Eurovision Song Contest 1991

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Eurovision Song Contest 1991
ESC 1991 logo.png
Dates
Final4 May 1991
Host
VenueCinecittà (Studio 15)
Rome, Italy
Presenter(s)Gigliola Cinquetti
Toto Cutugno
Musical directorBruno Canfora
Directed byRiccardo Donna
Executive supervisorFrank Naef
Executive producerSilvia Salvetti
Host broadcasterRadiotelevisione Italiana (RAI)
Websiteeurovision.tv/event/rome-1991 Edit this at Wikidata
Participants
Number of entries22
Debuting countriesNone
Returning countries Malta
Non-returning countries Netherlands
  • Belgium in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Italy in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Netherlands in the Eurovision Song ContestSwitzerland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Germany in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Monaco in the Eurovision Song ContestLuxembourg in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Denmark in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Finland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Sweden in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Israel in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Greece in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Malta in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Austria in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991France in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Morocco in the Eurovision Song ContestCyprus in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991Iceland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1991A coloured map of the countries of Europe
    About this image
         Participating countries     Countries that participated in the past but not in 1991
Vote
Voting systemEach country awarded 12, 10, 8-1 point(s) to their 10 favourite songs
Nul points Austria
Winning song Sweden
"Fångad av en stormvind"
1990 ← Eurovision Song Contest → 1992

The Eurovision Song Contest 1991 was the 36th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Rome, Italy, following the country's victory at the 1990 contest with the song "Insieme: 1992" by Toto Cutugno and was organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and host broadcaster Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI). The contest was held at Studio 15 di Cinecittà on 4 May 1991 and was hosted by former Italian winners Gigliola Cinquetti and Toto Cutugno.

Twenty-two countries took part in the contest with Malta participating for the first time since 1975, and the Netherlands deciding not to participate. This contest was also the last time that the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia participated, the country would soon be split up opening up new countries to participate in the coming years. It was also the first time that Germany was represented in their reunited form since East Germany joined West Germany by the German reunification.

The winner this year was Sweden with the song "Fångad av en stormvind" by Carola. There was a tie between Sweden and France with "C'est le dernier qui a parlé qui a raison" by Amina, as both songs had received 146 points. This necessitated a 'count-back', a tie-breaking measure introduced after the four-way tie in 1969. Both Sweden and France had received four sets of 12 points, but Sweden had received five sets of 10 points to France's two, so Carola was declared the winner.

Location[edit]

Location of Sanremo (the original host city) and the capital, Rome (the eventual host city).
Cinecittà, Rome – host venue of the 1991 contest.

The contest was originally scheduled to be held at Teatro Ariston in Sanremo, where the Sanremo Music Festival takes place annually. This was meant for the organisers to pay tribute to the Italian festival that had inspired the creation of the Eurovision Song Contest. However, following the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and the outbreak of the Gulf War, the host broadcaster RAI decided in January 1991 that to better ensure the security of foreign delegations it would move the contest to Rome. This caused serious organisational problems and delays.[1]

Rome is the capital of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale). Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. It was later confirmed that the contest would be staged at Cinecittà, a large film studio in Rome, with Studio 15 as the host venue. With an area of 400,000 square metres, it is the largest film studio in Europe, and is considered the hub of Italian cinema. The studios were constructed during the fascist era as part of a scheme to revive the Italian film industry.

Contest overview[edit]

The presenters were Gigliola Cinquetti and Toto Cutugno, who represented Italy when they won Eurovision in 1964 and 1990 respectively. Cutugno opened the contest singing "Insieme: 1992", and Cinquetti performed "Non ho l'età". Cutugno had some difficulty with the pronunciation of the song titles and names of the artists and conductors. Despite this, in Italy almost seven million people watched the show. In addition to tallying the vote numbers in English and French, Cinquetti and Cutugno gave each of the jury allotments in Italian as well.

Nearly the entire contest was hosted in Italian, which is not an official language of the European Broadcasting Union (English and French are, and in the Eurovision Song Contest it is mandatory to provide presentation in at least one of those languages). The overall staging and production standard received considerable criticism afterwards, including for wasting time which saw the broadcast overshoot its scheduled time allotment and for the haphazard and casual approach of the two presenters throughout but particularly during the voting, which saw Frank Naef, the independent scrutineer of the European Broadcasting Union, often being required to intervene in the process.[2][3]

Sara Carlson gave the opening performance of the contest, titled "New Day (Celebrate)", a mixture of modern dance in ancient settings of ancient Rome. The performance featured Carlson singing, and a mixture of street dance and classical dance choreographed to popular sounding music of the time. At the time, Carlson had appeared numerous times on Italian television, and this was seen as one of her largest audiences.

This was the last contest where the official logo was in a language other than English (Italian in this case). Since 1992, the official logo of the Eurovision Song Contest has remained in English.

Postcards[edit]

The competing artists were asked to sing a known Italian song which would then be used as a short clip for the postcard. The songs were in order:

  1.  Yugoslavia – "Non ho l'età" (Gigliola Cinquetti)
  2.  Iceland – "Se bastasse una canzone" (Eros Ramazzotti)
  3.  Malta – "Questo piccolo grande amore [it]" (Claudio Baglioni)
  4.  Greece – "Caruso" (Lucio Dalla)
  5.  Switzerland – "Un'estate italiana" (Edoardo Bennato and Gianna Nannini)
  6.  Austria – "Adesso tu" (Eros Ramazzotti)
  7.  Luxembourg – "Sarà perché ti amo" (Ricchi e Poveri)
  8.  Sweden – "Non voglio mica la luna" (Fiordaliso)
  9.  France – "La partita di Pallone [it]" (Rita Pavone)
  10.  Turkey – "Amore scusami" (John Foster)
  11.  Ireland – "Nel blu, dipinto di blu" (Domenico Modugno)
  12.  Portugal – "Dio, come ti amo" (Domenico Modugno / Gigliola Cinquetti)
  13.  Denmark – "Nessun dorma" (from Giacomo Puccini's opera Turandot)
  14.  Norway – "Santa Lucia" (traditional)
  15.  Israel – "Lontano dagli occhi [it]" (Sergio Endrigo / Mary Hopkin)
  16.  Finland – "Maruzzella [it]" (Renato Carosone)
  17.  Germany – "L'Italiano" (Toto Cutugno)
  18.  Belgium – "Musica è" (Eros Ramazzotti)
  19.  Spain – "Sono tremendo" (Rocky Roberts)
  20.  United Kingdom – "Ricordati di me" (Antonello Venditti)
  21.  Cyprus – "Io che amo solo te" (Sergio Endrigo)
  22.  Italy – "Champagne [it]" (Peppino di Capri)

Participating countries[edit]

Twenty-two countries competed this year. The Netherlands did not participate as it conflicted with the Remembrance of the Dead national holiday, and so Malta was allowed to participate in the contest for the first time in 16 years, unable to before due to restrictions on the number of countries allowed to participate.

Conductors[edit]

Each performance had a conductor who directed the orchestra.[4][5]

Returning artists[edit]

Artist Country Previous year(s)
Thomas Forstner  Austria 1989
Stefán Hilmarsson (part of Stefán and Eyfi)  Iceland 1988 (part of Beathoven)
Eiríkur Hauksson (part of Just 4 Fun)  Norway 1986 (for  Iceland, as part of ICY)
Hanne Krogh (part of Just 4 Fun) 1971, 1985 (part of Bobbysocks!)
Carola  Sweden 1983

Participants and results[edit]

R/O Country Artist Song Language[6][7] Points Place[8]
1  Yugoslavia Baby Doll "Brazil" (Бразил) Serbo-Croatian 1 21
2  Iceland Stefán and Eyfi "Nína" Icelandic 26 15
3  Malta Paul Giordimaina and Georgina "Could It Be" English 106 6
4  Greece Sophia Vossou "I anixi" (Η άνοιξη) Greek 36 13
5  Switzerland Sandra Simó "Canzone per te" Italian 118 5
6  Austria Thomas Forstner "Venedig im Regen" German 0 22
7  Luxembourg Sarah Bray "Un baiser volé" French 29 14
8  Sweden Carola "Fångad av en stormvind" Swedish 146 1
9  France Amina "C'est le dernier qui a parlé qui a raison" French 146 2
10  Turkey İzel Çeliköz, Reyhan Karaca and Can Uğurluer "İki Dakika" Turkish 44 12
11  Ireland Kim Jackson "Could It Be That I'm in Love" English 47 10
12  Portugal Dulce "Lusitana paixão" Portuguese 62 8
13  Denmark Anders Frandsen "Lige der hvor hjertet slår" Danish 8 19
14  Norway Just 4 Fun "Mrs. Thompson" Norwegian 14 17
15  Israel Duo Datz "Kan" (כאן) Hebrew 139 3
16  Finland Kaija "Hullu yö" Finnish 6 20
17  Germany Atlantis 2000 "Dieser Traum darf niemals sterben" German 10 18
18  Belgium Clouseau "Geef het op" Dutch 23 16
19  Spain Sergio Dalma "Bailar pegados" Spanish 119 4
20  United Kingdom Samantha Janus "A Message to Your Heart" English 47 10
21  Cyprus Elena Patroklou "SOS" Greek 60 9
22  Italy Peppino di Capri "Comme è ddoce 'o mare" Neapolitan 89 7

Detailed voting results[edit]

Each country had a jury who awarded 12, 10, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 point(s) for their top ten songs.

During the final vote (Italy) none of the top three contenders - Sweden, Israel and France - had received any points up until the last 12-point vote. This vote went to France and for the first time in twenty-two years, there was a tie for first place, with France overcoming a large deficit to catch up with Sweden. However, since the four-way tie of 1969, the rules had been altered to ensure a single outright winner. The first step in the procedure was to check the number of 12-point votes awarded to each country. Sweden and France were still tied. But when counting the number of 10-point votes, Sweden had more and was finally declared the winner.

Detailed voting results[9][10]
Total score
Yugoslavia
Iceland
Malta
Greece
Switzerland
Austria
Luxembourg
Sweden
France
Turkey
Ireland
Portugal
Denmark
Norway
Israel
Finland
Germany
Belgium
Spain
United Kingdom
Cyprus
Italy
Contestants
Yugoslavia 1 1
Iceland 26 4 10 5 7
Malta 106 1 2 6 4 10 12 2 7 12 7 6 10 4 6 7 10
Greece 36 4 5 2 1 1 4 1 1 5 10 2
Switzerland 118 5 5 7 8 12 8 4 2 2 6 5 3 8 5 6 12 8 8 4
Austria 0
Luxembourg 29 4 5 1 3 2 4 3 2 3 2
Sweden 146 6 12 10 10 7 6 3 10 12 8 10 8 12 10 4 12 6
France 146 10 7 3 8 7 12 5 7 5 12 12 10 8 7 8 6 7 12
Turkey 44 7 7 8 7 2 5 8
Ireland 47 3 4 3 1 8 4 7 1 2 2 5 4 3
Portugal 62 8 4 1 2 7 10 5 1 2 7 10 4 1
Denmark 8 3 5
Norway 14 6 1 1 2 4
Israel 139 12 10 8 5 8 5 6 3 12 8 4 10 7 6 8 12 10 5
Finland 6 1 1 4
Germany 10 6 1 3
Belgium 23 3 2 5 3 3 2 5
Spain 119 8 2 6 10 12 7 6 4 6 8 6 8 4 2 4 7 6 1 12
United Kingdom 47 10 3 5 6 3 1 1 3 5 3 1 6
Cyprus 60 2 3 12 12 4 12 5 3 6 1
Italy 89 7 2 6 2 8 10 10 12 10 3 12 7

Tiebreak results[edit]

Place Country Artist Points 12 points 10 points
1  Sweden Carola 146 4 5
2  France Amina 146 4 2

12 points[edit]

Below is a summary of all 12 points in the final:

N. Contestant Nation(s) giving 12 points
4  France  Austria,  Israel,  Italy,  Norway
 Sweden  Denmark,  Germany,  Iceland,  United Kingdom
3  Cyprus  France,  Greece,  Malta
 Israel  Spain,  Turkey,  Yugoslavia
2  Italy  Finland,  Portugal
 Malta  Ireland,  Sweden
 Spain  Cyprus,  Switzerland
 Switzerland  Belgium,  Luxembourg

Spokespersons[edit]

Each country announced their votes in the order of performance. The following is a list of spokespersons who announced the votes for their respective country.

  1.  Yugoslavia – Mebrura Topolovac
  2.  Iceland – Guðríður Ólafsdóttir
  3.  Malta – Dominic Micallef[11]
  4.  Greece – Fotini Giannoulatou
  5.  Switzerland – Michel Stocker
  6.  Austria – Gabriele Haring [de]
  7.  Luxembourg – Jean-Luc Bertrand [fr]
  8.  Sweden – Bo Hagström [sv][12]
  9.  France – Daniela Lumbroso [fr]
  10.  Turkey – Canan Kumbasar
  11.  Ireland – Eileen Dunne
  12.  Portugal – Maria Margarida Gaspar
  13.  Denmark – Bent Henius [dk]
  14.  Norway – Sverre Christophersen [no]
  15.  Israel – Yitzhak Shim'oni
  16.  Finland – Heidi Kokki
  17.  Germany – Christian Eckhardt
  18.  Belgium – An Ploegaerts
  19.  Spain – María Ángeles Balañac
  20.  United Kingdom – Colin Berry[5]
  21.  Cyprus – Anna Partelidou
  22.  Italy – Rosanna Vaudetti[13]

Broadcasts[edit]

Each participating broadcaster was required to relay the contest via its networks. Non-participating member broadcasters were also able to relay the contest as "passive participants". Broadcasters were able to send commentators to provide coverage of the contest in their own native language and to relay information about the artists and songs to their television viewers.[14] In addition to the participating countries, the contest was also reportedly broadcast in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the Soviet Union via Intervision, and in Australia and South Korea.[5] Known details on the broadcasts in each country, including the specific broadcasting stations and commentators are shown in the tables below.

Broadcasters and commentators in participating countries
Country Broadcaster Channel(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
 Austria ORF FS1 Unknown [15][16]
 Belgium BRTN TV1, TV2 André Vermeulen [17][18][19]
Radio 2 Herwig Haes
RTBF RTBF1 Unknown [18][19]
 Cyprus RIK RIK Evi Papamichail [20][21]
 Denmark DR DR TV Camilla Miehe-Renard [dk] [22][23]
DR P3 Jesper Bæhrenz and Andrew Jensen [dk]
 Finland YLE TV1 Erkki Pohjanheimo [24][25][26]
Radiomafia Kai Ristola
Riksradion Johan Finne, Paul Olin [sv] and Wille Wilenius [fi]
 France Antenne 2 Léon Zitrone [27][28][29]
 Germany ARD Erstes Deutsches Fernsehen Max Schautzer [16][30]
 Greece ERT ET1 Dafni Bokota [31][32][33]
 Iceland RÚV Sjónvarpið Arthúr Björgvin Bollason [34][35]
 Ireland RTÉ RTÉ 1 Pat Kenny [36][37][38][39]
RTÉ Radio 1 Larry Gogan
 Israel IBA Israeli Television Unknown [40][41]
Reshet Gimel [he] Unknown
 Italy RAI Rai Uno No commentator [28][42][43]
 Luxembourg CLT RTL Télévision Unknown [44]
 Malta PBS TVM Unknown [45][46]
 Norway NRK NRK Fjernsynet, NRK P2 John Andreassen and Jahn Teigen [47][48][49]
 Portugal RTP Unknown Unknown [50]
 Spain TVE TVE 2 Tomás Fernando Flores [es] [51][52][53]
 Sweden SVT TV2 Harald Treutiger [12][25][48][54]
RR [sv] SR P3 Rune Hallberg [sv] and Kalle Oldby
 Switzerland SRG SSR TV DRS Bernard Thurnheer [de] [16][28][29][55]
TSR Chaîne nationale Lolita Morena
TSI Canale nazionale Unknown
 Turkey TRT TV1 Unknown [56][57]
 United Kingdom BBC BBC1 Terry Wogan [5][58][59][60]
BBC Radio 2 Ken Bruce
 Yugoslavia JRT HTV 2 Ksenija Urličić [61][62][63]
TV Sarajevo 1 Unknown
TV Slovenija 1 [sl] Unknown
Broadcasters and commentators in non-participating countries
Country Broadcaster Channel(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
 Australia SBS SBS TV[a] Unknown [64]
 Hungary MTV MTV1 István Vágó [65]
 Poland TP TP1 Unknown [66]
 Romania TVR TVR 1 Unknown [67]
 Soviet Union ETV Unknown [25][26][66]
CT USSR Programme One Unknown

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Deferred broadcast on 5 May at 14:30 AEST (04:30 UTC)[64]

References[edit]

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