This section contains too many or overly lengthy quotations for an encyclopedic entry. (January 2019)
|Member of the New York City Council|
from the 4th district
1999 – December 31, 2005
|Preceded by||Andrew Eristoff|
|Succeeded by||Daniel Garodnick|
|Born||March 4, 1964|
New York City, U.S.
|Education||University of Pennsylvania (BA)|
Johns Hopkins University (MA PhD)
Eva Sarah Moskowitz (born March 4, 1964) is an American author and educator. She is known for founding Success Academy Charter Schools. Moskowitz was a former City Councilmember for the Upper East Side from 1999 to 2005. She has written articles and books including In Therapy We Trust, Mission Possible: How the Secrets of the Success Academies Can Work in Any School and the memoir, The Education of Eva Moskowitz.
Early life and education
On March 4, 1964, Moskowitz was born in New York City to Martin, a mathematician, and Anita, an art historian who fled Europe during the Holocaust. She was raised near Columbia University on 118th Street and Morningside Drive in Morningside Heights, Manhattan.
She attended Stuyvesant High School. According to New York Magazine, Moskowitz witnessed student cheating via stolen Regents exams during her sophomore year. While editor of the senior yearbook, she identified further evidence of cheating, which was covered up by the principal at Stuyvesant. She graduated in 1982.
Moskowitz received a Bachelor of Arts with honors in history from the University of Pennsylvania. During college, she worked as a research assistant at the school library. Moskowitz received a Ph.D. in American history from Johns Hopkins University with her 1991 dissertation, Naming the Problem: How Popular Culture and Experts Paved the Way For "Personal Politics".
She taught women's history at University of Virginia as a visiting professor of communications and mass culture in 1989–1990, Vanderbilt University as an assistant professor of history in 1992–1993, and City University of New York (College of Staten Island) as an assistant professor of history in 1994–1995 and chaired the faculty seminar in American studies at Columbia University in 1996–1999. She was the director of the children's literacy program ReadNet and taught civics at the Prep for Prep school, where she was also the director of public affairs.
Education at Success Academy Charter Schools
In 2006, Moskowitz founded the first Success Academy charter school in Harlem. In 2008, three more schools opened. In 2014, Success Academy opened its first high school, Success Academy High School of the Liberal Arts. By December 2017, Success Academy included 47 schools in every borough of New York except Staten Island.
Moskowitz claims that public education in the U.S. is lacking in rigor and children must be challenged as well as engaged in order for them to want to be at school. She considers children's success at school to center around parental involvement. Moskowitz contends that intellectually stimulating games such as chess help to keep children engaged.
Moskowitz has argued that traditional teacher preparation does a "poor job of preparing teachers" to solve the educational crisis. She has spoken out against the claim that class sizes must be small since there are educational opportunities for larger class settings, such as allowing schools to pay motivated teachers, principals and other school staff "exceedingly well" in addition to more programming, supplies and field trips. Conversely, she agreed that a too-large class would be "absurd," and that class size is a factor in students' success.
Moskowitz has stated that schools are responsible for safety, and criticized Nixzmary Brown's school for being minimally compliant with rules that did not do enough for the child's safety and education.
Moskowitz has spoken out about the United States education system and called it an "international crisis" when compared to developments in international education that affect both affluent and poor neighborhoods. As of 2011, "[she didn't] think that Americans have totally digested the global competition that we're facing."
She disputed the claim that middle-class and more affluent districts' zoned public schools are as good as parents assume. In 2009, Moskowitz reportedly said that state tests are "too easy" and, in 2012, that test success would predict economic success in life. She also posits the idea that public elementary school curricula are not challenging enough for students, as the tests are a "low bar" to pass.
She has been vocal in supporting the closure of failing public schools, including charter schools. She argued for charter schools to receive the same funding per pupil as traditional public schools.
Moskowitz advocated for charter schools to be funded per pupil as fully as public noncharters are. She favored "a federal role in education.... especially in the area of parent choice" and thought that President Obama's offering substantial money contingent on charter-centered reforms brought "the fight out" into public view, contributing to New York and some other states "lift[ing] ... caps on the creation of new charter schools".[a]
Moskowitz objected to "a tendency in the charter school movement to celebrate a lack of socio-economic diversity." She said, "I think we need many more charters that have socio-economic integration. I also think that we need to get charter schools into more affluent districts because I think many middle-class and upper middle-class parents think their schools are better than they are ... their schools are very complacent." She described New York City schools as "shockingly segregated", "most ... either more than 90 percent minority or less than 10 percent", with some schools, by offering dual-language or gifted-and-talented programs attracting white middle-class students while "overwhelmingly poor minority students" take general education, exhibiting "fake integration". She added that the city's "racial and socio-economic segregation ... [is] hard to change", impeding efforts to make charter schools into neighborhood schools and still have diversity among students, but continued that "I think we will change it [the segregation] eventually because our program is so appealing to middle-class families." However, she added, "whether people can put their racial discomforts aside, I do not know", but later said "parents of all races and classes truly want diversity as long as it is also accompanied by academic excellence."
New York City Council
In 1995, Moskowitz volunteered in Gifford Miller's City Council campaign and served as his field director. In 1997, Moskowitz ran a campaign for City Council but lost the election. In 1999, she was elected as New York City Council member for the Upper East Side of Manhattan. In 2002 through 2005, she chaired the Council Education Committee and held over "100 oversight hearings" focused on New York City's public school system.
Moskowitz held multiple hearings about arts education. The hearings found a lack of teachers, supplies and facilities to support art and music in city schools. That same year, she held a hearing on physical fitness finding that many schools lacked appropriate facilities. In a 2004 hearing, Moskowitz found that schools were forced to pay above-market prices for supplies because they were required to use a city-mandated online purchasing system.
In a 2005 hearing, Moskowitz claimed science education had "been treated with second-class status for decades" and that there were too few qualified science teachers and insufficient science facilities. In another hearing that year, Moskowitz discussed poor social studies and civics instruction. A separate hearing about students who qualified for Regents diplomas found that only 10 percent of black and Hispanic students were eligible for Regents diplomas.
She also held a hearing investigating parent reports that school bathrooms did not have toilet paper and paper towels, and parents had been asked to donate money for these items. In 2005, approximately 30 students appeared at a hearing to testify about school conditions including complaints about filthy bathrooms and broken toilets.
Moskowitz was the author of a law "that holds the School Construction Authority accountable for delays and budget overruns" on school construction. Between 2002 and 2004, Moskowitz wrote six laws, including laws on health care and campaign finance reform.
In response to public housing tenants' security concerns at the Stanley Isaacs Houses, Moskowitz arranged for $75,000 to pay for two security cameras in 2002. The funds were not spent by the New York City Housing Authority. The police offered more patrols but said crime was worse uptown. The next year, Moskowitz introduced a gun control bill. She also introduced a bill to require baby diaper-changing stations in some buildings, at pools, and in parks and a bill to ban the sale and installing of audible car alarms.
In 2005, Moskowitz entered the race for the Democratic party nomination to be the Manhattan Borough President to succeed C. Virginia Fields. Her campaign emphasized education and transportation issues. The teachers' union campaigned heavily for Scott Stringer, and against Moskowitz, based on hearings on the teachers' contract and on other education issues. The Working Families Party spent approximately $100,000 on the race "to attack ... Moskowitz, who had made her name by challenging the teachers' union."
Moskowitz met with United States President-Elect Donald Trump on November 16, 2016 for a possible appointment in the Trump administration as United States Secretary of Education. Previous reporting noted that under Moskowitz, a Democrat, hedge fund manager John Paulson, a major Trump ally, has provided Success an $8.5 million donation in 2015.
In 1993, Moskowitz wrote, produced and directed the VHS-only Some Spirit in Me, which was a look into the feminist movement from non-prominent activists. She followed the release with a 1996 scholarly study of Betty Friedan's work. After reaching out to television producer Fred Friendly, Moskowitz directed and produced a 1997 documentary on women's roles after World War II.
In 2001, Moskowitz released the book In Therapy We Trust. The book argued that the American emphasis on self-fulfillment damages civic engagement. She co-wrote Mission Possible: How the Secrets of the Success Academies Can Work in Any School with Arin Lavinia in 2012.
In 2010, Moskowitz was featured in the documentaries The Lottery and Waiting for "Superman", which followed students applying to Success Academy as well as protests and legal disputes associated with charter schools.
Moskowitz's records for educating English-language learning, low-performing, and disabled students have been criticized. Some claim that English-language learners are underrepresented at Success Academy. Critics have claimed that some lower-grade children eligible for government-mandated special education accommodation, or IEPs, have been withdrawn, effectively winnowing students before third grade, the year state testing begins.
She has received criticism for closing Success Academy schools for a day and providing free transportation for students and parents to participate in protests in Albany against Mayor de Blasio after he revoked three co-locations that had been approved under his predecessor, Michael Bloomberg. During his campaign for Mayor of New York, Bill de Blasio criticized Success Academy for using public-school space without paying rent. Moskowitz was also criticized for seeking the support of hedge fund managers and other influential financial leaders on Wall Street in her fight against de Blasio.
Besides founding charter management organization Success Academy Charter Schools (originally Harlem Success Academy), she has worked with the Harlem Education Fair and worked with the New York City Charter School Center.
Great Public Schools Political Action Committee is run by Moskowitz; Moskowitz founded a PAC after a pro-Success Academy candidate lost an election. The Great Public Schools PAC supports charter schools. In the year 2011–2012, it gave $50,000 to Andrew Cuomo 2014, Inc.
- Moskowitz, Eva. The Education of Eva Moskowitz : A Memoir (First ed.). New York. ISBN 0062449788. OCLC 1000386304.
- Moskowitz, Eva (2012). Mission Possible : How the Secrets of the Success Academies Can Work in Any School. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 9781118239629. OCLC 784126055.
- Moskowitz, Eva (2001). In Therapy We Trust : America's Obsession with Self-Fulfillment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801864038. OCLC 43894064.
- Caps on the creation of new charter schools, the maximum number that may be opened
- Wallace, Kate (January 17, 2014). "50 Women Turning 50 in 2014". CNN. Retrieved June 13, 2015.
- ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I, as accessed June 25, 2012, page for Naming the Problem: How Popular Culture and Experts Paved the Way for "personal politics", Md.: Johns Hopkins Univ., 1992 (ProQuest document ID 303994013)
- Louis, Errol, The Next Charter School War: Eva Moskowitz is Ready to Expand Into a Wealthier, Whiter Nabes (sic), in Daily News (New York, N.Y.), October 17, 2010, as accessed June 30, 2012.
- Brill (2011), p. 142
- Elizabeth Green (January 2018). "The Charter-School Crusader". The Atlantic.
- Adam Dickter (January 28, 2000). "The Three Faces of Eva". Jewish Week.
- Gootman, Elissa (November 3, 2008). "Charter School chief keeps a hand in politics". The New York Times.
- Eva Moskowitz, City Council Member, by Jen Chung, in Gothamist, July 26, 2005 Archived April 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, as accessed November 2, 2007.
- Marantz (2014), p. 34
- Coplon, Jeff. "The Patron Saint (and Scourge) of Lost Schools". New York Magazine. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- Daniel Bergner (September 3, 2014). "The Battle for New York Schools: Eva Moskowitz vs. Mayor Bill de Blasio". New York Times.
- "Eva Moskowitz wants to be New York City mayor someday?". New York Daily News. November 30, 2011.
- Hu, Winnie, Mayoral Ambitions and Sharp Elbows; Councilwoman Spars Way Into a Position of Influence, in N.Y. Times, April 29, 2004, as accessed February 21, 2013.
- Untitled document, received February 25, 2011, as accessed January 6 & 10, 2013, p.  (p. 12 per PDF viewer) (date of receipt at State Univ. of N.Y., Charter Schools Institute, per Proposal Transmittal Form, id., p.  (p. 1 in PDF viewer)).
- Moskowitz & Lavinia (2012), p. 124
- Ratner, Lizzy, Taking on Unions, And Paying a Price, in N.Y. Observer, December 7, 2003, as accessed January 14, 2010.
- Proposal (untitled) to State University of New York, Charter Schools Institute, for Brooklyn Success Academy Charter School 2 proposed to open August, 2012, Eva Moskowitz Archived March 24, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, as accessed January 20, 2013.
- Contributors, in Journal of Women's History, vol. 8, no. 3 (Fall 1996) (Project Muse), as accessed January 6, 2013 (probably a Moskowitz self-statement).
- Barker, Cyril Josh, & Stephon Johnson, Charter Schools in Uncharted Waters, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 102, no. 27, July 7–13, 2011.
- Hicks, Jonathan P., The Nine Candidates for Manhattan Borough President and What They Have to Say, in N.Y. Times, September 7, 2005, as accessed February 21, 2013.
- Sybil Maimin (December 2006). "New Harlem Charter School Opens Amid Praise". Education Update Online.
- Sarah Garland (December 21, 2006). "Veteran of City Hall Finds Meaning Among Kindergartners". New York Sun.
- "Six books a week". The Economist. May 8, 2008.
- Beth Fertig (September 28, 2016). "Success at 10: Longtime Students Look Back". WNYC.
- Rebecca Mead. "Success Academy's Radical Educational Experiment". The New Yorker.
- mdalessio (December 16, 2014). "Putting the 'Success' in Success Academy Charter Schools". U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "Exploring the success of Success Academy: A conversation with founder Eva Moskowitz". AEI. November 13, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Rosato, Ken, host, New York Viewpoint, on WABC-TV, New York, N.Y., July 25, 2010, part 3 (video), as accessed June 16, 2012.
- Bartiromo, Maria, host, Wall Street Journal Report, on CNBC (CNBC News Transcripts), January 14 or 15, 2012, 7:30 p.m. E.S.T.
- Sablich, Liz (September 17, 2015). "Music, art, and chess: Addressing boredom in schools". Brookings. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- "From Harlem to Capitol Hill, a lesson in producing better teachers". Washington Post. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- Conan, Neal, host, School Founder Says Class Size Doesn't Matter, on Talk of the Nation (NPR News) (National Public Radio), March 29, 2011, as accessed May 25, 2012.
- Moskowitz, Eva, The Cost of Small Class Size, in The Washington Post, March 27, 2011 (opinion), as accessed May 19, 2012.
- Moorer, Talise D., ACS Shakeup Skims Surface of Deeper Problem, Part 3, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 97, issue 8, February 16–22, 2006, p. 3.
- Hanlon, Greg, The Limits of the Eva Moskowitz Model, at Least Until She Becomes Mayor, in Capital New York, July 26, 2012, 10:13 a.m., as accessed July 28, 2012.
- Bungeroth, Megan Finnegan, Upper West Success Settles in After Controversial Start, in West Side Spirit (New York, N.Y.), December 1, 2011, p. 8.
- Mitchell, Nancy, 5 Questions For Eva Moskowitz, in Chalkbeat Colorado, February 19, 2010 (page text), as accessed June 18, 2012 (at prior URL and publication title), & April 5, 2014.
- Hernandez, Javier C., A Moo-Moo Here, and Better Test Scores Later, in N.Y. Times, October 19, 2009, as accessed May 16, 2012.
- Perry, Joyce Mayer, Mayor's Goal Reached: Nearly 12,000 3rd-Graders to be Left Behind, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 95, issue 25, June 17–23, 2004, p. 4.
- Cano, Karla, & Jack Sidransky, Children'sPressline: Council Members Respond to Kids' Concerns, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 96, issue 2, May 26 – June 2, 2005, p. 18.
- Moskowitz, Eva, A To-Do List For N.Y.C. Schools Chancellor Cathie Black: Eva Moskowitz Lays Out Her Priorities, in Daily News (New York, N.Y.), November 15, 2010, as accessed May 11, 2012 ("[not] a failing zoned school").
- Iasevoli, Brenda, U. Tube: Student Teachers Learn From Video Training, in The Village Voice (New York, N.Y.), January 12, 2010, pp. 1–2 (online), as accessed June 2, 2012.
- Ronalds-Hannon, Eliza, Finding a Cure For Public Education's Ills, in Crain's New York Business, July 19, 2011, 3:47 p.m., as accessed June 4, 2012 (reporting on Crain's Future of New York conference).
- Moskowitz, Eva S., Eva Moskowitz: Feds Can Urge the Nation to Think Bigger, Be Bolder, Move Faster, in redefinED, August 16, 2012, as accessed August 17, 2012 (opinion).
- Moskowitz, Eva, Seeking Real Diversity In New Schools, in SchoolBook (Viewpoint), August 16, 2012, 1:14 p.m., as accessed August 17, 2012.
- Collins, Lisa M., Charter War Cobble Hill, in South Brooklyn Post, December 20, 2011, as accessed June 1, 2012.
- "National Review [is] ... the bible of American conservatism": Hari, Johann, Titanic: Reshuffling the Deck Chairs on the National Review Cruise, in The New Republic, vol. 237, issue 1, July 2, 2007 (in MasterFile Premier (EbscoHost) (PDF) (subscription may be required)), p. 31.
- Lowry, Rich, Revolt Against the Blob, in National Review, June 15, 2010, 12:00 a.m., as accessed June 23, 2012.
- Goodnough, Abby, Councilman Is Named City Finance Commissioner, in The New York Times, June 25, 1999, as accessed April 27, 2013.
- Dickter, Adam, Back to the Classroom, in The N.Y. Jewish Week (Manhattan ed.), vol. 218, issue 35, January 13, 2006, p. 40.
- Toy, Vivian S., The 1997 Elections: The Council; Democratic Majority Retains Wide Margin, in N.Y. Times, November 5, 1997, with correction of November 6, 1997, appended, as accessed April 27, 2013.
- Pranay Gupte (June 22, 2006). "Demanding Teacher, Relentless Lawmaker, Charter School Pioneer". The Sun.
- Kolodner, Meredith, United Federation of Teachers Union Fed City Council Questions to Ask Charter School Advocates, in Daily News (New York, N.Y.), April 7, 2009, 7:02 p.m., as accessed April 6, 2013.
- "Arts Education". Gothan Gazette.
- Joe Williams (April 16, 2004). "Ya Got to Shop Around as Ed Department Overpays For Supplies, There is Proof". New York Daily News.
- Susan Saulny (November 11, 2005). "Science Chief Says Schools in New York Are Failing". The New York Times.
- Joe Williams (May 10, 2005). "DUH! 81% OF KIDS FAIL TEST. Social studies trips up 8th-graders". New York Daily News.
- Elissa Gootman (November 30, 2005). "Few Minorities Get Best High School Diplomas". The New York Times.
- Elissa Gootman (November 10, 2004). "Big Issue for Council: Toilet Paper in Schools". The New York Times.
- Joe Williams (November 10, 2004). "In NYC, BOE Official Grimm Says That The Toilet Paper Supply in Schools is Not Grim; Parents Disagree". Parent Advocates.
- Kathleen Lucadamo (March 20, 2005). "Kids Decry Foul Schools". Daily News.
- Neighborhood Report: Upper East Side; With Affluence All Around, A Little Crime Seems a Lot, in The New York Times, November 10, 2002, as accessed February 21, 2013.
- Diaper-changing stations: Cardwell, Diane, Change Is in the Air at City Hall; Bill Would Require Diapering Stations in Public Places, in N.Y. Times, September 21, 2002, as accessed February 23, 2013.
- Car alarms: Lee, Denny, Neighborhood Report: Kew Gardens Hills; Orthodox Jews and Car Alarms: What Does the Talmud Say?, in N.Y. Times, January 11, 2004, as accessed February 23, 2013.
- Cooper, Michael, Scott Stringer Wins a Crowded Primary and a Likely Election as Borough President, in N.Y. Times, September 14, 2005, as accessed February 21, 2013.
- Hicks, Jonathan P., Incumbent In Queens Is Defeated By Old Rival, in N.Y. Times, September 14, 2005.
- Klein, Joel, The Failure of American Schools, in The Atlantic, as accessed May 19, 2012.
- Barry (2009), p. 235
- Eichna, Charlotte, Charter Crusader: Eva Moskowitz, in Our Town (East Side (Manhattan), New York, N.Y.), April 1, 2010, pp. 10–11.
- Lisa Fleisher (June 26, 2012). "Eva Moskowitz Delays a Run for Mayor". The Wall Street Journal.
- Campbell, Colin, Moskowitz: 'If Bill de Blasio Becomes Mayor, What Is He Going to Do?', in Politicker, July 4, , 9:48 a.m., as accessed July 24 & 25, 2012 (single quotation marks in headline so in original).
- "Possible Education pick Moskowitz meets with Trump". Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- "Charter leader Eva Moskowitz in the mix for Trump education secretary". Retrieved February 2, 2018.
- Some Spirit in Me, OCLC 38915965, in WorldCat, as accessed September 5, 2012.
- Moskowitz (1996)
- Moskowitz (2001), dust jacket, rear flap
- Dewan, Shaila K. (January 3, 2003). "City Council's Unapologetically Demanding Voice". The New York Times.
- John Anderson (June 8, 2010). "The Lottery". Variety.
- Resmovits, Joy (May 25, 2011). "NYC Teachers Counter 'Waiting For Superman' With Film Of Their Own". Retrieved February 2, 2018 – via Huff Post.
- "Success Academy Founder Eva Moskowitz: 'We Are Making Progress, but It's Frustratingly Slow'". The 74 Million. October 3, 2017.
- Carpenter, Zoë. "Were Charter Teachers and Students Pressured to Rally for Charter Schools in Albany?". The Nation. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Cramer, Philissa. "DEVELOPING STORY Repost This Article 152 Reprising 2012 rally, charter advocates planning march for Oct. 8". The Chalkbeat. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Ravitch, Diane. "New York Schools: The Roar of the Charters". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved June 25, 2014.
- Moskowitz & Lavinia (2012), pp. 156, 157
- Hernandez, Javier C., Charters Offer More Choices in Harlem, But Stir Concern For Public Schools, in The Culvert Chronicles (possibly vol. 4 & no. 8), March 5–11, 2009, p. 2.
- Barker, Cyril Josh, NAACP Stands Firm on Charter Schools, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, vol. 102, no. 22, June 2–8, 2011, pp.  & 36.
- N.Y. Public Interest Research Group (NYPIRG), Analysis: 127 Donors Each Gave $50,000 or More to State Committees Over Past Year (document hosted online by League of Women Voters of New York State), for release February 3, 2012, as accessed July 18, 2012, Rank 115.
- Brill (2011), pp. 382, 383
- Sims, David, Charter Group is Told 'No Thanks' For Help in Congressional Race, in The Chief: Civil Service Leader: The Civil Employees' Weekly (New York, N.Y.), vol. CXVI, no. 14, June 15, 2012, p. .
- Phillips, Anna M., Group Aims to Counter Influence of Teachers' Union in New York, N.Y. Times, April 3, 2012 (online), as accessed June 7, 2012.
- Barker, Cyril Josh, StudentsFirst Aims to Improve Public Schools, in N.Y. Amsterdam News, April 19–25, 2012, p. 39.
- Barry, Francis S. (2009). The Scandal of Reform: The Grand Failures of New York's Political Crusaders and the Death of Nonpartisanship. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813548692.
- Brill, Steven (2011). Class Warfare: Inside the Fight to Fix America's Schools. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4516-1199-1.
- Marantz, Andrew (March 24, 2014). "Charter chief". The New Yorker.
- Moskowitz, Eva (1996). ""It's good to blow your top": women's magazines and a discourse of discontent, 1945–1965". Journal of Women's History. 8 (3): 66–98. doi:10.1353/jowh.2010.0458.
- Moskowitz, Eva (2001). In Therapy We Trust: America's Obsession with Self-Fulfillment. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6403-8.
- Moskowitz, Eva; Lavinia, Arin (2012). Mission Possible: How the Secrets of the Success Academies Can Work in Any School. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-1-118-16728-1.
- Williams, Joe (2005). Cheating Our Kids: How Politics and Greed Ruin Education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-6839-X.
| Member of the New York City Council
from the 4th district