|This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (May 2015)|
This article is part of a series on the
Euroscepticism (also known as EU-scepticism, from the Greek word scepsis meaning doubt) literally means criticism of the European Union (EU). Some observers though prefer to understand opposition to and total rejection of the EU (anti-EU-ism) as 'Euroscepticism'.
Traditionally, the main source of Euroscepticism has been the notion that integration weakens the nation state, and a desire to slow, halt or reverse integration within the EU. Other views often held by Eurosceptics include perceptions of a democratic deficit in the European Union or a belief that the EU is too bureaucratic. Euroscepticism should not be confused with anti-Europeanism, which refers to the rejection of the culture of Europe and Europeanisation, and sentiments, opinions and discrimination against European ethnic groups. A Eurobarometer survey of EU citizens in 2009 showed that support for membership of the EU was lowest in Latvia, the United Kingdom, and Hungary. By 2016, the countries viewing the EU most unfavourably were Greece, France, Spain and the UK. Euroscepticism is found in political parties across the political spectrum; however, the rise in populist right-wing parties in Europe is strongly linked to a rise in Euroscepticism on the continent.
EU citizens' trust in the EU and its institutions has declined strongly since a peak in 2007. In 2016, a referendum was held asking whether the United Kingdom either should remain a member of, or leave, the European Union; this resulted in a majority of votes in favour of leaving the EU.
- 1 Global outlook
- 2 Terminology
- 3 Eurobarometer surveys
- 4 History in the European Parliament
- 5 Euroscepticism in the EU member states
- 5.1 Austria
- 5.2 Belgium
- 5.3 Bulgaria
- 5.4 Croatia
- 5.5 Czech Republic
- 5.6 Cyprus
- 5.7 Denmark
- 5.8 Estonia
- 5.9 Finland
- 5.10 France
- 5.11 Germany
- 5.12 Greece
- 5.13 Hungary
- 5.14 Ireland
- 5.15 Italy
- 5.16 Latvia
- 5.17 Lithuania
- 5.18 Luxembourg
- 5.19 Malta
- 5.20 Netherlands
- 5.21 Poland
- 5.22 Portugal
- 5.23 Romania
- 5.24 Slovakia
- 5.25 Slovenia
- 5.26 Spain
- 5.27 Sweden
- 5.28 United Kingdom
- 6 Euroscepticism in other possible members
- 7 See also
- 8 Footnotes
- 9 References
While having some overlaps, Euroscepticism and anti-Europeanism are different. Anti-Europeanism has always had a strong influence in American culture and American exceptionalism, which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or both. Some aspects of euroscepticism in the United Kingdom have been mirrored by US authors.
There can be considered to be several different types of Eurosceptic thought, which differ in the extent to which adherents reject European integration and in their reasons for doing so. Aleks Szczerbiak and Paul Taggart described two of these as hard and soft Euroscepticism.
According to Taggart and Szczerbiak, hard euroscepticism (also called Anti-EU-ism) is "a principled opposition to the EU and European integration and therefore can be seen in parties who think that their counties should withdraw from membership, or whose policies towards the EU are tantamount to being opposed to the whole project of European integration as it is currently conceived."
The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament, typified by such parties as the United Kingdom Independence Party, is hard Eurosceptic. In western European EU member countries, hard Euroscepticism is currently a hallmark of many anti-establishment parties.
Some hard Eurosceptics such as UKIP prefer to call themselves Eurorealists rather than 'sceptics', and regard their position as pragmatic rather than "in principle". Additionally, Tony Benn – a left-wing Labour MP who fought against European integration in 1975 by opposing membership of the European Common Market in that year's referendum on the issue – emphasised his opposition to xenophobia and support of democracy, saying: "My view about the European Union has always been not that I am hostile to foreigners, but that I am in favour of democracy ... I think they're building an empire there, they want us to be a part of their empire and I don't want that."
The Czech president Václav Klaus rejected the term "Euroscepticism", with its purported negative undertones, saying (at a meeting in April 2012) that the expressions for a Eurosceptic and their opponent should be "a Euro-realist" and someone who is "Euro-naïve", respectively.
François Asselineau of the French Popular Republican Union has criticised the use of the term sceptic to describe hard Eurosceptics and would rather advocate the use of the term "Euro opponent". However, he believes the use of the term sceptic for soft Eurosceptics to be correct, since other Eurosceptic parties in France are "merely criticising" the EU without taking into account the fact that the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union can only be modified with a unanimous agreement of all the EU member states, something he considers impossible to achieve.
Soft Euroscepticism is support for the existence of, and membership of, a form of European Union, but with opposition to specific EU policies. Or in Taggart's and Szczerbiak's words "where there is NOT a principled objection to European integration or EU membership but where concerns on one (or a number) of policy areas lead to the expression of qualified opposition to the EU, or where there is a sense that 'national interest' is currently at odds with the EU's trajectory." The European Conservatives and Reformists group, typified by centre-right parties such as the British Conservative Party or Czech Civic Democratic Party, along with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left which is an alliance of the left-wing parties in the European Parliament, is soft Eurosceptic.
Criticism of terms soft and hard euroscepticism
Some have claimed that there is no clear line between hard and soft euroscepticism. Kopecky and Mudde have said that if the demarcation line is the number of and which policies a party opposes then how many must a party oppose and which ones should a party oppose that makes them hard eurosceptic instead of soft.
Some scholars consider the gradual difference in terminology between hard and soft Euroscepticism inadequate to accommodate the large differences in terms of political agenda. Therefore, hard Euroscepticism has also been referred to as Europhobia, as opposed to mere Euroscepticism. Other alternative names for hard and soft Euroscepticism include withdrawalist respectively reformist Euroscepticism.
A survey in November 2015[update], conducted by TNS Opinion and Social on behalf of the European Commission, showed that, for the European Union overall, those with a positive image of the EU are down from a high of 52% in 2007 to 37% in Autumn 2015; this compares with 23% with a negative image of the EU, and 38% with a neutral image. About 43% of Europeans thought things were "going in the wrong direction” in the EU, compared with 23% who thought things were going "in the right direction" (11% "Don't know"). About 32% of EU citizens tend to trust the European Union as an institution, and about 55% do not tend to trust it (13% "Don't know"). Distrust of the EU was highest in Greece (81%), Cyprus (72%), Austria (65%), France (65%) Germany (63%), the United Kingdom (63%) and the Czech Republic (63%). Overall, more respondents distrusted their own government (66%) than the EU (55%). Distrust of national government was highest in Greece (82%), Slovenia (80%), Portugal (79%), Cyprus (76%) and France (76%).
History in the European Parliament
A study analysed voting records of the Fifth European Parliament and ranked groups, concluding: "Towards the top of the figure are the more pro-European parties (PES, EPP-ED, and ALDE), whereas towards the bottom of the figure are the more anti-European parties (EUL/NGL, G/EFA, UEN and EDD)."
In 2004, 37 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the UK, Poland, Denmark and Sweden founded a new European Parliament group called "Independence and Democracy" from the old Europe of Democracies and Diversities (EDD) group.
The main goals of the ID group were to reject the proposed Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe. Some delegations within the group, notably the United Kingdom Independence Party, also advocate the complete withdrawal of their country from the EU whilst others only wish to limit further European integration.
The elections in 2009 saw a significant drop in some areas in support for Eurosceptic parties, with all MEPs from Poland, Denmark and Sweden losing their seats. However, in the UK, the Eurosceptic United Kingdom Independence Party achieved second place in the elections, finishing ahead of the governing Labour Party, and the British National Party (BNP) won its first ever two MEPs. Although new members joined the ID group from Greece and the Netherlands, it was unclear as to whether the ID group would reform in the new parliament.
The elections in 2014 saw a big anti-establishment vote in favour of Eurosceptic parties taking around 25% of the seats available. Those who won their national elections include: UKIP in the UK (the first time since 1906 that a party other than Labour or the Conservatives had won a national vote), National Front in France, The People's Party in Denmark, SYRIZA in Greece, and second places taken by Sinn Féin in Ireland and Five Star Movement in Italy. Following the election, European Council President Herman Van Rompuy agreed to re-evaluate the economic area's agenda and to launch consultations on future policy areas with the 28 member states.
Euroscepticism in the EU member states
As of 2013, six parties together hold all 183 National Council seats, and all bar one of the 62 Federal Council seats and 19 European Parliament seats. Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs (social democrats), who hold 56/183 NC, 24/62 FC, and 5/19 EP seats, are pro-European integration. Austrian People's Party (conservative/Christian), who hold 51/183 NC, 28/62 FC, and 6/19 EP seats, are pro-European integration. And Die Grünen – Die Grüne Alternative (green), who hold 20/183 NC, 3/62 FC, and 2/19 EP seats, are also pro-European integration.
Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs (FPÖ), established in 1956, is a right-wing populist party who mainly attract support from young people and workers. In 1989, they changed their stance over the European Union to euroscepticism. They opposed Austria joining the EU in 1994, and opposed the introduction of the euro in 1998. The party would like to leave the union if Turkey joins the EU or if the EU threatens to develop into a country. In the 1990s the party received 20–27% of the national vote, and recently received 17.5% in 2008. It currently has 34/183 National Council seats, 4/62 Federal Council seats, and 2/19 European Parliament seats.
Bündnis Zukunft Österreich, established in 2005, are a socially conservative party that had always held eurosceptical elements. In 2011, the party openly supported leaving the Euro-Zone, and in 2012, the party announced they supported a full withdrawal from the European Union. The party has also called upon a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty. In polls it currently receives around 10%–15%, although in one state it did receive 45% of the vote in 2009. It currently has 13/183 National Council seats, 0/62 Federal Council seats, and 1/19 European Parliament seats.
Team Stronach, established in 2012, have campaigned to reform the European Union, as well as replace the euro with an Austrian Euro. In 2012, they regularly received between 8–10% national support in polls. Politicians from many different parties including the Social Democratic Party (socialist), Bündnis Zukunft Österreich (conservative) as well as previous independents, switched their allegiances to the new party upon creation. In two local elections in March 2013, it won 11% of the vote in Carinthia, and 10% of the vote in Lower Austria. It currently has 6/183 National Council seats, 1/62 Federal Council seats, and 0/19 European Parliament seats.
Ewald Stadler, former member of FPÖ (and latter BZÖ) was very Eurosceptic but in 2011 became member of the European Parliament due to the Lisbon Treaty. Before Stadler accepted the seat, this led to heavy critics by Jörg Leichtfried (SPÖ) "Stadler wants to just rescue his political career" because Stadler before mentioned he would never accept a seat as MEP if this was only due to the Lisbon Treaty. On 23 December 2013 he founded a conservative and eurosceptic party called The Reform Conservatives.
In the 2014 European Elections, the Eurosceptic Freedom Party of Austria increased their vote to 19.72% (up 7.01%) gaining 2 new MEP's giving them 4 in total, coming 3rd behind the Austrian People's Party and Social Democratic Party of Austria. EU-STOP (the electoral alliance of the EU Withdrawal Party and the Neutral Free Austria Federation) polled 2.76% with no seats gained and the Reform Conservatives 1.18% with Team Stronach putting up no candidates.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are Union of Communists in Bulgaria, NFSB, Attack, and VMRO – BND (also to some degree Bulgaria Without Censorship, which is in a coalition with VMRO – BND, both members of the Eurosceptic European Conservatives and Reformists). In 2011 Bulgaria's Minister of Finance Simeon Djankov stated that ERM II membership to enter the Euro zone would be postponed until after the Eurozone crisis had stabilised.
In the European Parliament election, 2014, Bulgaria remained overwhelmingly pro-EU, with the Eurosceptic Attack party losing 9% to get 2.96% of the vote with the splinter group National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria taking 3.05%, neither getting any MEP's.
Followers of the Eurosceptic party Attack tore down and trampled the European flag on 3 March 2016, at a meeting of the party in the Bulgarian capital Sofia, dedicated to the commemoration of the 138th anniversary of the liberation of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire.
Parties with Eurosceptic views are mainly small right-wing parties like Croatian Party of Rights, Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević, Croatian Pure Party of Rights, Autochthonous Croatian Party of Rights, Croatian Christian Democratic Party and Only Croatia – Movement for Croatia.
Petr Mach, an economist, a close associate of president Václav Klaus and a member of the Civic Democratic Party between 1997 and 2007, founded the Free Citizens Party in 2009. The party aims to mainly attract dissatisfied Civic Democratic Party voters. At the time of the Lisbon Treaty ratification, they were actively campaigning against it, supported by the president Vaclav Klaus, who demanded opt-outs such as were granted to the United Kingdom and Poland, unlike the governing Civic Democratic Party, who endorsed it in the Chamber of Deputies. After the treaty has been ratified, Mach's party is in favour of withdrawing from the European Union completely. After 2014 European Parliament election, Free Citizens Party have won one mandate and have allied with UKIP in the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFD).
After 2013 Czech legislative election there is in Parliament represented soft Eurosceptic Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Dawn - National Coalition (Dawn) which have split into new hard Eurosceptic Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) in 2015. The position of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) on European integration is unclear.
The People's Movement against the EU only takes part in European Parliament elections and has one member in the European Parliament. The soft Eurosceptic June Movement, originally a split-off from the People's Movement against the EU, existed from 1992 to 2009.
In the Danish Parliament, the Unity List has withdrawal from the EU as a policy. The Danish People's Party also advocate withdrawal, but has claimed to support some EU structures such as the internal market, and supported the EU-positive Liberal-Conservative coalition 2001–2011.
The Socialist People's Party, minorities within the Social Liberal Party and Social Democratic Party, and some smaller parties were against accession to the European Union in 1972. Still in 1986, these parties advocated a no vote in the Single European Act referendum. Later, the Social Liberal Party changed to a strongly EU-positive party, and EU opposition within the Social Democratic Party faded. The Socialist People's Party were against the Amsterdam Treaty in 1998 and Denmark's joining the euro in 2000, but has become increasingly EU positive, for example when MEP Margrete Auken left the European United Left–Nordic Green Left and joined the The Greens–European Free Alliance in 2004.
In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Danish People's Party came first by a large margin with 26.6% of the vote, gaining 2 extra seats giving it 4 MEPs. The People's Movement against the EU also polled 8.1% retaining their single MEP.
The Independence Party and Centre Party were against accession to the EU, but only the Independence Party still wants Estonia to withdraw from the European Union. The Conservative People's Party (EKRE) also carries some Euroscepticist policies.
Distinctively a soft Eurosceptic Finnish party is The Finns Party, and hard Eurosceptics are supporters of the Independence Party, Communist Party of Finland and Workers Party of Finland. In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Finns Party increased their vote share by 3.1% to 12.9%, adding a second MEP.
In Eurobarometer 77 (fieldwork in Spring 2012), 41% of Finns trusted the European Union (EU-27 average: 31%), 51% trusted The European Parliament (EU-27average: 40%), and 74% were in favour of the euro currency (EU-27 average: 52%).
In France, many parties are more or less radically Eurosceptic, varying from advocating less EU intervention in national affairs to advocating outright withdrawal from the EU as it is and from the Eurozone. These parties belong to all sides of the political spectrum so the reasons for their Euroscepticism may differ, but they all opposed the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon. Many French people are uninterested in such matters: only 40% of the French electorate voted in the 2009 European Parliament elections.
Moderate right-leaning Eurosceptic parties include the Gaullist Debout la République, and also the Mouvement pour la France, and Chasse, Pêche, Nature & Traditions, both of which joined Libertas, a pan-European Eurosceptic party. In the 2009 European Parliament elections, Debout la République received 1.77% of the national vote, and Libertas 4.8%. In a similar way to the moderate parties, the French far right in general is naturally opposed to the EU, as they criticise France's loss of political and economic sovereignty to a supranational entity. The main far right political party is the Front National (FN). The FN received 6.5% of the votes, making it the largest Eurosceptic party in France.
Left-wing Eurosceptic parties tend to criticise the liberal agenda of the EU, although they usually support a unification of countries (albeit under a socialist system) and the abolition of national borders. They include the Parti de Gauche and the French Communist Party, which formed the Front de Gauche for the 2009 European Parliament elections and received 6.3% of the votes. The leader of the Left Front defends a complete reform of the Monetary Union rather than the withdrawal of France from the Eurozone. The other major far-left Eurosceptic parties are the New Anticapitalist Party which received 4.8% and Lutte Ouvrière which received 1.2%. The Citizen and Republican Movement, a left-wing Eurosceptic and souverainist party, did not participate in the 2009 elections.
In the European Parliament election, 2014, the National Front won the elections with 24.85% of the vote, a swing of 18.55%, winning 24 seats, up from 3 previously. The French President François Hollande has since called for the EU to be reformed and to scale back its power.
The Alternative for Germany (AfD) is Germany's largest Eurosceptic party. It has no seats in the national parliament, but 35 seats in state parliaments. AfD received 4.7% of the vote in the 2013 federal parliamentary elections.
Initially AfD was a soft Eurosceptic party, that considered itself pro-Europe and pro-EU, but opposed the euro, which it believed had undermined European integration.
In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Alternative for Germany came 5th with 7% of the vote, winning 7 seats and is a member of the Eurosceptic European Conservatives and Reformists. The Alternative for Germany went on to take seats in three state legislatures in the Autumn of 2014.
In July 2015 a split from AfD created a new Eurosceptic party called Alliance for Progress and Renewal.
Golden Dawn, Communist Party of Greece (KKE), ANEL, Course of Freedom, Popular Unity, Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow, I Don't Pay Movement, and LAOS are the main Eurosceptic parties in Greece. According to the London School of Economics, Greece is the 2nd most Eurosceptic country in the European Union, with 50% (only behind UK) of the Greeks thinking that their country has not benefited at all from the EU. Meanwhile, 33% of the Greeks views Greek membership in EU as a good thing, marginally ahead of UK. 81% of the Greeks say that the EU is going in the wrong direction. These figures represent a major increase in Euroscepticism in Greece since 2009. In June 2012, the Eurosceptic parties in Greece that were represented in the parliament before the Election in January 2015 (ANEL, Golden Dawn, KKE) got 45.8% of the votes and 40.3% of the seats in the parliament. In the legislative election of January 2015 the pro-European (left and right-wing) parties (ND, PASOK, POTAMI, KIDISO, EK and Prasinoi-DIMAR) got 43.28% of the votes. The Eurosceptic parties got 54.64%. The Eurosceptic left (KKE, ANTARSYA-MARS and KKE (M–L)/M–L KKE) got 42.58% of the votes and the Eurosceptic right (Golden Dawn, ANEL and LAOS) got 12.06% of the votes, with SYRIZA ahead with 36.34%. The eurosceptic parties got 194 seats in the new parliament and the pro-EU parties got 106 seats. According to the polls conducted in June and July 2015 (12 polls), the Eurosceptic left would get on average 48.03% (excluding extraparliamentary parties as ANTARSYA-MARS and KKE (m–l)/ML-KKE), the parliamentary pro-EU parties (Potami, New Democracy and PASOK) would get 33.82%, the extra-parliamentary (not represented in the Hellenic Parliament) pro-EU parties (KIDISO and EK) would get 4.44% and the Eurosceptic right would get 10.2% (excluding extraparliamentary parties, such as LAOS, not displayed on recent opinion polls). The soft Eurosceptic parties would get 42.31%, the hard Eurosceptic parties (including KKE, ANEL and Golden Dawn) would get 15.85%, and the pro-EU parties (including extra-parliamentary parties displayed on opinion polls) would get 38.27% of the votes.
In the European Parliament election, 2014, SYRIZA won the election with 26.58% of the vote (a swing of 21.88%) taking 6 seats (up 5), with Golden Dawn coming 3rd taking 3 seats, the Communist Party taking 2 seats and the Independent Greeks gaining their first ever seat. SYRIZA 's leader Tsipras said he's not anti-European and does not want to leave the euro. According to the The Economist, Tsipras is willing to negotiate with Greece's European partners, and it is believed a Syriza victory could encourage radical leftist parties across Europe. Alexis Tsipras vowed to reverse many of the austerity measures adopted by Greece since a series of bailouts began in 2010, at odds with the Eurogroup's positions. The current government coalition in Greece is composed by SYRIZA and ANEL (right-wing hard Eurosceptic party, led by Panos Kammenos, who is the current Minister of Defence).
Viktor Orbán is the soft Eurosceptic Prime Minister of Hungary for the national-conservative Fidesz Party. A hardline Eurosceptic party in Hungary is Jobbik, a radical, xenophobic and Far-right party.
In Hungary 39% of the population have a positive image of the EU, 20% have a negative image, and 40% neutral (1% "Don't know").
In the Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014, Fidesz got 44.54% of the votes, Jobbik got 20.54% of the votes and the communist Hungarian Workers' Party got 0.58% of the votes, turning Hungary into one of the most Eurosceptic countries in Europe (total: 65.66% of the votes).
The green-liberal Politics Can Be Different classifies as a soft or reformist Eurosceptic party given its self-professed euro-critical stance. During the European parliamentary campaign of 2014 party Co-President András Schiffer described LMP as having a pronounced pro-integration position on environmental, wage and labour policy however, as supporting member state autonomy on the self-determination of local communities concerning land resources. So as to combat the differentiated integration of the multi-speed Europe which discriminates against Eastern and Southern member states, LMP would like to initiate an eco-social market economy within the union.
The Irish people initially voted against ratifying the Nice and Lisbon Treaties, however following renegotiations, second referendums on both were passed with about 2:1 majorities in both cases. Some commentators and smaller political groups questioned the validity of the Irish Government's decision to call second referendums.
The left-wing Irish republican party Sinn Féin is one party which expresses soft Eurosceptic positions on the current structure of the European Union and the direction in which it is moving. The party expresses, "support for Europe-wide measures that promote and enhance human rights, equality and the all-Ireland agenda", but has a "principled opposition" to a European superstate. However, in its manifesto for the 2015 UK general election, Sinn Féin pledged that the party would campaign for the UK to stay within the EU. In the last European Parliament election in 2014, Sinn Féin won 3 seats coming second with 19.5% of the vote up 8.3%.
The Trotskyist organisation, the Socialist Party, which won 3 seats in Dáil Eireann in the 2016 General Elections, supports breaking the EU's rules and supported the Brexit result. It argues that the European Union is institutionally capitalist and neoliberal. The Socialist Party campaigned against the Lisbon and Nice Treaties and favours the foundation of an alternative Socialist European Union.
The Five Star Movement (M5S), an anti-establishment movement founded by the former comedian Beppe Grillo, can be considered a soft Eurosceptic party. The M5S gained 25.5% of vote in the 2013 general election, becoming the largest anti-establishment and Eurosceptic party in Europe. The party also advocates a non-binding referendum on the withdrawal of Italy from the Eurozone (but not from the European Union) and the return to the lira. The M5S's popular support is evenly distributed all across Italy, but in 2013 the party was particularly strong in Sicily, Liguria and Marche, where it gained more than 30% of the vote.
Another Eurosceptic party is Lega Nord, a regionalist movement led by Matteo Salvini favouring Italy's exit from the Eurozone and the re-introduction of the lira. When in government, LN however approved the Treaty of Lisbon. The party won 6.2% of the vote in the 2014 European Parliament elections, but two of its leading members are presidents of Lombardy and Veneto (where LN gained 40.9% of the vote in 2015).
In the European Parliament election, 2014 the Five Star Movement came 2nd gaining 17 seats and 21.2% of the vote in its first time contesting this election. Lega Nord took 5 seats and The Other Europe with Tsipras gained 3 seats.
According to 18 opinion polls conducted in July 2015, the pro-EU parties that were polled (Democratic Party, Forza Italia, Civic Choice, Union of the Centre and New Centre-Right) would get, on average, 49.5% of the votes, while the Eurosceptic parties (Five Star Movement, Lega Nord, Us with Salvini, Left Ecology Freedom and Brothers of Italy) would get 47.05% of the votes.
The Labour Party was not in favour of Malta entering the European Union. They, however were in favour of a partnership with the EU. After a long battle the Nationalist Party led by Eddie Fenech Adami won the referendum and the following election, making Malta one of the states to enter the European Union on 1 May 2004. The party is now pro-European.
The Libertas Party is inactive, as of 2016.
Historically, the Netherlands have been a very pro-European country, being one of the six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952, and campaigning with much effort to include the United Kingdom into the Community in the 1970s and others after that. It has become slightly more Eurosceptic in the 2000s, rejecting the European Constitution in 2005 and complaining about the relatively high financial investment into the Union or the democratic deficit amongst other issues.
- The nationalist Party for Freedom (founded in 2006) wants the Netherlands to leave the EU in its entirety, because it believes the EU is undemocratic, costs money and cannot close the borders for immigrants.
- The Socialist Party believes the European Union has already brought Europe 50 years of peace and prosperity, and argues that European co-operation is essential for tackling global problems like climate change and international crime. However, the SP opines that the current Union is dominated by the big businesses and the big countries, while the labour movement, consumer organisations and smaller companies are often left behind. "Neoliberal" measures have supposedly increased social inequality, and perhaps the Union is expanding too fast and taking on too much power in issues that should be dealt with on a national level.
- The conservative Protestant Reformed Political Party and the Christian Union favour co-operation within Europe, but reject a superstate, especially one that is dominated by Catholics, or that infringes on religious rights and/or privileges.
- The ecologist Party for the Animals favours European co-operation, but believes the current EU does not respect animal rights enough and should have a more active policy on environment protection.
Despite these concerns, in 2014 the majority of the Dutch electorate continued to support parties that favour ongoing European integration: the Social Democrats, the Christian Democrats, the Liberals, but most of all the (Liberal) Democrats.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are KORWiN, Congress of the New Right, National Movement (together with Real Politics Union) and Law and Justice, a Right-wing populist social conservative party which is currently one of the two main parties in Poland, among with pro-European liberal Civic Platform.
The former president of Poland Lech Kaczyński resisted the signature of the Treaty of Lisbon, namely in what concerned to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Subsequently, Poland got an opt-out from this charter. As Polish President, Kaczyński also slammed the Polish government's intentions to join the eurozone.
Parties with mainly Eurosceptic views are National Renovator Party, MRPP, Portuguese Communist Party, and Left Bloc. The Democratic Republican Party is a new centrist soft Eurosceptic party. The People's Party, once a Eurosceptic party is now a soft pro-European party member of the EPP. As of 2015[update], in Portugal, 48 per cent tended not to trust the EU, while 79 per cent tended not to trust the Portuguese government. The Eurosceptic parties currently hold 36 out of 230 seats in the parliament. The Euroscepticism of the left-wing prevails in Portugal.
Several parties espousing Eurosceptic views exist on the right, such as the New Republic the Greater Romania Party and Noua Dreaptă, but as of August 2016 none of these parties are represented in European Parliament. Euroscepticism is relatively unpopular in Romania; all mainstream political parties are pro-European and a 2015 survey found 65% of Romanians had a positive view of the country's EU membership.
Parties with primarily hard Eurosceptic views represented in the National Council are People's Party - Our Slovakia, We Are Family, and the Freedom and Solidarity. Prominent Slovak Eurosceptic politicians include Richard Sulík, Boris Kollár and Marian Kotleba. Soft Eurosceptic views are represented in Slovak National Party, Direction – Social Democracy, Ordinary People and Independent Personalities and New Majority.
Spain was one of the few countries to vote Yes for the European Constitution in a referendum in February 2005, though by a lower margin in Catalonia and the Basque Country. However, trust in the EU later declined. As of 2015[update], according to a Eurobarometer public opinion survey, 61 per cent of the Spanish people did not trust the EU, compared to 25% that trust it (14% "don't know").
The June List, a Eurosceptic list consisting of members from both the political right and left won three seats in the 2004 Elections to the European Parliament and sat in the EU-critical IND/DEM group in the European Parliament. The movement Folkrörelsen Nej till EU favours a withdrawal from the EU.
In general, the people are more Eurosceptic than the parties. Around 80% of the Riksdag members represent parties that officially supports the Sweden membership.
Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom has been a significant element in British politics since the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor to the EU. The European Union strongly divides the British public, political parties, media and civil society.
The UK Independence Party has backed the idea of the UK's unilaterally leaving the European Union (Brexit) since its inception. During the 23 June 2016 referendum on the issue, the Conservatives had no official position on the issue; although its leader David Cameron was in favour of remaining in the EU, the party was divided on the issue. The Labour Party officially supported remaining in the EU, although party leader Jeremy Corbyn did suggest early on in the campaign that he would consider withdrawal. The Liberal Democrats were the most adamantly pro-EU party, and since the referendum, pro-Europeanism has been their main policy.
The referendum resulted in an overall vote to leave the EU, as opposed to remaining an EU member, by 51.9% (37.5% of eligible voters) to 48.1% (34.7% of eligible voters), on a turnout of 72.2%. The vote was split between the constituent countries of the United Kingdom, with a majority in England and Wales voting to leave, and a majority in Scotland and Northern Ireland, as well as Gibraltar (a British Overseas Territory), voting to remain. As a result of the referendum, "We are the 48 percent" has become a pro-EU slogan among those who voted to remain in the EU.
Euroscepticism in other possible members
The two main Eurosceptic parties are Independence Party and Progressive Party. The parties won the parliamentary election in April 2013 and they have halted the current negotiations with the European Union regarding Icelandic membership and tabled a parliamentary resolution on 21 February 2013 to withdraw the application completely.
The public opinion was lightly positive in 2008–2009 during the currency crisis. Later the public opinion became more negative, with an average of 70% of those who stated an opinion on membership being negative. In early 2014 the tide turned a bit in the polls with 58% against and 42% for. Paradoxically a large majority has consistently been for proceeding with the EU membership application, the most common reason cited being curiosity about what terms EU will offer.
The two main Eurosceptic parties are left-wing Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova which officially declared its main purpose the integration of Moldova in the Eurasian Economic Union and Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova, even if nowadays its leader speech became more soft on the issue of Euroscepticism. As of November 2014 both parties are represented in Moldovan Parliament, with 45 MPs out of a total of 101 MPs.
All parliamentary parties in Montenegro officially support the country's bid for accession to the European Union. The only party that rejects the European integration and instead publicly advocates a tighter political and economic integration with Russia is the non-parliamentary right-wing party Serb List.
Norway has rejected EU membership in two referendums, 1972 and 1994. The Centre Party, Christian Democratic Party, the Christians, the Socialist Left Party, the Red Party and the Liberal Party were against EU membership in both referendums. The Centre Party, the Red Party and the Socialist Left Party are also against Norway's current membership of the European Economic Area. The Green Party have not taken a stance on the issue.
Following the 2014 Crimean crisis, the European Union issued sanctions on the Russian Federation "in response to the illegal annexation of Crimea and deliberate destabilisation of a neighbouring sovereign country". In response to this, Alexey Borodavkin – Russia's permanent representative with the UN – said "The EU is committing a direct violation of human rights by its actions against Russia. The unilateral sanctions introduced against us are not only illegitimate according to international law, they also undermine Russian citizens' freedom of travel, freedom of development, freedom of work and others". In the same year, Russian president Vladimir Putin said: "What are the so-called European values? Maintaining the coup, the armed seizure of power and the suppression of dissent with the help of the armed forces?"
Switzerland has long been known for its neutrality in international politics. Swiss voters rejected EEA membership in 1992, and EU membership in 2001. Despite the passing of several referendums calling for closer relations between Switzerland and the European Union such as the adoption of bilateral treaties and the joining of the Schengen Area, a second referendum of the joining of the EEA or the EU is not expected, and the general public remains opposed to joining.
In February 2014, the Swiss voters narrowly approved a referendum limiting the freedom of movement of EU citizens to Switzerland.
Eurosceptic political parties include the Swiss People's Party, which is the largest political party in Switzerland, with 29.4% of the popular vote as of the 2015 federal election. Smaller Eurosceptic parties include, but are not limited to, the Federal Democratic Union, the Ticino League, and the Geneva Citizens' Movement, all of which are considered right-wing parties.
In addition, the Campaign for an Independent and Neutral Switzerland is a political organisation in Switzerland that is strongly opposed to the European Union.
Regionally, the German-speaking majority of Switzerland is the most eurosceptic, while the French-speaking Switzerland tends to be more pro-EU. However, in the 2001 referendum, the majority of French-speakers voted against EU membership. According to a 2016 survey conducted by M.I.S Trend and published in L'Hebdo, 69 percent of the Swiss population supports systematic border controls, and 53 percent want restrictions on the EU accord of the free movements of peoples and 14 percent want it completely abolished. However, 54% of the Swiss population said that if necessary, they would ultimately keep the freedom of movement of people's accord.
The two main Eurosceptic parties are the right wing nationalist Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), which had 16.29% of the votes, having secured 80 seats in the Parliament, and the Felicity Party (Saadet Partisi), a far-right Sunni Islamist party which has no seats in the Parliament because it had only 2.06% of the votes in the last general election, far below the 10% threshold necessary to be represented in the Parliament.
Many left-wing nationalist and far-left parties hold no seats at parliament but they control many activist and student movements in Turkey. The Patriotic Party (formerly called Workers' Party) consider the European Union as a frontrunner of global imperialism.
- European Referendum Campaign
- Fourth Reich
- Institutions of the European Union
- United States of Europe
- Withdrawal from the European Union
- "EU-Scepticism vs. Euroscepticism. Re-assessing the Party Positions in the Accession Countries towards EU Membership" in Laursen, Finn (ed.) EU Enlargement: Current Challenges and Strategic Choices, Bruxelles: Peter Lang.
- Kirk, Lisbeth (22 June 2011). "EU scepticism threatens European integration". EU Observer. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
- Therése Hultén "Swedish EU-Scepticism: How is it Compatible with the Support for Enlargement?"
- Erkanor Saka (2009). Mediating the EU: Deciphering the Transformation of Turkish Elites (PhD Thesis). ProQuest. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-109-21663-9. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Matthew (26 October 2011). "Why anti-EUism is not left-wing". Workers' Liberty. Alliance for Workers Liberty. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
- Kopel, David, Silencing opposition in the EU, Davekopel.org, retrieved 18 February 2015
- Hannan, Daniel (14 November 2007). "Why aren't we shocked by a corrupt EU?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
- "Standard Eurobarometer 71 (fieldwork June–July 2009)" (PDF). European Commission. September 2009. pp. 91–3. Retrieved 26 November 2009.
- Euroscepticism on the rise across Europe as analysis finds increasing opposition to the EU in France, Germany and Spain, retrieved 1 August 2016
- Han Werts, Marcel Lubbers, and Peer Scheepers (2013) Euro-scepticism and radical right-wing voting in Europe, 2002–2008: Social cleavages, socio-political attitudes and contextual characteristics determining voting for the radical right, European Union Politics, vol. 14 no. 2: 183–205.
- Standard Eurobarometer 84 Autumn 2015 Report: Public opinion in the European Union, Language version EN. European Union. 2016. pp. 104–113. doi:10.2775/89997. ISBN 978-92-79-57781-9. Catalogue No. NA-04-16-323-EN-N. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Chamorel, Patrick. "Anti-Europeanism and Euroscepticism in the United States, No. 2004/25" (PDF). European University Institute. Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies (RSCAS). Retrieved 20 September 2015.
- Daniel Hannan MEP (19 October 2012). "You thought the whole 'EUSSR' thing was over the top? Have a look at this poster". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- Arato, Krisztina; Kaniok, Petr. Euroscepticism and European Integration. CPI/PSRC. p. 162. ISBN 978-953-7022-20-4.
- Harmsen et al (2005), p. 18.
- Gifford, Chris (2008). The Making of Eurosceptic Britain. Ashgate Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-7546-7074-2.
- Szczerbiak et al (2008), p. 7
- Lewis, Paul G; Webb, Paul D (2003). Pan-European Perspectives on Party Politics. Brill. p. 211. ISBN 978-90-04-13014-2.
- Harmsen et al. (2005), pp. 31–32
- Tony Benn (25 March 2013). European Union. Oxford Union.
- "Radio Prague: Current Affairs". Retrieved 28 July 2013.[dead link]
- Asselineau, François. "« Européens convaincus » contre « Eurosceptiques » : Le retour de la Sainte Inquisition", Popular Republican Union, 16 December 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
- Laurent De Boissieu (15 March 2012). "Présidentielle: Ces "petits" candidats qui veulent se faire entendre" [Presidential election: These "small" candidates who want to be heard]. La Croix (in French). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Szczerbiak et al (2008), p. 8
- Taggart, Paul; Szczerbiak, Aleks (2001). The Party Politics of Euroscepticism in EU Member and Candidate States (PDF). Sussex European Institute. p. 7. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- Sofia Vasilopoulou. Varieties of Euroscepticism:The Case of the European Extreme Right.
- Yves Bertoncini; Nicole König (27 November 2014). "Euroscepticism or Europhobia: Voice vs. Exit?" (PDF). Policy paper (121). Jacques Delors Institute: 6 ff. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
- "European Sources Online Information Guide: Euroscepticism" (PDF). Cardiff University Press. April 2015. p. 3. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- Standard Eurobarometer 84 Autumn 2015 Report: Public opinion in the European Union, Language version EN. European Union. 2016. pp. 114–119. doi:10.2775/89997. ISBN 978-92-79-57781-9. Catalogue No. NA-04-16-323-EN-N. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Standard Eurobarometer 84 Autumn 2015 Report: Public opinion in the European Union, Language version EN. European Union. 2016. pp. 87–92. doi:10.2775/89997. ISBN 978-92-79-57781-9. Catalogue No. NA-04-16-323-EN-N. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Standard Eurobarometer 84 Autumn 2015 Report: Public opinion in the European Union, Language version EN. European Union. 2016. pp. 73–75. doi:10.2775/89997. ISBN 978-92-79-57781-9. Catalogue No. NA-04-16-323-EN-N. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- Simon Hix; Abdul Noury (17 March 2006). "After Enlargement: Voting Behaviour in the Sixth European Parliament" (PDF). The UK Federal Trust for Education and Research. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2006.
- Nordland, Rod (4 October 2008). Charging To The Right. Newsweek. Retrieved 13 June 2010.
- "BZÖ will raus aus der Euro-Zone". Österreich (in German). 21 June 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- "BZÖ wird "rechtsliberal"". Die Presse (in German). 15 October 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- "Austrian magnate's new party wants to dump euro". The Irish Times. 23 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
- "Stronach-Partei: Gerüchte um vierten Mandatar "falsch"". Die Presse (in German). 26 August 2012. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
- "Zerfallserscheinungen beim BZÖ". Kurier (in German). 12 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- "Leichtfried zu Stadler: Chaos bei BZÖ – EU-Mandat durch Lissabon plötzlich akzeptabel" (in German). 17 December 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- "Results of the 2009 European Elections". European Parliament. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- "Results of the 2014 European Elections". European Parliament. Retrieved 6 December 2016.
- "Bulgaria puts off Eurozone membership for 2015". Radio Bulgaria. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 2 September 2012.
- "Привърженици на "Атака" свалиха знамето на ЕС от пилоните пред НДК" (in Bulgarian). Дневник. 3 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
- Kolyako, Nina. "Czech Republic is in no rush to implement euro". The Baltic Course. Retrieved 4 March 2011.
- Petr Mach zvolen do čela Strany svobodných občanů (in Czech), CZ: CT24, 14 February 2009
- "Svobodní: Výzva senátorům". Svobodni.cz. 5 February 2009. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Svobodní: Veřejné čtení Lisabonské smlouvy již tuto neděli". Svobodni.cz. 15 April 2009. Archived from the original on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Lisbon treaty turmoil as Czechs demand opt-out". The Guardian. 9 October 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- EU Dodges Constitutional Hurdle as Czechs Back Treaty (Update 2), Bloomberg, 18 February 2009[dead link]
- "Svobodní: Evropa svobodných států". Svobodni.cz. Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- "Européenes : l'UMP en tête, le PS en fort recul". Le Monde (in French). 7 June 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Européenes : la dynamique inédite du eurosceptcism" (in French). Euros du village. 29 April 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Europe" (in French). Front National. Archived from the original on 13 October 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "Résolution du Parti de Gauche sur l'euro" (in French). Worldpress – Politique à Gauche. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Leur Europe n'est pas la nôtre !" (in French). NPA. 19 May 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "L'Europe" (in French). Lutte Ouvrière. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
- "EU election: France's Hollande calls for reform of 'remote' EU". BBC. 27 May 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "Parties and Election in Europe". 2014.
- Carla Bleiker (11 March 2013). "German party says 'no' to the euro, 'yes' to the EU". DW Online. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "BBC News German anti-euro AfD party wins seats in east". BBC News. 15 September 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- "AfD chief Lucke denies plans to split the party". Deutsche Welle. 19 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
- "Parliamentary Elections January 2015". Ministry of Interior. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- "Greece turns, Europe wobbles". The Economist. Retrieved 19 July 2015.
- "BBC News Greece election: Anti-austerity Syriza wins election". BBC News. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Batory, A. (2008) 'Euroscepticism in the Hungarian Party System: Voices from the Wilderness?' In Taggart, P. and Szczerbiak, A. (eds).
- "hu:Új politikai hangnemet szorgalmaz az LMP" [LMP to encourage new political voice] (in Hungarian). Hungarian News Broadcast. 17 April 2014. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 22 April 2014.
- Richard Sinnott; Johan A. Elkink (July 2010). "Attitudes and Behaviour in the Second Referendum on the Treaty of Lisbon" (PDF). Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Ireland. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2010.
- "Lisbon Treaty is unchanged and must be rejected". peoplebeforeprofit.ie.
- "IRSP OPPOSE SECOND REFERENDUM: BUT URGE A NO VOTE". IRSP.
- "Sinn Féin Wants To Drag Ireland into Eurosceptic Slipstream of British Tory Party". Ireland for Europe: Media Centre. 9 August 2009.[dead link]
- Kevin Bean (2008). The New Politics of Sinn Fein. Oxford University Press. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-78138-780-1. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Republican SF argues treaty a further erosion of sovereignty". The Irish Times. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 4 June 2012.
- Moriarty, Gerry (20 April 2015). "SF says North should be able stay in EU in a Brexit". The Irish Times. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
- "Ireland, Brexit and why the EU must be opposed". Socialist Party. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- "EU – A force for progress or profits?". Socialist Party. 17 June 2015. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- "For a European struggle against austerity – For a socialist Europe". Socialist Party. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
- "Grillo: «Referendum sull'euro entro un anno". Corriere della Sera. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
- Caprara, Maurizio (24 July 2008). "Passa all'unanimità il Trattato europeo". Corriere della Sera. Milan. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011.
- Ivaldi, Gilles (2011), "The Populist Radical Right in European Elections 1979–2009", The Extreme Right in Europe: Current Trends and Perspectives, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, p. 19
- Patrick Dumont; Fernand Fehlen; Raphaël Kies; Philippe Poirier (January 2006). "Les élections législatives et européennes de 2004 au Grand-Duché de Luxembourg" [The Legislative and European elections in 2004 in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg] (PDF) (in French). Chamber of Deputies: 220. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "PVV: EU-droom is nu nachtmerrie" (in Dutch). NOS. 19 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Standpunt: Europese Unie – superstaat nee, samenwerken ja" (in Dutch). SP website. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Stemden we voor of tegen Europa?" (in Dutch). NOS. 23 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- "Dutch referendum voters overwhelmingly reject closer EU links to Ukraine". The Guardian. Amsterdam. Reuters. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- "Dutch referendum a difficult result for EU and Ukraine". BBC News. 7 April 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2016.
- Hilary White (9 April 2008). "Poland Ratifies Lisbon Treaty with Opt-Out from EU Human Rights Charter". Catholic Exchange – Sophia Institute Press. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Polish President slams government eurozone drive". The Times. Malta. 25 May 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "SONDAJ - Euroscepticismul nu prinde la români". Retrieved 5 August 2016.
- "La CUP incrementa un 10% les agrupacions locals i un 30% la militància el 2013". ara.cat (in Spanish). 12 May 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
- "CONSTITUCIÓN EUROPEA – Resultados del Referéndum 2005" [European Constitution – Referendum Results 2005] (in Spanish). European Parliament. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 February 2005.
- Szczerbiak et al (2008), p. 183.
- Vår politik A till Ö | Sverigedemokraterna. Sverigedemokraterna.se (28 June 2011). Retrieved 15 August 2013.
- Williamson, Adrian (5 May 2015). "The case for Brexit: lessons from the 1960s and 1970s". History & Policy. History & Policy. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "How UKIP became a British political force". BBC News. 3 May 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "The Conservative Party split over Brexit". LSE BREXIT. 5 April 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Goodenough, Tom (16 February 2016). "Which Tory MPs back Brexit, who doesn't and who is still on the fence?". Coffee House. The Spectator. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Mason, Rowena (30 May 2016). "Labour voters in the dark about party's stance on Brexit, research says". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- Cooper, Charlie (21 June 2016). "Corbyn is now genuinely against Brexit - but is it too little too late?". The Independent. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
- "Liberal Democrats regroup around pro-Europe message". Financial Times. (subscription required (. ))
- Withnall, Adam (24 June 2016). "It's official: Britain has voted to Leave the EU". The Independent.
- Dickie, Mure (24 June 2016). "Scots' backing for Remain raises threat of union's demise" – via Financial Times.
- Gross, Robert (30 June 2016). "We are the 48 and we want our country back". Financial Times.
- Vulliamy, Ed (2 July 2016). "'We are the 48%': tens of thousands march in London for Europe". The Observer.
- "Stjórnarsáttmáli kynntur á Laugarvatni". 22 May 2013. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
- Fox, Benjamin (16 June 2013). "Iceland's EU bid is over, commission told". Reuters. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
- "NOU 2012: 2: Utenfor og innenfor" [NOU 2012: 2: From outside and within]. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (in Norwegian). 2010. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "EU sanctions against Russia over Ukraine crisis"; via the official website of the European Union.
- "Envoy blasts EU anti-Russian sanctions human rights violation". RT. 11 December 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016.
- "Ukraine dismisses Russia's call for cease-fire". Boston Globe. 1 September 2014.
- Miserez, Marc-Andre (2 December 2012). "Switzerland poised to keep EU at arm's length". swissinfo. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Keiser, Andreas (30 November 2012). "Swiss still prefer bilateral accords with EU". Swissinfo. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Kuenzi, Renat (15 May 2014). "'We're Not the Only EU Sceptics'". Swissinfo. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- "Über Uns". Campaign for an Independent and Neutral Switzerland official website. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
- Goodenough, Patrick. "Swiss Say An Overwhelming 'No' To EU Membership Now". cnsnews.com. Retrieved 4 May 2016.[better source needed]
- "Survey: Tighten Borders but Keep EU Accords, Say Swiss". thelocal.ch. 19 May 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
- "Vatan Partisi hariç hepsi NATO ve AB yanlısı! İşte partilerin dış politikaları" [All parties except Homeland Party are pro-NATO and the EU! Here are the foreign policy of the party] (in Turkish). Ulusalkanal.com.tr. 6 May 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "TKP, NATO'ya, ABD'ye ve Avrupa Birliği'ne neden karşı?" [CAP, NATO, the United States and the European Union against reason?] (in Turkish). Tkp.org.tr. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2015.
- "Profile: Ukraine's 'Right Sector' movement". BBC News. 21 January 2014.
- Robert Harmsen; Menno Spiering, eds. (2004). Euroscepticism: Party Politics, National Identity and European Integration. Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-1946-8.
- Aleks Szczerbiak; Paul Taggart (2008). Opposing Europe?: The Comparative Party Politics of Euroscepticism. 1: Case Studies and Country Surveys. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 978-0-19-153162-0.
- Florian Hartleb (2015). A Thorn in the Side of European Elites: The New Euroscepticism. Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies. ISBN 978-2-930632-09-4.