. Here is what you need to know". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, USA. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Thorpe, Nick (22 December 2015). "Migrant crisis: Hungary denies fuelling intolerance in media". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 24 December 2015.
- Matthew Weaver (15 September 2015). "Refugee crisis: Hungary rejects all asylum requests made at border – as it happened". the Guardian.
- "Breaking News: Hungary Declares State Of Emergency As Migrant Crisis Turns Unpredictable". Hungary Today. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- Hungary Declares State of Emergency Over Migrants (novinite.com 9 March 2016)
- "Hungary extends state of emergency due to migrant crisis". WTOP. 30 August 2017. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
- "Sbarchi e richieste di asilo 1997–2014". Fondazione Ismu.
- "Libya's people smugglers: inside the trade that sells refugees hopes of a better life | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- Scammell, Rosie (7 June 2015). "Mediterranean migrant crisis: number of arrivals in Italy in 2015 passes 50,000". The Guardian. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- Daunt, Joe (22 April 2015). "Video: The EU migrant crisis explained in 90 seconds – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- "Mapping Mediterranean migration". BBC. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- "Analisi: Paolo Gentiloni". Pagella Politica. 22 February 2015.
- "Hundreds of Migrants Believed Dead in Shipwreck Off Libya, Says UNHCR". The Wall Street Journal. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "On the Mediterranean refugee patrol with the Bundeswehr". Deutsche Welle. 22 April 2016.
- "Statistiche immigrazione". Italian Ministry of the Interior. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016.
- "EU sees 'alarming' migrant buildup in Libya, warns Italy". Reuters. 13 April 2016.
- "Tensions Mount Between Austria and Italy as Migrant Numbers Rise". The Wall Street Journal. 15 April 2016.
- "German warship rescues 615 from the Mediterranean". Naval Today. 17 March 2016.
- "In the last four days, 6,000 migrants have arrived in Sicily by boat". Quartz. 16 April 2016.
- "Italian coastguard and navy rescue 3,300 migrants off coast of Libya". Deutsche Welle. 27 June 2016.
- "Italy boat migrant numbers surge 20% in 2016". The Local. 6 January 2017.
- "More than 8,000 migrants rescued in Mediterranean and brought to Italy over Easter long weekend ". The Daily Telegraph. 18 April 2017.
- Hilfeschrei aus Italien! Das Land droht mit krassen Massnahmen gegen Flüchtlinge (in German). Blick - Ausland. Retrieved 29 June 2017.
- "MSF suspends Mediterranean rescues as migrant dispute mounts". Reuters. 12 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Italy's code of conduct for NGOs involved in migrant rescue: text". euronews. 3 August 2017. Retrieved 13 August 2017.
- "Migranti, si inverte il trend: a luglio sbarchi dimezzati". ilsole24ore.com (in Italian). 31 July 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "Cruscotto giornaliero 14 settembre 2017" (PDF). interno.gov.it (in Italian). 14 September 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2017. Retrieved 16 September 2017.
- "Italy: 1,100 migrants rescued from Libyan coast in one day". Al Arabiya. 23 November 2017.
- "5,000 refugees rescued on route to Italy from Libya". Al Jazeera. 20 May 2017.
- "What will Italy's new government mean for migrants?". The Local. 21 May 2018.
- "African migrants fear for future as Italy struggles with surge in arrivals". Reuters. 18 July 2017.
- "UNHCR" (PDF). Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "Malta needs EU help to cope with its immigration crisis". The Guardian. 4 August 2013.
- "Rescued migrants refusing to be brought to Malta". The Times. 26 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- "It-78 immigrant li ma riedux jidħlu f'Malta se jittieħdu l-Italja". TVM (in Maltese). 27 September 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- "This Spanish city in Africa has become hugely symbolic of Europe's migrant crisis". The Week. 21 August 2015.
- "euronews – Over 100 migrants attempt to storm Melilla enclave". euronews.com. Archived from the original on 26 July 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Morel, Sandrine (8 September 2015). "Uneasy calm descends over Melilla, Spain's heavily fortified African enclave". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Edwards, Sam (21 November 2015). "A decade of violence at Spain's forgotten African border shows why Europe's new fences alone are bound to fail". El País. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- Bloul, Scheherazade (17 November 2015). "Amnesty International Calls for Spain to Cease Cooperation with Morocco on Migration Policy". Morocco World News. Retrieved 29 November 2015.
- "Two dead as migrants storm Spain's African border at Ceuta". The Local. 25 December 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- Calderwood, Imogen (25 March 2016). "Spanish Civil Guard discover migrants hiding in cars' false bottoms". Mail Online. Retrieved 27 March 2016.
- "Ivory Coast boy smuggled to Spain inside suitcase". BBC News. 8 May 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- "Spain Ceuta: Migrants found hidden in car and suitcase". BBC News. 2 January 2017. Retrieved 2 January 2017.
- "Russia sends denied migrants back to Norway". The Local. 30 November 2015.
- "Grensen til Russland er ikke den farligste for Norge" [The border with Russia is not the most dangerous for Norway]. Sputnik (in Norwegian Bokmål). 7 November 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016.
- "Norway Will Build a Fence at Its Arctic Border With Russia". New York Times. Reuters. 24 August 2016. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
- Pancevsky, Bojan (4 September 2016). "Norway builds Arctic border fence as it gives migrants the cold shoulder". The Times of London. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
- "Europe is Betraying Afghanistan By Sending Its Refugees Home". Time.
- Osborne, Samuel (25 August 2016). "Norway to build border fence with Russia to keep out refugees". The Independent.
- Hovland, Kjetil Malkenes (3 September 2015). "Syrian Refugees Take Arctic Route to Europe More than 150 refugees have entered Norway from Arctic Russia this year". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 6 September 2016.
- Innvandrere og norskfødte med innvandrerforeldre fra Syria. Statistics Norway. 26 June 2018. p. 26. Retrieved 14 July 2018.
- "Slovenia Reinstating Controls at Border with Hungary". sloveniatimes.com. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Slovenian police pepper spray migrants at border". Yahoo!. 19 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Slovenia Admits Some 1,500 Refugees, Some Proceed to Austria". sloveniatimes.com. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Begunce z Obrežja pospešeno odvažajo v notranjost države". Dolenjski list. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Slovenia calls for EU help amid record influx of refugees". euronews. 22 October 2015. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Slovenian police helicopter films Croatian police officers directing migrants to Slovenia across the green border and the Sotla river". policija.si. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Šefic: Croatian travesty on inhuman Slovenians :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". rtvslo.si. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "V ŽIVO: Pretep v sprejemnem centru Brežice, policija je uporabila plinski razpršilec". 24ur.com. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- "Slovenia to impose "hurdles" on border to control migrant flow :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". rtvslo.si. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Slovenian troops start erecting border fence :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija". rtvslo.si. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "ORF" (in German). Retrieved 11 November 2015.
- "Slovenia deploys army to Schengen zone border to tackle refugee influx". DW.COM. Retrieved 23 February 2016.
- 'EU, Spain and the refugee crisis'. Interview with refugee expert Patricia Lisa, Research Fellow at Real Instituto Elcano, October 2016, on IRIS (Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques, a French think tank). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
- "Spain: Migrants Held in Poor Conditions". Human Rights Watch. 31 July 2017. Retrieved 5 November 2017.
- "Migrationsverket anmäler allt fler terrorhot". Sydsvenskan. 5 July 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- Riksdagsförvaltningen. "Särskilda åtgärder vid allvarlig fara för den allmänna ordningen eller den inre säkerheten i landet – riksdagen.se". Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Migrant crisis: Sweden operator cancels trains on bridge link BBC News website. Retrieved 23 December 2015
- "Bara 48 asylsökande till Skåne under måndagen". Sydsvenskan. 5 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Färre än 100 nobbade på Kastrup". Sydsvenskan. 4 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2016.
- "Papperslösa tar taxi över Bron". Sydsvenskan. 7 January 2016. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Dansk taxachauffør anholdt for menneskesmugling til Sverige". DR.
- "Flyktingström bakom stor ökning av MRSA". Sydsvenskan. 2 January 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- "Sweden and Finland plan to expel up to 100,000 failed asylum seekers". The Daily Telegraph. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2016.
- "Sweden to deport up to 80,000 asylum-seekers". Associated Press. 28 January 2016.
- "Det stora antalet asylsökande har påverkat vård och tandvård". www.socialstyrelsen.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 28 December 2017.
Belastningen har också ökat inom psykiatrin, 20-30 procent av de asylsökande uppskattas vara drabbade av psykisk ohälsa.
- Nyheter, SVT (31 May 2016). "162.000 kom till Sverige – 500 fick jobb". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 11 May 2018.
- "Ny skärpt asyllag klubbad". Dagens Nyheter. 21 June 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
- "Skärpt asyllag träder i kraft". Sydsvenskan. 20 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Anställda på flyktingboenden smittade av tuberkulos". Sydsvenskan. 18 August 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
- "Tuberkulos ökar kraftigt i Sverige". Dagens Nyheter. 28 February 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- "Internt mejl visar: Nya besparingar krävs". Svenska Dagbladet. 25 October 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.
- "Brottsplats Nordstan – så ser vardagen ut". Expressen. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- firstname.lastname@example.org, Frida Svensson |. "Falsk identitet vanligt bland asylsökande från Marocko". SvD.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 29 May 2017.
- "De första medicinska åldersbedömningarna klara – Rättsmedicinalverket". Rättsmedicinalverket (in Swedish). Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- Nyheter, SVT. "Så ska Sverige stoppa misstänkta terrorister". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 4 July 2017.
- "sv: Uppdelat boende ska stärka ensamkommande flickor". Sydsvenskan. Retrieved 19 July 2017.
- ""Papperslösa" som håller sig undan utvisning har inte rätt till bidrag – dom från HFD". Dagens Juridik (in Swedish). Retrieved 10 November 2017.
- "sv: Få lågutbildade nyanlända vill studera". Swedish Radio. 19 July 2017. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "Strejkande ensamkommande attackerade". Göteborgs-Posten (in Swedish). Retrieved 10 August 2017.
- Nyheter, SVT. "Personal på Migrationsverket utsätts för hot under asylprocessen". SVT Nyheter (in Swedish). Retrieved 13 September 2017.
- "Mycket få nyanlända kvinnor får jobb – DN.SE". DN.SE (in Swedish). 8 November 2017. Archived from the original on 23 March 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
- "Forskare: Lättast få nyanlända i arbete med subventionerade anställningar". arbetsmarknadsnytt.se. Archived from the original on 30 March 2018. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- Sermîn Faki, Priska Wallimann (April 2017). "Asylland Schweiz in Zahlen"(in German). Blick News Politik. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
- hesa, SRF 4 News 11:00 Uhr/sda/bfs/schubeca/kurn. "SRF News: Neue Sozialhilfestatistik – 80 Prozent der Asylbewerber und Flüchtlinge beziehen Sozialhilfe". Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (SRF) (in German). Retrieved 25 December 2017.
- Ben Hubbard (26 September 2015). "Money Flows With Refugees, and Life Jackets Fill the Shops". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- "Macedonia Allows Migrants to Legitimately Transit Country". Voice of America. Associated Press. 18 June 2015. Archived from the original on 19 November 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- Sly, Liz (18 September 2015). "8 reasons Europe's refugee crisis is happening now". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- Philip Oltermann; Patrick Kingsley (25 August 2016). "'It took on a life of its own': how one rogue tweet led Syrians to Germany". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 August 2016.
- Emma Graham-Harrison (5 September 2015). "Cheering German crowds greet refugees after long trek from Budapest to Munich". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
- Sarah Almukhtar; Josh Keller; Derek Watkins (16 October 2015). "Closing the Back Door to Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "The Latest: Hundreds Seek to Cross Turkey-Greece Border". The New York Times. Associated Press. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Costas Kantouris; Konstantin Testorides (28 November 2015). "Migrants clash with Macedonian police on Greek border". Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- Suzanne Daley (9 December 2015). "Thousands of Migrants Stranded in Greece as Route North Is Narrowed". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- Euronews (7 February 2016). "More problems at FYROM-Greek border slows refugees' journey north".
- . Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Russia shuts arctic border to Norway over ′security reasons′ – News – DW.COM – 24.01.2016". DW.COM.
- "TASS: World – Finnish border guards block 15 Mideast, African immigrants in Russia's Murmansk region". TASS.
- <%= item.timeFlag %>. "TASS: World – Finland prohibits crossing border with Russia on bikes – media". Tass.ru. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
- "It's 34,361 and rising: how the List tallies Europe's migrant bodycount". The Guardian. 20 June 2018.
- La Sicilia Multimedia. "Renzi chiama Hollande Salvini: "Tragedia annunciata"" (in Italian). lasiciliaweb.it. Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Renzi: "Subito un vertice Ue, siamo pronti a bloccare la partenza dei barconi"". Il Mattino (in Italian). Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Italian PM Matteo Renzi condemns 'new slave trade' in Mediterranean". BBC News. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Migrants' ship headed for Italy capsizes north of Libya". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. 19 April 2015.
- "Med migrant boat disaster". BBC. 18 April 2015.
- "EU leaders call for emergency talks after 700 migrants drown off Libya". Reuters. 19 April 2015.
- "Europe should back action to protect migrants in Mediterranean: Mogherini". Reuters/Yahoo. 19 April 2015.
- "Prime Minister Matteo Renzi defends Italy's response to migrants drowning in the Mediterranean". International Business Times UK. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Naufraga un pesquero con 700 inmigrantes a bordo cerca de la costa de Libia". Antena3.com. 19 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "EU's Tusk considers special summit after migrants drown". Channel NewsAsia. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- "Med faces humanitarian crisis, not just wreck, says Renzi". ANSA.it. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Mediterranean migrant deaths: PM calls for action after boat disaster". BBC News. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Joint Foreign and Home Affairs Council: Ten point action plan on migration". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- Raithel, Silvia (9 February 2016). "The Common European Asylum System: Its History, Content, and Shortcomings – The Michigan Journal of International Law". The Michigan Journal of International Law. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "The EU Has a Solidarity Crisis. Not a Refugee Crisis". Open Society Foundations. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Commission presents options for reforming the Common European Asylum System and developing safe and legal pathways to Europe". europa.eu. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Completing the reform of the Common European Asylum System: towards an efficient, fair and humane asylum policy". europa.eu. Retrieved 30 November 2017.
- "Europe on brink of new refugee crisis 'EVEN GREATER' than 2015 – German Interior Minister". RT International. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
- "HMS Richmond and HMS Enterprise rescue 541 migrants from the Med". The Daily Telegraph. 29 October 2015.
- Kirchgaessner, Stephanie; Traynor, Ian; Kingsley, Patrick (20 April 2015). "Two more migrant boats issue distress calls in Mediterranean". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "Migrants' bodies brought ashore as EU proposes doubling rescue effort". Reuters. 20 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- "EU to triple funding for 'Operation Triton' to tackle Mediterranean migrant crisis". IBT. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2015.
- Pollak, Sorcha (5 May 2015). "LÉ Eithne to be dispatched in migrant search on May 8th". The Irish Times.
- "Europe's response: "Face-saving not a life-saving operation"". Amnesty International. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- "Operation SOPHIA IT Navy Biography (pdf)" (PDF).
- Kanter, James (18 May 2015). "E.U. Agrees to Naval Intervention on Migrant Smugglers". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: EU to begin seizing smugglers' boats". BBC News. 7 October 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: Europe gears up to seize smugglers". BBC News. 7 October 2015.
- "EU backs military action against Med people smugglers". Yahoo News. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "EU to expand Mediterranean anti-smuggler force". EUobserver. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "EU approves military action against people smugglers in Mediterranean – reports". RT English. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "European Commission – PRESS RELEASES – Press release – Joint Foreign and Home Affairs Council: Ten point action plan on migration". Europa (web portal). Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- Justin Huggler, Andrew Marszal, Angela Merkel calls for new rules for distributing asylum seekers in Europe, The Daily Telegraph dated 24 April 2015
- "David Cameron insists he 'cares' about refugees amid criticism from Tories". The Daily Telegraph. 4 September 2015.
- "Jean Asselborn 'ashamed' of Hungary PM Orban". Luxemburger Wort.
- "Eastern European countries may be forced accept quotas for migrants". The Daily Telegraph. 18 September 2015.
- Ian Traynor. Refugee crisis: east and west split as leaders resent Germany for waiving rules. The Guardian. 5 September 2015.
- "Nemůžeme s uprchlíky šoupat jako s dobytkem, odmítla vláda znovu kvóty". Novinky.cz. 9 September 2015.
- "Ukrainian refugees should be among voluntarily accepted – Zeman". ČTK. 17 September 2015.
- "Malí Syřané se měli léčit v Motole, rodina obratem odjela do Německa [Little Syrians were supposed to get treatment in Motol Hospital, a family immediately left to Germany]". Mladá fronta DNES. 9 November 2015.
- Rick Lyman; Steven Erlange; Aurelien Breeden (7 September 2015). "A Steady Flow Staggers into Europe, Outpacing Pledges of Shelter". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "UK to accept 20,000 refugees from Syria by 2020". BBC. 7 September 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2015.
- Holly Yan; Arwa Damon (7 September 2015). "Migrant crisis: More troubles in Hungary as Austria, Germany near tipping point". CNN. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: Why EU deal on refugees is difficult". BBC News. 25 September 2015.
- "Migrant crisis: EU ministers approve disputed quota plan". BBC News. 22 September 2015.
- "Justice and Home Affairs Council, 22/09/2015". Council of the European Union.
- James Kanter (22 September 2015). "European Union Ministers Approve Plan to Distribute Refugees". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- "EU quota plan forced through against eastern European states' wishes". The Daily Telegraph. 23 September 2015.
- "EU braces for turbulent summit after divisive deal on refugee quotas". The Guardian. 23 September 2015.
- "Eritrean refugees flown from Italy to Sweden in first EU quota relocation". The Guardian. 9 October 2015.
- Elisabetta Povoledo (9 October 2015). "Italy Sends Eritreans to Sweden as E.U. Migrant Relocations Begin". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- Andrew Higgins (25 October 2015). "European Leaders Look Again for a Unified Response to Migrant Crisis". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
- "Poland says it cannot accept migrants under EU quotas, following attacks in Paris". The Independent. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- "Poland says cannot take migrants under EU quotas without guarantees after Paris attacks". Reuters. 14 November 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Rick Lyman; Alison Smale (15 November 2015). "Paris Attacks Shift Europe's Migrant Focus to Security". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
- Eldar Emric, Demetri Nellas, and the Associated Press (14 November 2015). "Paris Attacks Provoke Fresh Migrant Fears in Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 November 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Hotspots für Flüchtlinge: Das hässliche Gesicht Deutschlands und der EU". – DEUTSCHE WIRTSCHAFTS NACHRICHTEN. 12 December 2015.
- James Kanter (15 December 2015). "E.U. Pushes to Take Over Border Security at Migrant Pressure Points". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 December 2015.
- "EU buries migration dispute for now". EUobserver.
- Gotev, Georgi (16 September 2016). "Schulz admits mandatory relocation of refugees has failed".
- "RELOCATION AND RESETTLEMENT 13 JUNE 2017" (PDF). Euriopean Commission. 13 June 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- "Relocation and Resettlement – State of Play" (PDF). European Commission. 8 February 2017. Retrieved 26 August 2017.
- "EU opens sanctions procedure against Hungary, Poland and Czech Republic over refugees". EURACTIV.com. 13 June 2017.
- "New Report Underlines the EU's Strategy in the War on Migration: Border Externalisation". Privacy International. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
- Bennett, M.B (2018). "The Refugee Crisis and the EU's Externalisation of Integrated Border Management to Libya and Turkey". EU Diplomacy Papers.
- European Parliament (2018). "Migration and Asylum: A Challenge for Europe". Asylum Policy.
- Bennett, M.B (2018). "The Refugee Crisis and the EU's Externalisation of Integrated Border Management to Libya and Turkey". EU Diplomacy Papers.
- "An Eu 'Safe Countries of Origin' List" (PDF). Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- "AN EU 'SAFE COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN' LIST". European Commission.
- "Migration summit: "We are in a race against time to save Schengen" – Tusk". Times of Malta. 12 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
- James Kanter (12 November 2015). "Europe Nears Accord With Turkey to Stem Tide of Refugees". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 November 2015.
- Agence France-Presse (12 February 2016). "Turkish president threatens to send millions of Syrian refugees to EU". The Guardian.
- "Migrant crisis: EU approves 3 bn-euro fund for Turkey". BBC News. 3 February 2016.
- "Turkey dismisses EU plan to resettle refugees in return for sealing sea route". The Guardian. 10 February 2016.
- "Feilschen um Formulierungen" (in German). Tagesschau. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- "The EU's response to the so-called refugee "crisis"" (PDF).
- "Harte Verhandlungen über türkische Vorschläge" (in German). Tagesschau. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Rankin, Jennifer (7 March 2016). "Resettling Syrians, aid and visa changes on table at EU-Turkey migration summit". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 7 March 2016.
- Stephanie Nebehay; Gabriela Baczynska (8 March 2016). "U.N., rights groups say EU-Turkey migrant deal may be illegal". Reuters. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- "Migrant crisis: EU-Turkey deal comes into effect". BBC News. 20 March 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
- "EU-Turkey Agreement: Questions and Answers". European Commission.
- Migrant crisis: Deportations resume from Greece to Turkey. BBC News. Published on 8 April 2016.
- "TR-Ankara: IPA – construction of reception and removal centres". publictenders.net. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- "UNHCR redefines role in Greece as EU-Turkey deal comes into effect". UNHCR. 22 March 2016.
- "Refugee crisis: key aid agencies refuse any role in 'mass expulsion'". The Guardian. 23 March 2016.
- Migrants given 24-hour deadline to reach Europe after Turkey and EU agree 'historic' deal M. Holehouse, R. Akkoc and N. Squires, The Daily Telegraph, 18 March 2016
- Mohdin, Aamna. "Countries are using the EU's greatest fear as their ultimate bargaining chip".
- "Turkey’s President Erdogan threatens to blow up EU migrant deal". The Australian. 9 April 2016.
- "Greece on edge, as Turkish coup prompts surge in new arrivals". euobserver.
- "Turkish police withdrawal from Greece stalls EU migration pact". The Guardian. theguardian. 31 August 2016.
- "Turkije dreigt met sturen migranten naar Europese Unie". NU.nl (in Dutch). 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Turkey Threatens To Send Europe 15,000 Refugees A Month". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
- Adamson, Fiona B; Tsourapas, Gerasimos (1 May 2019). "Migration Diplomacy in World Politics" (PDF). International Studies Perspectives. 20 (2): 113–128. doi:10.1093/isp/eky015. ISSN 1528-3577.
- "Turkey warns Europe it will open the floodgates to more migrants". The Independent. 25 November 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- "Turkey's Erdogan threatens to send 'millions' of refugees to Europe if EU calls Syria offensive 'invasion'". The Telegraph. 10 October 2019. Text "https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2019/10/10/turkeys-erdogan-threatens-send-millions-refugees-europe-eu-calls/" ignored (help); Missing or empty
- "Defying EU, Hungary suspends rules on asylum seekers". Reuters. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Germany opens its gates: Berlin says all Syrian asylum-seekers are welcome to remain, as Britain is urged to make a 'similar statement'". The Independent. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- "Germany 'to reinstate border controls' as country struggles with influx of refugees – live". The Independent. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "The Latest: Merkel says no legal limit to refugee numberse". KVOA. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- "Change in Czech refugee policy". The Prague Post. Retrieved 9 March 2015.
- Migrant crisis: Austria 'to end emergency migrant measures'. BBC News. 7 September 2015.
- "Denmark has shut down its rail link as refugees surge into Scandinavia". Business Insider. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Migrant crisis: Germany to start temporary border controls. BBC News
- "Policisté chystají zálohy pro dohled na hranici". novinky.cz. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Migrant crisis: Austria to deploy troops. BBC News.
- "Migrant crisis: Hungarian army stages border protection exercise". BBC News. Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- Europe migrant crisis: Hungary PM calls for €3bn Syria aid package. BBC News. 12 September 2015.
- "European migrant crisis: Hungary hits back at Austria's criticism of 'Nazi-like' asylum seeker policies". ABC.au. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- "Report: Refugees bused from Röszke to Austrian border". Budapest Business Journal. Retrieved 14 September 2015.
- Refugees start sit-down hunger strike in southern Hungary – media reports, RT
- Refugee crisis: Hungary declares state of emergency at Serbian border – live updates, The Guardian
- Than, Krisztina (16 September 2015). "Hungarian police fire water cannon and tear gas at migrants". Reuters. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
- Holehouse, Matthew (18 September 2015). "Refugee crisis: Croatia seals border crossings with Serbia". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "EU court rejects 'open-door' policy and upholds right of member states to deport refugees". The Daily Telegraph. 26 July 2017.
- "Traiskirchen Symptom systematischer Mängel im Umgang mit Asylwerbern" (in German). Amnesty International Österreich. Archived from the original on 14 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Lyman, Rick (5 April 2015). "Bulgaria Puts Up a New Wall, but This One Keeps People Out". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
- "Bulgaria keeps migrants out with 50 miles of razor wire along Turkish border". Daily Mail.
- "Potvrđene najave: Hrvatska će morati primiti 1064 izbjeglice". 24sata.hr (in Croatian). Retrieved 19 September 2015.
- "Španjolska neće primiti 3000 izbjeglica, dio ide u Hrvatsku". N1 HR.
- "JE LI HRVATSKA SPREMNA ZA IZBJEGLIČKI VAL? Želimo školovane izbjeglice, najbolje s djecom". jutarnji.hr.
- "Croatia president blames Angela Merkel for refugee crisis". The Daily Telegraph. 22 September.
- "Kolinda kaže da Hrvatska neće propuštati izbjeglice i da su to ionako većinom ekonomski migranti". www.index.hr.
- "MAPPED: How many refugees each European country will take under EU plans". Daily Express. 22 September 2015. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "EC failed in solving migration, quotas make no sense – Czech PM". ČTK. 8 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "President cites disease, terrorist sleeper cells as causes for concern". The Prague Post. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
- "Finance Minister Andrej Babiš calls on NATO to destroy human smugglers’ ships". Radio Prague. 9 September 2015.
- "Czech minister Babis criticises NATO´s stance on refugees". CeskeNoviny.cz. 10 September 2015.
- "Kalousek: Sebevědomá země jako Česko by se neměla bát tří tisíc uprchlíků" (in Czech). ČT24. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2015.