Euroscepticism

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Euroscepticism (sometimes euroskepticism or Anti-EUism), should not be confused with Anti-Europeanism, which refers to the rejection of the culture of Europe and Europeanisation, and sentiments, opinions and discrimination against European ethnic groups. Euroscepticism embodies criticism of the European Union (EU), which excludes some European countries (and partially European countries). Traditionally, the main source of euroscepticism has been the notion that integration weakens the nation state, and a desire to slow, halt or reverse integration within the EU. Other views often held by eurosceptics include perceptions of the EU being undemocratic or too bureaucratic.[1][2] A Eurobarometer survey of EU citizens in 2009 showed that support for membership of the EU was lowest in Latvia, the United Kingdom, and Hungary.[3]:91–3 Euroscepticism is found in political parties across the political spectrum.

Global outlook[edit]

While having some overlaps, euroscepticism and Anti-Europeanism are different. Especially some aspects of the Euroscepticism in the United Kingdom has been mirrored and parroted by US authors.[4] Anti-Europeanism has always had a strong influence in American culture and American exceptionalism, which sometimes sees Europe on the decline or as a rising rival power, or both.[4]

Terminology[edit]

Flag of the "(E)USSR", a common trope[5] among hard eurosceptics comparing the EU with the USSR.

There can be considered to be two different types of eurosceptic thought, which differ in the extent to which adherents reject European integration and in their reasons for doing so. Aleks Szczerbiak and Paul Taggart described these as 'hard' and 'soft' euroscepticism.[6][7][8][9][10]

Hard Euroscepticism is the opposition to membership of, or the existence of, the European Union as a matter of principle.[9] The Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament, typified by such parties as the United Kingdom Independence Party, is hard eurosceptic. In western European EU member countries, hard euroscepticism is currently a hallmark of many anti-establishment parties.[11]

Soft Euroscepticism is support for the existence of, and membership of, a form of European Union, but with opposition to specific EU policies, and opposition to a federal Europe.[12] The European Conservatives and Reformists group, typified by centre-right parties such as the British Conservative Party, along with the European United Left–Nordic Green Left which is an alliance of the left-wing parties in the European Parliament, is soft eurosceptic.

Soft Euroscepticism and Hard Euroscepticism[edit]

Soft Euroscepticism is where there is not a principled objection to European integration or EU membership but where concerns on one (or a number) of policy areas lead to the expression of qualified opposition to the EU, or where there is a sense that ’national interest’ is currently at odds with the EU’s trajectory.[13]

Alternative names for 'hard' and 'soft' euroscepticism are respectively 'withdrawalist' and 'reformist' euroscepticism. Some 'hard' eurosceptics such as UKIP prefer to call themselves euro-realists rather than 'sceptics', and regard their position as pragmatic rather than "in principle". Also many on the left such as Tony Benn tend not to use the phrase to refer to themselves even though they share many of their criticisms of the European Union and they may use phrases such as euro-critical or just call themselves democrats or socialists and their scepticism as part of their wider belief in democracy or socialism.

The Czech president Václav Klaus rejected the term "euroscepticism", with its purported negative undertones, saying (at a meeting in April 2012) that the expressions for a eurosceptic and his opponent should be "a Euro-realist" and someone who is "Euro-naïve" (respectively).[14]

François Asselineau of the French Popular Republican Union has been blaming the use of the term 'sceptic' to describe the 'hard eurosceptic' or those who want to withdraw from the EU and would rather advocate the usage of the term 'euro opponent' .[15] However, he believes the usage of the term 'sceptic' for the 'soft eurosceptic' to be proper since other eurosceptic parties in France are 'merely criticising' the EU without taking into account that the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union is modifiable only under the unanimity agreement of the whole EU members that he considers as impossible to reach.[16]

Eurobarometer survey 2012[edit]

A survey in 2012, conducted by TNS Opinion and Social on behalf of the European Commission, showed that, for the European Union overall, those who think that their country's interests are looked after well in the EU are now in a minority (42%).[17] Those with a positive image of the EU are down from a high of 52% in 2007 to a low of 31% in May 2012 (unchanged since November 2011); this compares with 28% with a negative image of the EU, and 39% with a neutral image (up from a low of 14% in 2007).[18][19]

About 31% of EU citizens tend to trust the European Union as an institution, and about 60% do not tend to trust it.[20] Trust in the EU has fallen from a high of 57% in 2007 to 31% in 2012, while trust in national governments has fallen from 43% in 2007 to 28% in 2012; so the EU has moved from enjoying much more trust than national governments in 2007 to a position of enjoying only slightly more trust than national governments in 2012.[19] Trust in the EU is lowest in the United Kingdom (16% trust, 75% distrust) and highest in Bulgaria (55% trust; 15% distrust). Trust in national governments in these two countries is 21% (distrust 77%) and 28% (distrust 64%) respectively.[20]

In the 2014 European Elections, the 16 countries that most voted for Eurosceptic parties or candidates were Greece (66.7% of the seats), Hungary (66,7%) - including Fidesz, United Kingdom (63.0%), Ireland (45.5%), Poland (45.1%), Denmark (38.5%), France (37.8%), Netherlands (34.6%), Italy (34.2%), Cyprus (33.3%), Czech Republic (28.6%), Lithuania (27.3%), Latvia (25%), Portugal (23.8%) - inculding Marinho Pinto, Belgium (23.8%) and Austria (22.2%).

History in the European Parliament[edit]

1999–2004[edit]

A study analysed voting records of the Fifth European Parliament and ranked groups, concluding:[21] "Towards the top of the figure are the more pro-European parties (PES, EPP-ED, and ALDE), whereas towards the bottom of the figure are the more anti-European parties (EUL/NGL, G/EFA, UEN and EDD)."

2004–2009[edit]

In 2004, 37 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the UK, Poland, Denmark and Sweden founded a new European Parliament group called "Independence and Democracy" from the old Europe of Democracies and Diversities (EDD) group.

The main goals of the ID group were to reject the proposed Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe. Some delegations within the group, notably the United Kingdom Independence Party, also advocate the complete withdrawal of their country from the EU whilst others only wish to limit further European integration.

2009 elections[edit]

The elections in 2009 saw a significant drop in some areas in support for Eurosceptic parties, with all MEPs from Poland, Denmark and Sweden losing their seats. However, in the UK, the eurosceptic United Kingdom Independence Party achieved second place in the elections, finishing ahead of the governing Labour Party, and the British National Party (BNP) won its first ever two MEPs. Although new members joined the ID group from Greece and the Netherlands, it was unclear as to whether the ID group would reform in the new parliament.

The ID group did reform, as the Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) and is represented by 32 MEPs from nine countries.

2014 elections[edit]

The elections in 2014 saw a big anti-establishment vote in favour of eurosceptic parties taking around 25% of the seats available. Those who won their national elections include: UKIP in the UK (the first time since 1906 that a party other than Labour or the Conservatives had won a national vote), National Front in France, The People's Party in Denmark, SYRIZA in Greece, and second places taken by Sinn Féin in Ireland and Five Star Movement in Italy. Following the election, European Council President Herman Van Rompuy agreed to re-evaluate the economic area's agenda and to launch consultations on future policy areas with the 28 member states.[citation needed]

Euroscepticism in the EU member states[edit]

Austria[edit]

Heinz-Christian Strache, leader of the Austrian hard eurosceptic party FPÖ.

As of 2013, six parties together hold all 183 National Council seats, and all bar one of the 62 Federal Council seats and 19 European Parliament seats. Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs (social democrats), who hold 56/183 NC, 24/62 FC, and 5/19 EP seats, are pro-European integration. Austrian People's Party (conservative/Christian), who hold 51/183 NC, 28/62 FC, and 6/19 EP seats, are pro-European integration. And Die Grünen – Die Grüne Alternative (green), who hold 20/183 NC, 3/62 FC, and 2/19 EP seats, are also pro-European integration.

Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs, established in 1956, is a right-wing populist party who mainly attract support from young people and workers.[22] In 1989, they changed their stance over the European Union to euroscepticism. They opposed Austria joining the EU in 1994, and opposed the introduction of the Euro in 1998. The party would like to leave the union. In the 1990s the party received 20–27% of the national vote, and recently received 17.5% in 2008. It currently has 34/183 National Council seats, 4/62 Federal Council seats, and 2/19 European Parliament seats.

Bündnis Zukunft Österreich, established in 2005, are a socially conservative party that had always held eurosceptical elements. In 2011, the party openly supported leaving the Euro-Zone, and in 2012, the party announced they supported a full withdrawal from the European Union.[23] The party has also called upon a referendum on the Lisbon Treaty.[24] In polls it currently receives around 10%–15%, although in one state it did receive 45% of the vote in 2009. It currently has 13/183 National Council seats, 0/62 Federal Council seats, and 1/19 European Parliament seats.

Team Stronach, established in 2012, have campaigned to leave the European Union, as well as replace the Euro with the Austrian Schilling. In 2012, they regularly received between 8–10% national support in polls.[25] Politicians from many different parties including the Social Democratic Party (socialist), Bündnis Zukunft Österreich (conservative) as well as previous independents, switched their alleigances to the new party upon creation.[26][27] In two local elections in March 2013, it won 11% of the vote in Carinthia, and 10% of the vote in Lower Austria. It currently has 6/183 National Council seats, 1/62 Federal Council seats, and 0/19 European Parliament seats.

Ewald Stadler former member of FPÖ (and latter BZÖ) was very eurosceptic but in 2011 ironically became member of the European Parliament due to the Lisbon treaty. Before Stadler accepted the seat, this led to heavy critics by Jörg Leichtfried (SPÖ) "Stadler wants to just rescue his political career" because Stadler before mentioned he would never accept a seat as MEP if this was only due to the Lisbon Treaty.[28] On 23 December 2013 he founded a conservative and eurosceptic party called The Reform Conservatives.

In the 2014 European Elections, the eurosceptic Freedom Party of Austria increased their vote to 19.72% (up 7.01%) gaining 2 new MEP's giving them 4 in total, coming 3rd behind the Austrian People's Party and Social Democratic Party of Austria. EU-STOP (the electoral alliance of the EU Withdrawal Party and the
Neutral Free Austria Federation) polled 2.76% with no seats gained and the Reform Conservatives 1.18% with Team Stronach putting up no candidates.[citation needed]

Belgium[edit]

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are Vlaams Belang and Lijst Dedecker.

In the European Parliament election, 2014, Belgium's main anti-EU party Vlaams Belang lost half of its previous vote share, polling 4.26% down 5.59% and losing 1 of its 2 MEP's.[citation needed]

Bulgaria[edit]

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are Union of Communists in Bulgaria, NFSB, Attack, and VMRO – BND (also to some degree Bulgaria Without Censorship, which is in a coalition with VMRO – BND, both members of the eurosceptic European Conservatives and Reformists).

In 2011 Bulgaria's Minister of Finance Simeon Djankov stated that ERM II membership to enter the Euro zone would be postponed until after the Eurozone crisis had stabilized.[29]

In the European Parliament election, 2014, Bulgaria remained overwhelmingly pro-EU, with eurosceptic Attack losing 9% to get 2.96% of the vote with the splinter group National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria taking 3.05%, neither getting any MEP's.

Croatia[edit]

Parties with eurosceptic views are mainly small right-wing parties like Croatian Party of Rights, Croatian Party of Rights dr. Ante Starčević, Croatian Pure Party of Rights, Autochthonous Croatian Party of Rights, Croatian Demochristian Party and Only Croatia – Movement for Croatia.

The Human Blockade party, whose candidate came third in the last presidential election is staunchly eurosceptic.

Czech Republic[edit]

In May 2010, the Czech president Václav Klaus claimed that they "needn't hurry to enter the Eurozone".[30]

Petr Mach, an economist, a close associate of president Václav Klaus and a member of the Civic Democratic Party between 1997 and 2007, founded the Free Citizens Party in 2009. The party aims to mainly attract dissatisfied Civic Democratic Party voters.[31] At the time of the Lisbon Treaty ratification, they were actively campaigning against it, supported by the president Vaclav Klaus, who demanded opt-outs such as were granted to the United Kingdom and Poland.[32][33][34] unlike the governing Civic Democratic Party, who endorsed it in the Chamber of Deputies.[35] After the treaty has been ratified, Mach's party is in favour of withdrawing from the European Union completely.[36] After 2014 European Parliament election, Free Citizens Party have won one mandate and have allied with UKIP in the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFD).

After 2013 Czech legislative election there is in Parliament represented soft eurosceptic Civic Democratic Party (ODS), Dawn - National Coalition (Dawn) which have splited into new hard eurosceptic Freedom and Direct Democracy (SPD) in 2015. Position of Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia (KSČM) on European integration is unclear.

Cyprus[edit]

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are New Internationalist Left, the Progressive Party of Working People and Committee for a Radical Left Rally.

Denmark[edit]

Pia Kjærsgaard, Speaker of the Parliament of Denmark and former leader of the hard eurosceptic party Danish People's Party (Dansk Folkeparti), the second largest represented in the in Danish parliament and the most represented in the European Parliament.

The People's Movement against the EU only takes part in European Parliament elections and has one member in the European Parliament. The pro-EU, but eurosceptic, June Movement, originally a split-off from the People's Movement against the EU, existed from 1992 to 2009.

In the Danish Parliament, the Unity List has withdrawal from the EU as a policy. The Danish People's Party also advocate withdrawal, but has claimed to support some EU structures such as the internal market, and supported the EU-positive Liberal-Conservative coalition 2001–2011.

The Socialist People's Party, minorities within the Social Liberal Party and Social Democratic Party, and some smaller parties were against accession to the European Union in 1972. Still in 1986, these parties advocated a no vote in the Single European Act referendum. Later, the Social Liberal Party changed to a strongly EU-positive party, and EU opposition within the Social Democratic Party faded. The Socialist People's Party were against the Amsterdam Treaty in 1998 and Denmark's joining the euro in 2000, but has become increasingly EU positive, for example when MEP Margrete Auken left the eurosceptic European United Left–Nordic Green Left and joined the The Greens–European Free Alliance in 2004.

In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Danish People's Party came first by a large margin with 26.6% of the vote, gaining 2 extra seats giving it 4 MEP's. The People's Movement against the EU also polled 8.1% retaining their single MEP.

Estonia[edit]

The Independence Party and Centre Party were against accession to the EU, but only the Independence Party still wants Estonia to withdraw from the European Union.

Finland[edit]

Whereas the current Finnish administration (notably Jutta Urpilainen) has been more hesitant towards the EU monetary policy than the previous ones, Eurobarometers and other polls have shown that among Finnish citizens, the opinion trend has been somewhat reversed during recent years. In Eurobarometer 77 (fieldwork in Spring 2012), 41% of Finns trusted the European Union (EU-27 average: 31%), 51% trusted The European Parliament (EU-27average: 40%), and 74% were in favour of the euro currency (EU-27 average: 52%). The rise of a pro-European sentiment is mainly due to the existent wave of general internationalisation in Finland.[citation needed]

Distinctively a soft eurosceptic Finnish party is The Finns Party, and heavily euroscepticals are supporters of the Independence Party, Communist Party of Finland and Workers Party of Finland.

In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Finns Party increased their vote share by 3.1% to 12.9%, adding a 2nd MEP.

France[edit]

Marine Le Pen, the most prominent French MEP, leader of the Europe of Nations and Freedom group.
Jean-Luc Mélenchon, leader of the soft eurosceptic Left Front in France, advocate of the exit of France from the Eurozone.

In France, many parties are more or less radically eurosceptic, varying from advocating less EU intervention in national affairs to advocating outright withdrawal from the EU as it is and from the Eurozone. These parties belong to all sides of the political spectrum so the reasons for their euroscepticism may differ, but they all opposed the ratification of the Treaty of Lisbon. Many French people are uninterested in such matters: only 40% of the French electorate voted in the 2009 European Parliament elections.[37]

Moderate right-leaning eurosceptic parties include the Gaullist Debout la République, and also the Mouvement pour la France, and Chasse, Pêche, Nature & Traditions, both of which joined Libertas, a pan-European eurosceptic party.[38] In the 2009 European Parliament elections, Debout la République obtained 1.77% of the national vote, and Libertas 4.8%. In a similar way to the moderate parties, the French far right in general is naturally opposed to the EU, as they criticise France's loss of political and economic sovereignty to a supra-national entity. The main far right political party is the Front National (FN).[39] The party obtained 6.5% of the votes, which makes it the largest eurosceptic party in France.

Left-wing eurosceptic parties tend to criticise the liberal agenda of the EU, although they usually support a unification of countries (albeit under a socialist system) and the abolition of national borders. They include the Parti de Gauche and the French Communist Party, which formed the Front de Gauche for the 2009 European Parliament elections and obtained 6.3% of the votes. The leader of the Left Front defends a complete reform of the Monetary Union rather than the withdrawal of France from the Eurozone.[40] The other major far-left eurosceptic parties are the New Anticapitalist Party[41] which obtained 4.8% and Lutte Ouvrière[42] which obtained 1.2%. The Citizen and Republican Movement, a left-wing eurosceptic and souverainist party, did not participate in the 2009 elections.

Popular Republican Union, led by François Asselineau is also a eurosceptic party.

In the European Parliament election, 2014, the National Front won the elections with 24.85% of the vote, a swing of 18.55%, winning 24 seats, up from 3 previously. The French President François Hollande has since called for the EU to be reformed and to scale back its power [43]

Germany[edit]

"Referendum on saving the Euro!" Poster from the party Alternative for Germany (AfD) regarding Germany's financial contributions during the Eurozone crisis

The Alternative for Germany is a soft Euro-sceptic party that considers itself pro-Europe and pro-EU, but it opposes the Euro, which it believes has undermined European integration.[44] It has no seats in national but 35 seats in the state parliaments and obtained 4.7% of the vote in the 2013 federal parliamentary elections.

In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Alternative for Germany came 5th with 7% of the vote, winning 7 seats and is a member of the eurosceptic European Conservatives and Reformists. The Alternative for Germany went on to take seats in three state legislatures in the Autumn of 2014.[45]

Greece[edit]

Alexis Tsipras, soft eurosceptic leader of SYRIZA and Prime Minister of Greece.

Communist Party of Greece (KKE), Golden Dawn, Anticapitalist Left Cooperation for the Overthrow, I Don't Pay Movement, SYRIZA, Popular Unity, ANEL and LAOS are the main eurosceptic parties in Greece.[citation needed] According to the London School of Economics, Greece is the 2nd most eurosceptic country in the European Union, with 50% (only behind UK) of the Greeks thinking that their country has not benefited at all from the EU. Meanwhile 33% of the Greeks views Greek membership in EU as a good thing, marginally ahead of UK. 81% of the Greeks say that the EU is going in the wrong direction. These figures represent a major increase in euroscepticism in Greece since 2009. In June 2012, the eurosceptic parties in Greece that were represented in the parliament before the Election in January 2015 (SYRIZA, ANEL, Golden Dawn, KKE) got 45.8% of the votes and 40.3% of the seats in the parliament. In the legislative election of January 2015 the Pro-European (left and right-wing) parties (ND, PASOK, POTAMI, KIDISO, EK and Prasinoi-DIMAR) got 43.28% of the votes. The eurosceptic parties got 54.64%. The eurosceptic left (SYRIZA, KKE, ANTARSYA-MARS and KKE (m-l)/M-L KKE) got 42.58% of the votes and the eurosceptic right (Golden Dawn, ANEL and LAOS) got 12.06% of the votes, with SYRIZA ahead with 36.34%.The eurosceptic parties got 194 seats in the new parliament and the pro-EU parties got 106 seats.[46] According to the polls conducted in June and July 2015 (12 polls), the eurosceptic left would get on average 48,03% (excluding extraparliamentary parties as ANTARSYA-MARS and KKE (m-l)/ML-KKE), the parliamentary pro-EU parties (Potami, New Democracy and PASOK) would get 33.82%, the extra-parliamentary (not represented in the Hellenic Parliament) pro-EU parties (KIDISO and EK) would get 4.44% and the eurosceptic right would get 10.2% (excluding extraparliamentary parties, such as LAOS, not displayed on recent opinion polls). The soft Eurosceptic parties (parrticularly SYRIZA would get 42.31%, the hard Eurosceptic parties (including KKE, ANEL and Golden Dawn would get 15.85%, and the pro-EU parties (including extra-parliamentary parties displayed on opinion polls) would get 38.27% of the votes.

In the European Parliament election, 2014, SYRIZA won the election with 26.58% of the vote (a swing of 21.88%) taking 6 seats (up 5), with Golden Dawn coming 3rd taking 3 seats, the Communist Party taking 2 seats and the Independent Greeks gaining their first ever seat. SYRIZA 's leader Tsipras said he's not anti-European and does not want to leave the euro. According to the The Economist, Tsipras is willing to negotiate with Greece's European partners, and it is believed a Syriza victory could encourage radical leftist parties across Europe. Alexis Tsipras vowed to reverse many of the austerity measures adopted by Greece since a series of bailouts began in 2010, at odds with the Eurogroup's positions.[47][48] The current government coalition in Greece is composed by SYRIZA (let-wing soft Eurosceptic party, led by Alexis Tsipras) and ANEL (right-wing hard Eurosceptic party, led by Panos Kammenos, who is the current Minister of Defence).

Hungary[edit]

Viktor Orbán is the soft Eurosceptic Prime Minister of Hungary for the national-conservative Fidesz Party. A hardline Eurosceptic party in Hungary is Jobbik, a radical, xenophobic and Far-right party, which is a hardline Eurosceptic party. In Hungary only one third of the population supports membership in the EU, one third oppose it and the rest are neutral.[18] The ruling party, Fidesz is soft eurosceptic. In the Hungarian parliamentary election, 2014, Fidezs got 44.54% of the votes, Jobbik got 20.54% of the votes and the left-wing Hungarian Workers' Party got 0.58% of the votes, turning Hungary into one of the most Eurosceptic countries in Europe (total: 65.66% of the votes)

The green-liberal Politics Can Be Different classifies as a soft or reformist eurosceptic party given its self-professed euro-critical stance. During the European parliamentary campaign of 2014 party Co-President András Schiffer described LMP as having a pronounced pro-integration position on environmental, wage and labour policy however, as supporting member state autonomy on the self-determination of local communities concerning land resources. So as to combat the differentiated integration of the multi-speed Europe which discriminates against Eastern and Southern member states, LMP would like to initiate an eco-social market economy within the union.[49]

Ireland[edit]

Gerry Adams, member of the Irish Parliament for Sinn Féin, the 2nd largest in the last European Election and a soft eurosceptic party.

The Irish people voted no to initial referendums on both the Nice and Lisbon Treaties. There were second referendums held on both of these issues, and it was then, following renegotiations that the votes were swayed in favour of the respective 'Yes' campaigns.[50]

In relation to both the Nice and Lisbon treaties, the decision to force second referendums has been the subject of much scrutiny and widespread criticism. It is claimed that rejection of the Irish peoples decision to vote no stands testament to the European Union's lack of regard for democracy and lack of regard for the right of people of nation states to decide their futures.[51]

The left wing republican party Sinn Féin is one party which opposes the current structure of the European Union and the direction it is moving in.[52] Sinn Féin objects to the limitations and restrictions European Union membership has placed on the Republic of Ireland, as well as the European depletion of Irish sovereignty.[53]

The United Left Alliance is an electoral alliance of left-wing political parties and independent politicians in the Republic of Ireland. It shares some common views on Europe with Sinn Féin.[54]

In the European Parliament election, 2014, Sinn Féin won 3 seats coming 2nd with 19.5% of the vote up 8.3%.

Italy[edit]

Beppe Grillo, leader of the Five Star Movement, a soft eurosceptic party

The Five Star Movement (M5S), an anti-establishment movement founded by the former comedian Beppe Grillo, can be considered a soft eurosceptic party. The M5S gained 25.5% of vote in the 2013 general election, becoming the largest anti-establishment and eurosceptic party in Europe. The party also advocates a consultive referendum on the withdrawal of Italy from the Eurozone (but not from the European Union) and to return to the lira.[55] The M5S's popular support is evenly distributed all across Italy, but in 2013 the party was particularly strong in Sicily, Liguria and Marche, where it gained more than 30% of the vote.

Matteo Salvini, leader of the Lega Nord, a hard eurosceptic party

Another eurosceptic party is Lega Nord, a regionalist movement led by Matteo Salvini favouring Italy's exit from the Eurozone and the re-introduction of the lira. When in government, LN however approved the Treaty of Lisbon.[56] The party won a mere 4.1% of the vote in 2013, but two of its leading members are Presidents of Lombardy and Veneto (where LN gained 35.2% of the vote in 2010).

Minor eurosceptic parties include the Brothers of Italy, The Right, New Force, Tricolour Flame, I Change and the No Euro Movement.

In the European Parliament election, 2014 the Five Star Movement came 2nd gaining 17 seats and 21.2% of the vote in its first time contesting this election. Lega Nord took 5 seats and The Other Europe with Tsipras gained 3 seats.

According to 18 opinion polls conducted in July 2015, the pro-EU parties that were polled (Democratic Party, Forza Italia, Civic Choice, Union of the Centre and New Centre-Right) would get, on average, 49.5% of the votes, while the eurosceptic parties (Five Star Movement, Lega Nord, Us with Salvini, Left Ecology Freedom and Brothers of Italy) would get 47.05% of the votes.

Latvia[edit]

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are National Alliance (For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK/All for Latvia!) and Union of Greens and Farmers.

Lithuania[edit]

Party with mainly eurosceptic views is Order and Justice.[citation needed]

Luxembourg[edit]

The Alternative Democratic Reform Party is a soft eurosceptic party.[57] It is a member of the Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists.

Malta[edit]

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are Labour Party and Libertas Malta.

The Labour Party was not in favour of Malta entering the European Union. They, however were in favour of a partnership with the EU. After a long battle the Nationalist Party led by Eddie Fenech Adami won the referendum and the following election, making Malta one of the states to enter the European Union on 1 May 2004.

Netherlands[edit]

Geert Wilders, leader of the hardline Eurosceptic Party for Freedom, a hardline Eurosceptic party and a prominent anti-Islamic radicalism party.

Historically, the Netherlands have been a very pro-European country, being one of the six founding members of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952, and campaigning with much effort to include the United Kingdom into the Community in the 1970s and others after that. It has become slightly more eurosceptical in the 2000s, rejecting the European Constitution in 2005 and complaining about the relatively high financial investment into the Union or the alleged democratic deficit amongst other issues.

  • The nationalist Party for Freedom (founded in 2006) wants the Netherlands to leave the EU in its entirety, because it allegedly is undemocratic, costs money and cannot close the borders for immigrants.[58]
  • The Socialist Party believes the European Union has already brought Europe 50 years of peace and prosperity, and argues that European cooperation is essential for tackling global problems like climate change and international crime. However, the SP opines that the current Union is dominated by the big businesses and the big countries, while the labour movement, consumer organisations and smaller companies are often left behind. "Neoliberal" measures have supposedly increased social inequality, and perhaps the Union is expanding too fast and taking on too much power in issues that should be dealt with on a national level.[59]
  • The conservative Protestant Reformed Political Party and the ChristianUnion favour cooperation within Europe, but reject a superstate, especially one that is dominated by Catholics, or that infringes on religious rights and/or privileges.
  • The ecologist Party for the Animals favours European cooperation, but believes the current EU does not respect animal rights enough and should have a more active policy on environment protection.

Despite these concerns, the majority of the Dutch electorate continues to support parties that favour ongoing European integration: the Social Democrats, the Christian Democrats, the Liberals, but most of all the (Liberal) Democrats.[60]

Poland[edit]

Lech Kaczyński, a soft eurosceptic and former President of Poland
"Trumna dla rybaków" ("Coffin for fishermen"). A sign visible on the sides of many Polish fishing boats. Polish fishermen protest against the EU's prohibition of cod fishing on Polish ships.

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are KORWiN, Congress of the New Right, National Movement (together with Real Politics Union) and also to some degree Law and Justice, which is a member of the eurosceptic European Conservatives and Reformists. Law and Justice is currently one of the two main parties in Poland.

The former president of Poland Lech Kaczyński resisted the signature of the Treaty of Lisbon, namely in what concerned to the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Subsequently, Poland got an opt-out from this charter. As Polish President, Kaczyński also slammed the Polish government's intentions to join the eurozone.[61][62]

Portugal[edit]

Jerónimo de Sousa, hard eurosceptic leader of the Portuguese Communist Party.

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are National Renovator Party, New Democracy Party, MRPP, Portuguese Communist Party, and Left Bloc. Partido Democrático Republicano (pt:Partido Democrático Republicano) is a new centrist soft eurosceptic party. Partido Popular, once a eurosceptic party is now a soft pro-European party member of the EPP. Portugal is the 8th most eurosceptic country in the European Union (not counting with Croatia) as shown by the "The Continent-wide rise of Euroscepticism", with 58% of the people tending not to trust the EU, behind Greece (81%), Spain (72%), UK (69%), Cyprus (64%), Sweden (62%), Czech Republic (60%) and Germany (59%).[63] The Eurosceptic parties currently hold 24 out of 230 seats in the parliament. The euroscepticism of the left wing prevails in Portugal.

In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Portuguese Communist Party took 3 seats and the Left Bloc took one seat.

Romania[edit]

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are the far-right Greater Romania Party, New Republic and left-wing populists of People's Party - Dan Diaconescu (that is collaborating with EUDemocrats), but as May 2014 none of these parties are represented in European Parliament. In Romania there is also a high number of euroscepticism [64]

Slovakia[edit]

Parties with primarily hard eurosceptic views are Slovak National Party,[65] Freedom and Solidarity and Conservative Democrats of Slovakia.

Slovenia[edit]

Party with mainly eurosceptic views is Slovenian National Party and United Left (Slovenia).

Spain[edit]

Pablo Iglesias Turrión, Spanish MEP, prominent member of the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group.

Candidatura d'Unitat Popular, a Catalan socialist and independentist party, advocates the independence of Catalan Countries outside of the European Union. Spain is ranked the second most distrustful of the European Union, making it one of the three most eurosceptic countries in the EU, along with the UK and Greece. 72 per cent of the Spanish people do not trust the EU, comparing to only 23% that trust this Union. Nevertheless, it was one of the few countries to vote Yes for the European Constitution in a referendum in February 2005, though by a lower margin in Catalonia and the Basque Country.[66][67]

In the European Parliament election, 2014, the left wing parties Podemos (We Can) gained 5 seats, United Left took 4 seats (up 3), with the Galician Nationalist Brotherhood and the Basque The Peoples Decide gaining one seat each.

Sweden[edit]

Anti-EU posters in Sweden

The Left Party of Sweden was against accession to the European Union and still wants Sweden to leave the European Union.[68] The Sweden Democrats are also strongly against the Union and favours withdrawal and rejoin the EEA.[69] The Centre Party is moderately sceptic towards the EU as well.

The June List, a eurosceptic list consisting of members from both the political right and left won three seats in the 2004 Elections to the European Parliament and sat in the EU-critical IND/DEM group in the European Parliament.

In general, the people are more eurosceptical than the parties. Around 80% of the Riksdag members represent parties that officially supports the Sweden membership, while polls have given approximately 50% for and 50% against the membership[citation needed].

In the European Parliament election, 2014, the Sweden Democrats gained 2 seats with 9.67% of the vote, up 6.4%, and the Left Party took one seat with 6.3% of the vote.

United Kingdom[edit]

Nigel Farage, leader of the UK Independence Party and of the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy group in the European Parliament.
Tony Benn, a British Labour Party politician and a staunch opponent of European integration.

euroscepticism in the United Kingdom has been a significant element in British politics since the inception of the European Economic Community (EEC), the predecessor to the EU. The European Union divides the British public, political parties, media and civil society.

The United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) was formed in 1993 and focuses on EU-withdrawal as its primary policy and receives significant support in European elections. It received 16.5% of the vote at the 2009 European Parliament elections, putting it in second place ahead of the then governing Labour Party, and achieved 28% of the vote at the European Parliament election, 2014, which put it in first place against Labour at second and the Conservatives at third.

The Conservative Party has campaigned against entry to the European Monetary Union and the Social Chapter. The Conservative Party has for years been split on the issue of Europe, with some arguing for the full withdrawal subject to a referendum, but many supporting the Union though insisting that powers should be sought back from Brussels and that the Union should be less of a political and economic union. However, even pro-European reformers in the party, such as the former Foreign Secretary Sir Malcolm Rifkind, oppose moves towards a European superstate.[70] Since the rise of UKIP and its strategy of contesting and winning local council elections, first in 2013 and then again in 2014 plus its aim to heavily contest target seats in the Westminster Parliament in the 2015 general election, the Conservatives have been forced to offer a proposed referendum on EU membership in 2017.

The Labour Party membership is more eurosceptic than the party leadership, which is something the Conservative leadership has sought to exploit.[71] Bernie Grant, a Labour Member of Parliament said that he was "totally pro-Commonwealth and anti-European Union". Both before and after the 2014 elections, Labour has remained silent on the subject of offering a referendum and remain strongly pro-EU at present. Labour was strongly eurosceptic until the mid 1980s, and stood in the 1983 general election on a platform which included withdrawal from the then EEC.

The Communist Party of Britain and The Socialist Workers Party, neither of which have any considerable power or influence, with not one seat in Parliament nor in a local council, both criticise the European Union from an ultra-left perspective and their "scepticism" is a form of left-wing euroscepticism although its adherents may reject the term.

The Green Party of England and Wales, which has one seat in Parliament in the House of Commons, also rejects the term "eurosceptic"; however it is critical of the current direction and structure of the European Union, believing that many issues currently decided at the EU level should be dealt with locally, nationally or globally.[72]

The far-right British National Party (BNP) is another strongly eurosceptic party that campaigned strongly for withdrawal. Two BNP candidates, Andrew Brons and Nick Griffin, were elected to the European Parliament in 2009, but lost their seats in the 2014 election.

In the 2014 European Parliament election, the strongly eurosceptic UK Independence Party (UKIP) won the most seats with 24 taking 27.5% of the vote, being a swing of 11%; in second place, the Labour Party won 20. One of UKIP's stated aims is to hold an in/out referendum on the UK's membership in the EU. The referendum was a heavily emphasised aspect of their election campaign, despite the fact that success in the European Parliament elections could not cause a referendum. However, winning a national election for the first time has provided a platform for getting MP's elected into Westminster Parliament which has the legislative power to withdraw Britain from the EU. The first MP was Douglas Carswell in October 2014, winning Clacton in a by-election, the second Mark Reckless in the Rochester & Strood by-election (a very safe Tory seat up until that point) in November 2014. In the 2015 general election, Carswell retained his seat but Reckless lost his to Conservative candidate Kelly Tolhurst. In addition, Farage lost his bid for the seat in Thanet South, and resigned as party leader as a result (this resignation was rejected by his party, however, and he remains leader of the UKIP).

On the contrary, the Liberal Democrats campaigned as the "party of in", but their leader Nick Clegg suffered defeats in two debates with Nigel Farage resulting in his party losing all but one of their MEPs, a disastrous result for them, and their polling by November 2014 dropped to as low as 6%.

UKIP formed the Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFDD) group in the 8th European Parliament.

Euroscepticism in third countries[edit]

Iceland[edit]

The two main eurosceptic parties are Independence Party and Progressive Party. The parties won the parliamentary election in April 2013 and they have halted the current negotiations with the European Union regarding Icelandic membership and tabled a parliamentary resolution on 21 February 2013 to withdraw the application completely.

The public opinion was lightly positive in 2008–2009 during the currency crisis. Later the public opinion became more negative, with an average of 70% of those who stated an opinion on membership being negative. In early 2014 the tide turned a bit in the polls with 58% against and 42% for. Paradoxically a large majority has consistently been for proceeding with the EU membership application, the most common reason cited being curiosity about what terms EU will offer.

Moldova[edit]

The two main eurosceptic parties are left-wing Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova which officially declared its main purpose the integration of Moldova in Kremlin-backed Eurasian Economic Union and Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova that also promotes closer ties with Moscow, even if nowadays its leader speech became more soft on the issue of euroscepticism. Both of this parties are belevied to have close ties with Kremlin and Vladimir Putin and both share a powerful Anti-Romanian sentiment.[citation needed] As of November 2014 both parties are represented in Moldovan Parliament, with 45 MPs out of a total of 101 MPs.

Norway[edit]

Norway has rejected EU membership in two referendums, 1972 and 1994. The Centre Party, Christian Democratic Party, Socialist Left Party, The Red Party and the Liberal Party were against EU-membership in both referendums. The Centre Party, The Red Party and Socialist Left Party are also against the current membership of the European Economic Area.[73] The Liberal Party, the Progress Party, and the Green Party (Norway) have not taken a stance on the issue.[citation needed]

Russia[edit]

Vladimir Putin, the Russian president, an outspoken eurosceptic, who successfuly promoted an alternative Economic Union with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan - the Eurasian Economic Union.

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are Communist Party of the Russian Federation, United Russia and Liberal Democratic Party of Russia.

In 2014, Russian president Vladimir Putin said: "What are the so-called European values? Maintaining the coup, the armed seizure of power and the suppression of dissent with the help of the armed forces?"[74]

Serbia[edit]

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are Democratic Party of Serbia, Serbian Radical Party and Dveri.

Switzerland[edit]

Switzerland has long been known for its neutrality in international politics. Swiss voters rejected EEA membership in 1992, and EU membership in 2001. Despite the passing of several referendums calling for closer relations between Switzerland and the European Union such as the adoption of bilateral treaties and the joining of the Schengen Area, a second referendum of the joining of the EEA or the EU is not expected,[75] and the general public remains opposed to joining.[76]

In February 2014, the Swiss voters narrowly approved a referendum limiting the freedom of movement of EU citizens to Switzerland.

Eurosceptic political parties include the Swiss People's Party, which is the largest political party in Switzerland, with 26.6% of the popular vote. Smaller eurosceptic parties include, but are not limited to, the Federal Democratic Union, the Ticino League, and the Geneva Citizens' Movement, all of which are right-wing parties.

Turkey[edit]

Devlet Bahçeli, leader of the Turkish hard eurosceptic party MHP.

The two main eurosceptic parties are the far-right secularist Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), which had 16.29% of the votes, having secured 80 seats in the Parliament, and the Felicity Party (Saadet Partisi), a far-right Sunni Islamist party which has no seats in the Parliament because it had only 2.06% of the votes in the last general election, far below the 10% threshold necessary to be represented in the Parliament.

Many left-wing nationalist and far-left parties hold no seats at parliament but they control many activist and student movements in Turkey. The Patriotic Party (formerly Worker's Party) consider the European Union as a frontrunner of global imperialism.[77][78]

Ukraine[edit]

Dmytro Yarosh, leader of the Ukrainian hard eurosceptic party Right Sector.

Parties with mainly eurosceptic views are Party of Regions and Communist Party of Ukraine.

The far-right Ukrainian group Right Sector opposes joining the European Union. It regards the EU as an "oppressor" of European nations.[79]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

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References[edit]