European roller

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

European roller
Coracias garrulus - European roller 05.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Coraciiformes
Family: Coraciidae
Genus: Coracias
C. garrulus
Binomial name
Coracias garrulus
  • C. g. garrulus
  • C. g. semenowi
Coracias garrulus distr new03.png
Distribution of the European roller
  summer C. g. garrulus
  summer C. g. semenowi
A ringed bird near Kecskemét, Hungary.

The European roller (Coracias garrulus) is the only member of the roller family of birds to breed in Europe. Its overall range extends into the Middle East, Central Asia and the Maghreb.

The European roller is found in a wide variety of habitats, avoiding only treeless plains. Nests usually in tree holes. It winters in Southern Africa - primarily in dry wooded savanna and bushy plains.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The European roller was formally described by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae under its current the binomial name Coracias garrulus.[2] The type locality is Sweden.[3] The generic name derives from Greek korakias referring to a type of crow, perhaps the red-billed chough. The specific epithet garrulus is from Latin and means 'chattering' in reference to the bird’s calls.[4][5] Alternate English names include the blue roller, common roller, Eurasian roller, or simply roller.[6]

A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2018 found that the European roller was most closely related to the Abyssinian roller (Coracias abyssinicus).[7]

The rollers are medium-sized Old World birds of open woodland habitats. They have brightly coloured plumage and a hooked bill. Most species are found south of the Sahara. The genus Coracias contains eight species of sit-and-wait hunters. The European roller is similar in appearance and behaviour to the Abyssinian roller. These two birds and the lilac-breasted roller have been considered to form subspecies.[8]

Two subspecies are recognised:[9][10]

  • Western European roller (C. g. garrulus) - Linnaeus, 1758: The nominate subspecies. Found in north-western Africa, southern Europe and east through north-western Iran to south-western Siberia.[11]
  • Eastern European roller (C. g. semenowi) - Loudon & Tschusi, 1902:[12] Also named the Kashmir roller. Found in Iraq and southern Iran east through Kashmir and southern Kazakhstan to Xinjiang in western China.[11]


In flight, Hungary

The European roller is a stocky bird, the size of a Eurasian jay at 29–32 cm (11–13 in) in length with a 52–58 cm (20–23 in) wingspan.[13] It is mainly blue with an orange-brown back.

This species is striking in its strong direct flight, with the brilliant blue contrasting with black flight feathers. Sexes are similar, but the juvenile is a drabber version of the adult.

The display of this bird is like that of a lapwing, with the twists and turns that give this species its English name.

The call is a harsh crow-like sound. It gives a raucous series of calls when nervous.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The European roller is a bird of warmer regions. The nominate subspecies breeds in northern Africa from Morocco to Tunisia, in southern and east-central Europe, and eastwards through northwestern Iran to southwestern Siberia. The subspecies C. g. semenowi breeds from Iraq and southern Iran east through Kashmir and southern Kazakhstan to Xinjiang. The European range was formerly more extensive, but there has been a long-term decline in the north and west, with extinction as a nesting bird in Sweden and Germany. The European roller is a long-distance migrant, wintering in Africa south of the Sahara in two distinct regions, from Senegal east to Cameroon and from Ethiopia west (with observations in the Degua Tembien mountains)[14] to Congo and south to South Africa.[11] Some populations migrate to Africa through India. A collision with an aircraft over the Arabian Sea has been recorded.[15][16]

Eggs of Coracias garrulus

It is a bird of warm, dry, open country with scattered trees, preferring lowlands, but occurs up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) in Europe and 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in Morocco. Oak and pine woodlands with open areas are prime breeding habitat, but farms, orchards and similar areas with mixed vegetation are also used. In Africa, a similarly wide range of dry, open land with trees is used.[11] It winters primarily in dry, wooded savanna and bushy plains, where it typically nests in tree holes.


The advent of sufficiently lightweight tracking technology has facilitated several recent studies of roller migration, providing new information on the non-breeding sites used by rollers from different breeding populations. Individuals from south-west European populations migrate to south-west Africa (Angola, Namibia, and Botswana), with French and north-Spanish birds taking a direct southerly route across the Sahara, while Portuguese and south-Spanish birds take a more westerly route around the west African coast.[17][18][19] Rollers from eastern European populations also spend the winter period in southern Africa, but further east in Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. The Sahel savannah region immediately south of the Sahara Desert (particularly the area around Lake Chad) appears to be important for rollers from many populations as an autumn re-fuelling site, and Latvian and other north and north-eastern populations migrate northwards via the Arabian Peninsula in spring.[20][21] Individuals from different breeding populations use distinct but overlapping winter sites; there is a good correlation between the longitude of individual breeding and non-breeding sites, suggesting parallel migration. In the east, the northernmost breeders (from Latvia) tend to winter south of the southernmost breeders (from Cyprus) - this suggests a pattern of 'leap-frog' migration.[20]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

The European roller chick will vomit a foul-smelling orange liquid onto itself to deter a predator. The smell also warns the parents on their return to the nest.[22][23]


A European roller bringing food to her nest

The nest site is usually in a natural cavity in a tree or in a hole excavated by a woodpecker. It is typically located 5–10 m (16–33 ft) above the ground. Pairs sometimes use a cavity in rocks or buildings and may occasionally excavate a hole in a sandy bank. The hole is unlined. The clutch is 2 to 6 white smooth glossy eggs that measure 35 mm × 28 mm (1.4 in × 1.1 in). They are laid at intervals of two or occasionally three days. They are incubated by both sexes but mainly by the female starting before the clutch is completed. They hatch after 17 to 19 days. The young are cared for by both parents but usually the male passes food to the female. The nestlings fledge after 26 to 27 days. Only a single brood is raised each year, but a replacement clutch is laid if the first is lost. European rollers generally first breed when they are two years old.[24]

The maximum age recorded from ring-recovery data is 9 years and 2 months for a bird shot in Poland.[25]

Food and feeding[edit]

Rollers often perch prominently on trees, posts or overhead wires, like giant shrikes, whilst watching for the large insects, small reptiles, rodents and frogs that they eat. The diet of adult rollers is dominated by beetles, whereas nestlings mostly eat Orthoptera, such as grasshoppers and bush crickets.[26]

Conservation status[edit]

The Eurasian roller has an extensive distribution in Europe and western Asia, and its European breeding population is estimated at 159,000 to 330,000 birds. When Asian breeders are added, this gives a global total population of 277,000 to 660,000 individuals. There have been fairly rapid population declines across much of its range, so it was formerly classified as near threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in 2005; it has, however, been downlisted to least concern in 2015, as population development was judged to not meet the criteria for a more urgent rating at this time.[1] The European population declined by 25 percent between 1990 and 2000. The northern areas of the breeding range have fared worst, with numbers in the Baltic states and northern Russia collapsing, and no birds left breeding in Estonia.[1][27]

Threats include hunting while on migration around the Mediterranean, and large numbers, possibly in the thousands, are killed for food in Oman. Agricultural practices have led to the loss of trees and hedges which provide potential nest sites and perches for hunting, and pesticides have reduced the availability of insect food.[1] At locations where foraging resources are abundant, providing nest boxes can be a useful short-term conservation solution; however, in other locations foraging habitat restoration is more important.[28]

The European roller is a host of the Acanthocephalan intestinal parasite Moniliformis gracilis.[29]


  1. ^ a b c d BirdLife International (2019). "Coracias garrulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2019: e.T22682860A154424974. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-3.RLTS.T22682860A154424974.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, C. (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Vol. 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae (Stockholm): Laurentii Salvii. p. 107.
  3. ^ Peters, J. L. (1945). Check-List of Birds of the World. Vol. 5. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 242.
  4. ^ Bewick, T. (1809). "The Roller". A history of British birds : the figures engraved on wood. Newcastle: Edward Walker, for T. Bewick. pp. 116–117.
  5. ^ Jobling, J. A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 117, 171. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  6. ^ Fry, H. (2001). "European Roller (Coracius garrulus". In del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Vol. 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. p. 373. ISBN 978-84-87334-30-6.
  7. ^ Johansson, U.S.; Irestedt, M.; Qu, Y.; Ericson, P. G. P. (2018). "Phylogenetic relationships of rollers (Coraciidae) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and fifteen nuclear genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 126: 17–22. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.03.030. PMID 29631051. S2CID 5011292.
  8. ^ Hoyo, J. del; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D. A. (eds.). "Coraciidae". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Spain: Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 10 September 2013. (subscription required)
  9. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David; Rasmussen, Pamela, eds. (January 2021). "Rollers, ground rollers, kingfishers". IOC World Bird List Version 11.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
  10. ^ Hoyo, Josep del; Elliott, Andrew; Sargatal, Jordi; Christie, David A (eds.). "European Roller". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 23 November 2013. (subscription required)
  11. ^ a b c d Fry et al. (1992) pp. 298–300.
  12. ^ Loudon, Harald von Freiherr; von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen, Viktor (1902). "Coracias garrulus semenowi Loudon & Tschusi nov. Subsp.". Ornithologisches Jahrbuch (in German). 13 (3, 4): 148–150.
  13. ^ Svensson, Lars; Mullarney, Killian; Zetterström, Dan (2009). Collins Bird Guide (2nd ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-00-726814-6.
  14. ^ Aerts, R.; Lerouge, F.; November, E. (2019). Birds of forests and open woodlands in the highlands of Dogu'a Tembien. In: Nyssen J., Jacob, M., Frankl, A. (Eds.). Geo-trekking in Ethiopia's Tropical Mountains - The Dogu'a Tembien District. SpringerNature. ISBN 978-3-030-04954-6.
  15. ^ Satheesan, S M (1990). "Bird-aircraft collision at an altitude of 2424 m over the sea". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 87 (1): 145–148.
  16. ^ Catry, Inês; Catry, Teresa; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Franco, Aldina M. A.; Moreira, Francisco (25 June 2014). "Unravelling migration routes and wintering grounds of European rollers using light-level geolocators". Journal of Ornithology. 155 (4): 1071–1075. doi:10.1007/s10336-014-1097-x. S2CID 17800650.
  17. ^ Emmenegger, Tamara; Mayet, Patrick; Duriez, Olivier; Hahn, Steffen (8 November 2013). "Directional shifts in migration pattern of rollers (Coracias garrulus) from a western European population". Journal of Ornithology. 155 (2): 427–433. doi:10.1007/s10336-013-1023-7. S2CID 15263301.
  18. ^ Catry, Inês; Catry, Teresa; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Franco, Aldina M. A.; Moreira, Francisco (2014-10-01). "Unravelling migration routes and wintering grounds of European rollers using light-level geolocators". Journal of Ornithology. 155 (4): 1071–1075. doi:10.1007/s10336-014-1097-x. ISSN 2193-7192. S2CID 17800650.
  19. ^ Rodríguez-Ruiz, Juan; Puente, Javier de la; Parejo, Deseada; Valera, Francisco; Calero-Torralbo, Miguel A.; Reyes-González, José M.; Zajková, Zuzana; Bermejo, Ana; Avilés, Jesús M. (2014-12-31). "Disentangling Migratory Routes and Wintering Grounds of Iberian Near-Threatened European Rollers Coracias garrulus". PLOS ONE. 9 (12): e115615. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...9k5615R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115615. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4281181. PMID 25551212.
  20. ^ a b Finch, Tom; Saunders, Philip; Avilés, Jesús Miguel; Bermejo, Ana; Catry, Inês; de la Puente, Javier; Emmenegger, Tamara; Mardega, Ieva; Mayet, Patrick (2015-09-01). "A pan-European, multipopulation assessment of migratory connectivity in a near-threatened migrant bird" (PDF). Diversity and Distributions. 21 (9): 1051–1062. doi:10.1111/ddi.12345. ISSN 1472-4642.
  21. ^ Finch, Tom; Dunning, Jamie; Kiss, Orsolya; Račinskis, Edmunds; Schwartz, Timothée; Sniauksta, Laimonas; Szekeres, Otto; Tokody, Béla; Franco, Aldina (2017-01-01). "Insights into the migration of the European Roller from ring recoveries". Journal of Ornithology. 158 (1): 83–90. doi:10.1007/s10336-016-1374-y. ISSN 2193-7192. PMC 7175680. PMID 32355602.
  22. ^ ""Vomit Bird" Throws Up a Defense Against Predators". Discovery News. Discovery Channel. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
  23. ^ Nascimento, Fabio S.; Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M.; Peña, Aránzazu; Sánchez, Lourdes; Ruano, Francisca; Zamora-Muñoz, Carmen; Martín-Vivaldi, Manuel (2013). "Armed Rollers: Does Nestling's Vomit Function as a Defence against Predators?". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e68862. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...868862P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068862. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3707886. PMID 23874791.
  24. ^ Cramp 1985, p. 764.
  25. ^ "European Longevity Records". Euring. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  26. ^ Catry, I.; Sampaio, A.; Silva, M.C.; Moreira, F.; Franco, A.M.A.; Catry, T. (2019). "Combining stable isotope analysis and conventional techniques to improve knowledge of the diet of the European Roller Coracias garrulus" (PDF). Ibis. 161 (2): 272–285. doi:10.1111/ibi.12625. S2CID 91151546.
  27. ^ Coracias garrulusLinnaeus, 1758 GBIF Estonia
  28. ^ Finch, T.; Branston, C.; Clewlow, H.; Dunning, J.; Franco, A.M.A.; Račinskis, E.; Schwartz, T.; Butler, S,J. (2019). "Context‐dependent conservation of the cavity‐nesting European Roller". Ibis. 161 (3): 573–589. doi:10.1111/ibi.12650.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  29. ^ Amin, Omar M.; Heckmann, Richard A.; Osama, Mohammed; Evans, R. Paul (2016). "Morphological and molecular descriptions of Moniliformis saudi sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) in Saudi Arabia, with a key to species and notes on histopathology". Folia Parasitologica. 63. doi:10.14411/fp.2016.014. ISSN 0015-5683. PMID 27189420.

Cited texts[edit]

  • Cramp, Stanley, ed. (1985). "Coracias garrulus Roller". Handbook of the Birds of Europe the Middle East and North Africa. The Birds of the Western Palearctic. Vol. IV: Terns to Woodpeckers. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 764–776. ISBN 978-0-19-857507-8.
  • Fry, C Hilary; Fry, Kathie; Harris, Alan (1992). Kingfishers, Bee-eaters and Rollers. London: Helm. ISBN 978-0-7136-8028-7.

External links[edit]